Websters Kashmiri - English Thesaurus Dictionary.pdf

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    Websters

    Kashmiri English

    Thesaurus Dictionary

    Edited by

    Professor Philip M. Parker, Ph.D.

    Chaired Professor of Management Science

    INSEAD (Singapore and Fontainebleau, France)

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    Websters

    Kashmiri

    English

    Thesaurus Dictionary

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    ii

    PROCEEDS BENEFIT

    Websters Online Dictionary(www.websters-online-dictionary.org)

    EDITED BY

    Philip M. Parker, Ph.D.

    INSEAD (Fontainebleau & Singapore)

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    Reference: Webster's Online Dictionary (www.websters-online-dictionary.org)

    Published by ICON Group International, Inc.7404 Trade St

    San Diego, CA 92122 USAPhone: (858) 635-9410

    Fax: (858) 635-9414iconsubs@san.rr.com

    www.icongrouponline.com

    This edition published by ICON Classics in 2008Printed in the United States of America.

    Websters Kashmiri English Thesaurus Dictionary

    Copyright 2008 by ICON Group International, Inc.

    Copyright 2008 by Philip M. Parker, INSEAD.

    All rights reserved. This book is protected by copyright. No part of it may be reproduced, stored in aretrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,

    recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher.

    Copying our publications in whole or in part, for whatever reason, is a violation of copyright laws and canlead to penalties and fines. Should you want to copy tables, graphs, or other materials, please contact us torequest permission (E-mail: orders@icongroupbooks.com). ICON Group International often grantspermission for very limited reproduction of our publications for internal use, press releases, and academicresearch. Such reproduction requires confirmed permission from ICON Group International, Inc. Neitherthe Editor nor ICON Group International assume any responsibility for uses of this dictionary, and do notwarrant that the definitions or translations are accurate.

    Net proceeds are used to improve Websters Online Dictionary, and the contents of this dictionaryhave been extracted with permission from Websterss Online Dictionary, www.websters-online-dictionary.org (Copyright Philip M. Parker, INSEAD).

    ISBN 0-497-83540-1

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    Reference: Webster's Online Dictionary (www.websters-online-dictionary.org)

    iii

    PREFACEThis is an English thesaurus designed for Kashmiri speakers who wish to betterunderstand the ambiguities and richness of the English language. The first

    chapter is a full English thesaurus organized by 253 Kashmiri subject words. Foreach Kashmiri subject word, one or more corresponding English subject words(translations) are provided. Synonyms are then given for the English translationsfor all relevant parts of speech (even in cases where the Kashmiri subject wordhas a unique part of speech). This process results in over 4272 English synonyms.

    The second chapter gives an index of these English synonyms back to theKashmiri subject words (a potentially useful chapter to English speakersinterested in basic Kashmiri vocabulary). The third chapter has short vocabulary

    lists organized by parts-of-speech. English teachers or students can use thesebilingual lists to create flash cards, basic lesson plans, and English as a SecondLanguage (ESL) study lists.

    While creating an English thesaurus for Kashmiri speakers seems simple enough,it can be tricky. Whats the problem? Translations do not always follow stricttransitivity. Normally, if a=b and b=c, then c=a. This is not necessarily true inlinguistics when b is an English word that has more than one part of speech. Forexample, test is a verb, noun and adjective. What is the correct Englishsynonym for a (in Kashmiri) when b (in English) has synonyms (c) havingmany parts of speech? Furthermore, what if a (in Kashmiri) is ambiguous andhas several translations into English (b)? This thesaurus embraces thisambiguity by giving as much information to the reader as possible. This wasaccomplished in two phases. In the first phase, maximum-likelihood Englishtranslations of the Kashmiri subject words are given. For all the languagescovered in Websters Online Dictionary translations are determined using rathermassive content analyses of translations from various sources including

    translations of United Nations documents, translations of the Holy Bible (andsimilar sources), training manuals, popular works, and academic sources. AnEnglish translation having the highest probability of being used is reported first,then the second most probable is reported second, and so on.

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    Reference: Webster's Online Dictionary (www.websters-online-dictionary.org)

    In the second phase, English synonyms for all parts of speech, including thosenot related to the original Kashmiri subject, are given for each English translationgenerated by the first phase. If an English entry is most used as a certain part ofspeech (estimated based on an English language corpus), then English synonyms

    for that part of speech are listed first. This indicates to the speaker of Kashmirihow the English subject word is most used. Other parts of speech are listed basedon their frequency of usage in English. Within each part of speech, synonymsmost likely to be used in English are listed first. Readers who seek furtherinformation on any of the words in this book, including translations to otherworld languages, can freely refer to Websters Online Dictionary(www.websters-online-dictionary.org).

    The goal of Websters Online Dictionary is to give all people of the world free

    access to a complete mapping of all known words to and from all writtenlanguages. In fulfillment of this goal, Websters Online Dictionary(www.websters-online-dictionary.org) also offers as much information aspossible for each word, including definitions, translations, images, trade nameusage, quotations, and encyclopedic knowledge. The proceeds generated by thesale of this KashmiriEnglish thesaurus dictionary as well as other booksextracted from the project will be used to augment the contents of the WebstersOnline Dictionary.

    This book may be the first Kashmiri-English thesaurus ever published. All theerrors and omissions are mine. I will certainly revise and improve this book atsome later date, so if you wish to see better editions published in the future,please send any suggestions, corrections, or translations towebstersedits2@hotmail.com. Thank you for purchasing this book andsupporting Websters Online Dictionary.

    Philip M. Parker, Ph.D., editor

    Chair Professor of Management ScienceINSEAD (Singapore & Fontainebleau, France)

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    v

    Reference: Webster's Online Dictionary (www.websters-online-dictionary.org)

    CONTENTS

    KASHMIRI TO ENGLISH THESAURUS .......................................................... 1

    A...................................................................................................................................1B ...................................................................................................................................1C...................................................................................................................................2D...................................................................................................................................2G...................................................................................................................................2H .................................................................................................................................. 3K...................................................................................................................................4L ...................................................................................................................................4M..................................................................................................................................5

    N .................................................................................................................................. 5O...................................................................................................................................6P ...................................................................................................................................6R ...................................................................................................................................7S....................................................................................................................................8T ...................................................................................................................................8V...................................................................................................................................9W................................................................................................................................10Y .................................................................................................................................10Z .................................................................................................................................10

    INDEX OF ENGLISH SUBJECTS TO KASHMIRI SUBJECTS ............................ 11

    A.................................................................................................................................11B .................................................................................................................................11C.................................................................................................................................11D.................................................................................................................................11E .................................................................................................................................12F .................................................................................................................................12

    G.................................................................................................................................12H ................................................................................................................................ 12I ..................................................................................................................................12J .................................................................................................................................. 12K.................................................................................................................................12

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    Contents

    Reference: Webster's Online Dictionary (www.websters-online-dictionary.org)

    vi

    L .................................................................................................................................12M................................................................................................................................ 13N ................................................................................................................................ 13O.................................................................................................................................13

    P .................................................................................................................................13R .................................................................................................................................13S..................................................................................................................................13T .................................................................................................................................14U.................................................................................................................................14V.................................................................................................................................14W................................................................................................................................14Y .................................................................................................................................14

    VOCABULARY STUDY LISTS ...................................................................... 15Verbs (Kashmiri - English) ..................................................................................... 15Verbs (English - Kashmiri) ..................................................................................... 15Nouns (Kashmiri - English)....................................................................................15Nouns (English - Kashmiri)....................................................................................16Adverbs (Kashmiri - English) ................................................................................16Adverbs (English - Kashmiri) ................................................................................16Adjectives (Kashmiri - English) .............................................................................16Adjectives (English - Kashmiri) .............................................................................17

    INDEX ........................................................................................................ 19

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    1

    Reference: Webster's Online Dictionary (www.websters-online-dictionary.org)

    Kashmiri to EnglishThesaurus

    Aaechh eye; synonyms(n) optic, opinion, peeper, ring,

    sight, center, centre, oculus, (v) behold, see, view,gaze, stare, look, watch, glance, glimpse, examine,

    eyeball, regard.aedij bone; synonyms(n) os, ivory, mouth, osmium,

    argument, bead, block, brick, debate, discord,dispute, dissent, dollar, element, pearl, pupil, (v)cartilage, swot, gristle, prepare, arise, attire, beat,bill, cram, debone, drum, importune, study, (adj)

    grit.ael cardamom; synonyms(n) cardamon, cardamum.aes mouth; synonyms(n) jaw, lip, aperture, lips, edge,

    entrance, brim, bill, inlet, firth, hole, nose,mouthpiece, opening, orifice, sass, verge, (v)grimace, articulate, pronounce, speak, utter,vocalize, blab, deliver, babble, declaim, talk,

    verbalize, accentuate.

    aeth eight; sy...