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What affect do extracurricular activities have on academic performanceWHAT AFFECT DO EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES HAVE ON ACADEMICS? University of FindlayWhat affect do extracurricular activities have on academic performanceJaryd BrownReview of the LiteratureEach of the articles selected provided a more in-depth understanding of the complexity of the impact of extra-curricular activity participation (EAP) on youth development and success. The articles addressed the EAP influence on academic performance but the direct causation was not as clear as I anticipated. In the article (3), Learning environment, learning process, academic outcomes and career success of university graduates by Lyanda Vermeulen and Henk G. Schmidt, Figure 2. Schematic representation of the final model about relationships between the academic learning environment and later workplace performance provided clarity. (can you insert the diagram?) The EAP involvement provides the youth with opportunities to learn and hone effective communication skills with peers and adults in a variety of settings. These skills, although not formally taught, are powerfully influential in the development of a childs self-image, thus if they are positive experiences, the child will see themselves a valuable and increase self-image. When those experiences are paired within the school setting, it is natural to have a positive connection to the academic experience. In article, (Article 2 quote page 441, paragraph 2), it is inferred that students with lower grades and educational expectations are less attached to school, and so are less likely to participate in activities sponsored by the school. This would support early involvement with EAPs in order to give students positive experiences in the school setting, leading to a feeling of connection or attachment to school. As I suggested in my introduction, LOCATION, LOCATION, LOCATION, selecting a quality school, with a balanced approach to educating the total child, will provide peers, parents and a community that values education. This culture is critical as it instills in the child the characteristics, values and morals that hold academic prowess in high regard. This thought is further supported in the research by Broh (2002), which was cited in Article2 p 420 last paragraph. His research gives three specific examples of the influence of multiple roles all assume that participation in extracurricular activities leads to increased academic outcomes. The three specific examples of influence of multiple roles are the developmental model, leading-crowd hypothesis and social capital model. As I compare the aforementioned components of the multiple role theory to the human capital theory, both clearly note the impact of EAPs on a students academic success as well as future success. (Article 3, 2 paragraph) The human capital theory is defined as the skills and knowledge embodied in an individual through investment in education, which subsequently impacts on employment and earnings. Later in the article the distinction of the six variables included into the model were studied. It is expected that the learning environment stimulates student motivation, which encourages students to get involved in extra-curricular activities. Involvement in extra-curricular activities is expected to enhance students learning outcomes in terms of the acquisition of knowledge and their mastery-level of job competencies. Again, the articles I have cited support that idea that EAP does provide the student with the experiences that create an investment in their education. As students participate in EAPs, which are school-based, as a means to meet their need of inclusion, they are attending class. Their academic gains are rewarded and reinforced as they continue to participate in extra-curricular activities.As I created my research question, I was simplistic in my thoughts, based on my experiences; I knew that my participation in sports made my dedication to academics a necessity. It is now that I realize that my parents, (both educators), carefully selected the town where they would raise our family. The small knit community emulated values and beliefs that were supportive of developing our family into lifelong learners. Article #5: Relationship Between Admission Data and Pharmacy Student Involvement in Extracurricular ActivitiesThe purpose of this study is to assess pharmacy student involvement in leadership and service roles and to evaluate the association between admissions data and student involvement.The research question was, can student admissions data be used as a predictor of student involvement in leadership and service roles (extra-curricular activities)?The data was Quantitative. There are several variables pulled from the admission data that included: Campus of orgin, Prior degree, application score, interview score total score, GPA at interview time, Non-pharmacy work experience, Non-academic pharmacy work experience, type of pharmacy, number of pharmacy organizations memberships, number of pharmacy organization leadership roles, number of non-pharmacy university/college organizations members, number of non-pharmacy university/college organizations leadership roles, number of community service/volunteerism activities, extent of involvement in extracurricular activities. There were 514 participants who were students in the PharmD program at Purdue University. The data collected represents the students response to the survey which focused on each of the above variables which were created to measure the students involvement in leadership/service roles and compare it to their static admissions data. A 56-item survey instrument was developed, pilot tested prior to admission. Students response to a survey instrument consisting of 3 sections: involvement in leadership, service roles and work experiences; perceptions of the contribution of extracurricular activity to personal skill develop (eg, oral communication, problem solving); and perceptions of the importance of involvement (eg, responsibility influence).One finding suggests, Involvement in extracurricular activities may have provided students with additional opportunities to further improve skills necessary for future employment and assist in the development of a lifelong commitment to the pharmacy profession. This study also found that students with higher admissions application and interview scores were more likely to be involved in organizations and hold leadership roles.The implications of this study demonstrate a need to further develop parameters that would address the possible irregularities in reporting. For example, the students definition of leadership varied, committee chair, president, and secretary could all be considered leadership to some but not all. This study found that students with higher admissions application and interview scores where more likely to be involved in organizations and hold leadership roles, while students with high admissions grade point averages were less likely to be involved in organizations and leadership roles. This study supports my research question as it clearly addresses the importance of EAP in developing the social skills necessary to be successful in the academic arena and job market.Article 4Predictors of Adolescent Participation in Organized activities: A Five Year Longitudinal StudyThe purpose of the study is to identify which factors are associated with organized activity participation at one point in time and which factors keep youths involved over time become crucial. The research question is, what factors keep youth involved in extra-curricular activities for a long period of time?This was a Quantitative study.The variables of the study were total number of hours spent on an activity, intensity was qualifying factor to determine if the participant qualified to participate. Prior participation, academic achievement, depressive symptoms, problem behaviors, best friends participation, family income and parent variables are all variables.The participants of this study were the youth, in the sixth grade, were recruited from eight elementary schools, from four distinct districts representing different socioeconomic backgrounds. Two hundred and seventy-two parents completed and returned the questionnaire. The data collected targeted the following dimensions: frequency of participation, number of hours of participation, number of moths of participation during the school year, presences of an adult activity leader, and presence of rules.The process the used to collect the data was trained research assistants administered data collection. The youth were surveyed in the classrooms, individually and in small groups. The parent data, research assistants called the parents asking them to complete a survey that would be sent home with their children.The findings were descriptive data revealed that youths participated more intensively in sports than in performance and fine arts and youth clubs. The results revealed that the hours spent in sports, performance and fine arts, and youth clubs were rather stable over time. Moreover, individual, friend, and family factors all contributed to explain youth activity participation, mostly with respect to sports activities. The implications of the study suggest that (p 308) school administrations and community-based organizations seeking to involve youths in positive activities after school should target individual, friend, and especially family characteristics in the adolescents environment. ( p. 308)This study does not directly relate to MY research question in as much as not commenting on the tie to EAPs and academics. With the exception of the reference (p 287) Studies have shown that youths participation in organized activities is associated with lower rates of school dropout (Mahoney & Cairns, 1997; McNeal, 1995), better educational performance and aspirations (Eccles & Barber, 1999; Mahoney, Cairns, & Farmer, 2003), and higher educational attainment (Barber, Eccles, & Stone, 2001: Mahoney e al., 2003 Zaff, Moore, Papillo, & Williams, 2003Article: The effect of extracurricular activity participation on the academic performance of male and female high school studentsThe purpose of the study was to determine the effect of extracurricular activity participation on the academic performance of male and female high school students.The primary research question was: Does EAP enhance the academic performance of high school students?This was a quantitative study, measuring the GPA and attendance of participants in season and out of season. The quantitative variables used are a comparison of in-season versus out-of-season academic performance and attendance with a required one grading period be absent of EAP. The researchers compared their GPA and attendance in season and the following out of season.The participants in the study are as that follows: 123 high school students from five rural, western New York schools.64 of the students were girls and 59 were boys 17 freshmen, 34 sophomores, 28 juniors and 44 seniors The racial demographics of this areas translate into an average enrollment consisting of : 93.8% white 1.2% black, 0.4% Hispanic, and 4.8% otherThe data collected was the participants GPA and attendance during season (QUARTER 1) compared to quarter 2 when they were NOT in an EAP. GPAs were recorded as numerical values (100 point scale). School counselors from the 5 schools were data collection coordinators. They were given a data sheet with the following spaces for the following information: participant identification number, sex, grade level, first quarter GPA, second quarter GPA, and absence totals for each of the first two quarters. The written instructions given to the counselors were as follows: (a) using the rosters of both female and male soccer programs, (b) delete players who were involved in a major activity during the second quarter of the year, (c) assign a number to each player and identify players only by using that number on the data sheet, and (d) record data. Submit the data sheets, void of names, to the investigators.The results of the study support the hypothesis that EAP in athletics for high school students does not endanger, and may enhance, academic performance.In-seasonOut-of-seasonMeasureMeansStandard DeviationsMeansStandard DeviationsGPA86.36.7184.108.40.206 [*]Student Absences220.127.116.11.0-1.25Note. N= 123. GPA = GRADE POINT AVERAGE* p