Objective This lesson discusses the tools needed for manual drafting and how to select and use them
Introduction Drafting projects are best done with the proper equipment The advent of computer-aided drafting has made drafting as fine art largely unimportant Todays board drafter can utilize a more streamlined set of tools the predecessors used
Introduction (contd.) Figure 2.1 An assortment of tools is needed to draft.
The Basics Drafting Board Chair or Stool Lighting and Magnification Parallel Bar T Square
The Basics (contd.) Triangle Protractor Scales Working with Pencils and Leads
The Basics (contd.) Tape Ames Lettering Guide Compass Dividers Irregular and Flexible Curves
The Basics (contd.) Technical Pens Templates Drafting Media Construction Calculator
Drafting Board Minimum size of 2' x 3' with tilt and height adjustment and a replaceable vinyl cover Do not use a kitchen table or other makeshift surfaces A pencil needs the cushion of a quality vinyl cover that hard surfaces do not provide
Chair or Stool Cushioned chair, with resilient casters and height adjustment Figure 2-2 This board with hydraulic height adjustment, lever for tilt adjustment, parallel bar, lamp, and cushioned chair are conducive to good drafting.
Lighting and Magnification Fluorescent, incandescent, or halogen lamps, or a combination Some lights have a built-in magnifying glass A light that clamps to the board and is adjustable in length is desirable
Parallel Bar Long, straight tool used for drawing horizontal lines, installed on the board Figure 2-3 Properly drawn horizontal line. Note how the pencil glides directly on the parallel bar and is held perpendicular to the board.
T Square An alternative to the parallel bar for drawing horizontal lines Consists of a head and blade Is not installed on the board Head must be firmly held against the board at all times to keep the bar straight
Triangle Figure 2-5 Assorted triangles and T square. The adjustable triangle can be set to any right angle. The rest draw lines 30, 45, 60, and 90 to the horizontal.
Protractor Used for drawing angles Has scales that run from left to right as well as right to left so you can draw an angle on either side Measure an existing angle by aligning the protractors flat side with one line, placing the hole/crosshair at the vertex The angle is where the other line intersects the protractors curve
Scales A tool that enables a drafter to draw large objects small enough to fit on a small sheet of paper while keeping them proportionately accurate An architects scale measures in units of feet and inches A metric scale is used for the same purpose as an architects scale, but in metric units A proportional scale enables you to enlarge or reduce a picture by a specific amount
Working Pencils and Leads A mechanical pencil is a multi-piece, refillable tool: available in 0.3 mm, 0.5 mm, 0.7 mm, 0.9 mm, and 2 mm sizes Wood drafting pencils: available in a 2.0 mm size Soft leads such as B and F draw dark easily smudged lines HB: medium-weight lead that acts as soft lead Harder leads such as H, 2H, 3H, and 4H draw light, harder-to-smudge lines
Tape Drafting tape resembles masking tape but is less sticky and will not to damage paper when removed Plastic tape with printed patterns can be used to represent specific line types such as poch symbols Black tape is often used as layout tape to represent walls on presentation drawings or as a border
Ames Lettering Guide Figure 2-29 Ames Lettering Guide. The #4 is aligned with the datum mark, which will create guidelines 1 / 8 " tall separated by spaces approximately 1 / 16 " tall.
Compass Used for drawing circles and arcs Has a point at one end and a lead on the other A drafting compass also has interchangeable points that hold pencils and pens and an extension bar for drawing large circles Placing tape at an often-used compass point location will help keep the paper from tearing at that spot
Dividers Figure 2-32 Compass, dividers and attachments
Irregular and Flexible Curves Irregular curves, also called French curves, allow the drafter to hard-line arcs Flexible curve is a piece of rubber that can be shaped to any curve
Technical Pens Minimum of four pen sizes is needed for effective drafting Renewable pens are multi-piece tools that can be taken apart and filled with ink Pen tips may be tungsten, jewel, or stainless steel Cost-wise, the last is the most practical Nonrenewable pens are glorified felt-tips
Templates Laser-cut pieces of plastic used for drawing the same item multiple times Hundreds of templates available for furniture, fixtures, circles, arrows, electrical symbols, and other images Can be bought in sets or individually Large furniture and appliance companies often have templates of their products at different scales
Drafting Media Tracing paper is thin, semitransparent paper used for sketching and designing Available in yellow or white Vellum is a semi-opaque, high-quality cotton paper used for ink or pencil work Polyester drafting film and plastic sheets are used for ink or plastic lead work Presentation work is sometimes done on coldpress board Porous surface that will take an ink line
Construction Calculator Standard math functions of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division Convert numbers to various linear, square, and cubic formats Including feet-and-inches format, decimal feet, decimal inches, yards, meters, metric units, and board feet Manipulate fractions and convert the denominator to any desired accuracy
Storage and Care of Tools Tools can be kept in anything that keeps them organized and safe during transport Drawings are best stored in flat files, lateral files, round tubes, or portfolios Keep your tools clean Dirt will rub off them onto the drawing media Use a green cleaner Will not remove the painted lines from instruments and templates and leave a film
Copying Processes Reprographics shops have photocopiers that make a digitized scan of the original and run black-line digital copies Multicolor offset prints Drawing is transferred or offset from a plate to a rubber blanket and then transferred to the paper Photocopies are not 100 percent accurate as lines become slightly stretched
Summary More tools than the ones discussed in this chapter exist Only the essential ones are covered Browse through an online drafting supply store to learn about specialty products As you progress in your drafting, you will discover which tools serve you best