??Web view2013-2014 AP Environmental Science Summer Assignment. Glenelg High School. Dr. Jennifer Shepard . Jennifer_Shepard@hcpss.org.
2013-2014 AP Environmental Science Summer AssignmentGlenelg High SchoolDr. Jennifer Shepard Jennifer_Shepard@hcpss.orgDrShepard.wikispaces.comWelcome to the 2013-2014 class of AP Environmental Science! Im looking forward to working with you next year.AP Environmental Science is designed to be the equivalent of a one-semester introductory college course in Environmental Science. This course will provide students with the scientific principles, concepts and methodologies required to understand the interrelationships of the natural world, to identify and analyze environmental problems both natural and human-made, to evaluate the relative risks associated with these problems, and to examine alternative solutions for resolving or preventing them. The laboratory component consists of hands on learning including field observations and analysis.AP Environmental Science is a rigorous science course that emphasizes a multidisciplinary approach integrating biology, chemistry, physics, geology, climatology, oceanography, in addition to political and economic approaches.In order to cover all the material for APES before the AP exam next May and to set the tone for the class you will need to complete some work during the summer. The summer assignment will have 4 parts: email to Dr.Shepard, prerequisite knowledge and skills review, article review, outdoor activity and reflection. I have also attached a book review assignment that will be assigned during the first quarter to allow you to get a head start during the summer.The summer assignment will be worth 5% of your quarter 1 grade and will be due no later than Tuesday September 3, 2013. We will also be having a quiz on the prerequisite knowledge and skills during the 2nd week of school. This information will be available on my website by June 17th (DrShepard.wikispaces.com). Please feel free to email me at any time over the summer with questions on the assignments. I will be out of town periodically so allow a few days response time.Part I: Email to Dr. ShepardPlease email Dr. Shepard (Jennifer_Shepard@hcpss.org) with the following information. This allows me to better prepare our focus for the fall AND to get an idea if you have a working email address.1. Your full name and what you prefer to be called.2. 1-2 sentences on who you are and your interests.3. Why you are taking APES4. What qualities or abilities do you have that will help you become successful in this class and on the May AP exam.5. List your previous and concurrent math and science courses.6. What are your college and career aspirations?7. Answer the following 3 questionsa. How am I connected to the Earth and other living things?b. What is my purpose and/or responsibility as a human being on this planet?c. What is the role of nature?Part 2: You are expected to enter the course with a good understanding of basic scientific and mathematical concepts and skills as well as strong reading, writing and speaking abilities. Although we will continue to develop these skills throughout the year, your success in the class is also dependent upon what you bring to it at the onset. Over the summer, review the scientific concepts and mathematical calculations in the attached document. We will be building upon and referencing them throughout the year. You should be prepared to take a quiz on these skills and concepts during the second week of school. Part 3: Select and review one article drawn from the following topics:1. Human population growth2. Transgenic species3. Non-native (invasive) species4. Food production, food safety5. Fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas)6. Renewable resources (solar, wind, geothermal, hydroelectric)7. Nuclear energy8. Air quality9. Water quality (surface or groundwater)10. CO2 and global warming11. Recycling, waste management12. Endangered species13. Deforestation14. Ozone depletion15. International treaties dealing with environmental issues (Kyoto Accord)Articles must be at least 5 paragraphs long and should come from sources such as the following:New York Times (On Tuesdays there is a special science section), Washington Post (On Mondays there is a special science section), news magazines (ex. Newsweek), science magazines (Discover, Scientific American, Nature, Science, Smithsonian, National Geographic). Each article must be at least 4 5 paragraphs in length and be no more than 1 year old (2010).Each article review will be typed in 12 point font, using Times Roman and double-spaced. The format is as follows:Article Title:Date:Source:Summary: In 250-500 words, address the following questions:-What are the key points made in the article?-What are the points of view presented about this issue?-Does the article teach you something new?-Does it support or refute other information you have heard or read? Explain.A copy of the article must be attached to the review. Please be very careful to use your own words. Part 4: Having an appreciation for the outdoors will help you understand the importance of this course. I would like you to spend 2 hours (or more) camping, hiking, canoeing/kayaking, visiting a state or national park, volunteering for an environmental group or learning center.Provide documentation of your visit (i.e., a photo of you taken during the activity, or a signed letter from a supervisor on-site with his or her phone number). Write a one-page reflection (12 point font, double spaced) of your visit, including any observations of wildlife, environmental problems (pollution, etc.), and how you enjoyed the activity. Part 5 (Due at the end of Quarter 1): You will be required to write a 650 word summary and self reflection of the book you read during the first quarter of 2013. If you feel that it would benefit you to do this during the summer, please see the reading list, that can be found on my website (DrShepard.wikispaces.com), for a list of books that you may choose from. Prerequisite knowledge and skillsYou are expected to enter the course with a good understanding of basic scientific and mathematical concepts and skills as well as strong, reading, writing and speaking abilities. Although we will continue to develop these skills throughout the year, your success in the class is also dependent upon what you bring to it at the onset. Over the summer, review the scientific concepts and mathematical calculations below. We will be building upon and referencing them throughout the year. You should be prepared to take a quiz on these skills and concepts during the first week of school.Prerequisite Basic Scientific Concepts:You should be familiar with the following terms/concepts from Biology, Chemistry, and Earth Science:1Organic vs. InorganicNatural vs. SyntheticKinetic vs. Potential EnergyRadioactive decayHalf lifeLaw of Conservation of Matter1st Law of Thermodynamics2nd Law of ThermodynamicsEntropyOrganismSpeciesPopulationCommunityEcosystemProducers/AutotrophsConsumers/HeterotrophsDecomposersPhotosynthesis (reactants and products)Cellular Respiration (reactants and products)Aerobic vs. AnaerobicAdaptationMutationGene TraitChromosome Gene pool Natural Selection Biodiversity Extinction Plate Tectonics Weathering Climate Change Rocks vs. Minerals Climate vs. WeatheThe full name of each of these chemical abbreviations: CO2, CO, C6H12O6, CH4, H2, H2O, N2, NOX, NO3-, NH3, 02, 03, P, P043-, S, S02, Cl, K, NaCl, Pb, Hg, Rn, UPrerequisite Basic Mathematical SkillsPercentage17% = 17/100 = .17 Remember that "percent" literally means divided by 100. Percentage is a measure of the part of the whole. Or part divided by whole.-15 million is what percentage of the US population? 15 million / 300 million = .05 = 5%-What is 20% of this $15 bill so that I can give a good tip? $15 x .20 = $15 x 20/100 = $3RatesRise Y2-Y1slope change y=mx+b dXRun X2-X1time dt All of the above are ways to look at rates. The second equation is the easiest way to calculate a rate,especially from looking at a graph. Rates will often be written using the word "per" followed by aunit of time, such as cases per year, grams per minute or mile per hour. The word per means todivide, so miles per gallon is actually the number miles driven divided by one gallon. Rates are calculating how much an amount changes in a given amount of time.Scientific NotationThousand = 103 =1,000 Million = 106 =1,000,000 (people in the US) Billion = 109 =1,000,000,000 (people on Earth) Trillion = 1012 =1,000,000,000,000 (National debt) When using very large numbers, scientific method is often easiest to manipulate. For example, the USpopulation is 300 million people or 300xl06or 3xl08 When adding or subtracting, exponents must be the same. Add the numbers in front of the ten andkeep the exponent the same. When multiplying or dividing, multiply or divide the number in front of the ten and add the exponents ifmultiplying or subtract the exponents if dividingEx. 9xl06/ 3xl02 = (9/3) x 10(6-2) = 3 x 104Dimensional AnalysisYou should be able to convert any unit into any other unit accurately if given the conversion factor. Online tutorials are available:http://www.chemprofessor.com/dimension_text.htm http://www.chem.tamu.edu/class/fyp/mathrev/mr-da.htmlPrefixesm (milli) =1/1000 =10-3c (cent)=1/100 = 10'-2k (kilo)=1000=103M (mega)=1,000,000=106G (giga)=1,000,000,000=109T (tera)=1,000,000,000,000 =1012Sample Math ProblemsBe sure you are able to complete the following types of problems.1) What is one million times one thousand? Show your work in scientific notation. Give the answer in scientific notation and in words.2) A population of deer had 200 individuals. If the population grows by 15% in one year, how many deer will there be the next year?3) One year I had 40 AP Environmental Science students and the next year I had 50 Environmental Science students, what percentage did the population of APES students grow by?4) Electricity costs 6 cents per kilowatt hour. In one month one home uses one megawatt hour of electricity. How much will the electric bill be? (be sure to look at the prefixes chart on the previous page for the conversion of kilo to mega)5) Your car gets 15 miles to the gallon and your friend's car gets 25 miles to the gallon. You decide to go on a road trip to Virginia Tech, which is 300 miles away. If gas costs $4 per gallon and you decide to split the gas money, how much money will you save in gas by driving your friend's car?6) Virginia Beach is 10 miles wide and 30 miles long. If one inch of rain falls on Virginia Beach, how many cubic feet of rain fell on Virginia Beach. (Hint: convert all units to feet first).7) An MP3 takes up about 16 kilobytes of memory per second of music. If you owned a one terabyte hard drive and filled it with only mp3s, how many days worth of music would you have? (keep track of units: kilobytes to terabytes and seconds to days)Reading ListAbbey, Edward. Desert Solitaire: A Season in the Wilderness. 1967, 1990.Abbey spent a year alone as a ranger in a national park in southeastern Utah. His book describes his time there, what he learned about the land in front of him, the world around him, about himself, and also explores his perception of the growing exploitation of the wilderness by oil and mining interests.Arms, Myron. Riddle of Ice: A Scientific Adventure into the Arctic. 1999.During a 1991 sailing expedition off the coast of Labrador, the author is blocked by a mass of ice ? an unusual occurrence in such a warm summer. In 1994, he goes back to complete his journey and determine if climatic shifts are causing the change in Arctic ice production. Riddle of Ice is the result of that second exploration.Bormann, F. Herbert and Stephen Kellert (eds.). Ecology, Economics, Ethics: The Broken Circle. 1993.Environmental specialists argue that in order to solve global problems we must view them from a broad interdisciplinary perspective that acknowledges the relationship between ecology, economics, and ethics. This book covers a variety of topics, ranging from global atmospheric degradation to the loss of forests and massive species extinctions.Brown, Kenneth. Four Corners: History, Land and People of the Desert Southwest. 1996.Brown takes readers on a tour of the Four Corners region, where Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah intersect, with a mix of geology, biology, and human history.Brown, Tom. Tom Brown's Field Guide to Nature Observation and Tracking. 1986.Noted outdoorsman Tom Brown presents a useful field guide, part of a best-selling series.Burns, Loree Griffen. Tracking Trash: Flotsam, Jetsam, and the Science of Ocean Motion. 2007.This book, for younger students, is a fascinating account of ocean currents, drifting trash, and the scientists that study them.Cohen, Joel. How Many People Can the Earth Support? 1996.Predictions for how many people the Earth can support have varied from 4 billion to 16 billion; Cohen suggests that the defining limits of land, food production, and water supply will lead to a more definitive number. Cohen also argues that while we might be able to prepare for future restrictions on our needs, our governments, our own personal choices, and time itself will ultimately determine the boundaries of our existence.Carson, Rachel. Silent Spring.First published in 1962, this book raised awareness about the environmental and human risks of using pesticides, such as DDT, and was one of the contributing factors that spurred the modern environmental movement.Cone, Marla. Silent Snow: The Slow Poisoning of the Arctic. 2006.Cone, a U.S. environmental journalist, reports her findings from an investigation into why the Arctic 's native inhabitants are heavily impacted by pollution due to chemicals being carried to the area by winds and waves, and how Arctic cultures are adapting.Cronon, William. Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England.1983, 2003.Cronon examines the relationship between humans and nature and the changing land-use patterns on the ecosystem in colonial New England .Devall, Bill and George Sessions. Deep Ecology: Living as if Nature Mattered. 1985, 2001.An introduction to the emerging theme of deep ecology, a way to develop harmony betweenindividuals, communities, and nature. The authors show how to participate in major environmental issues in a positive and creative manner.Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. 1999, 2005.In this Pulitzer-prize winning book, noted evolutionary biologist Jared Diamond poses an answer to the question of why some societies have been able to conquer and displace others. Diamond devotes a number of chapters to the history of the development of agriculture and its effect on human societies.Dillard, Annie. Pilgrim at Tinker Creek. 1975, 2007.In this Pulitzer Prize winning series of interconnected essays that describe the author's one year exploration on foot at Tinker Creek, the author observes the changing of the seasons and the corresponding behaviors of plants and animals, reflecting on the nature of the world.Ehrlich, Gretel. The Solace of Open Spaces. 1986, 1992.Ehrlich originally moved west to make a film, but later returned to work with neighbors at cattle- and sheep-ranching, learning how to take pleasure in open spaces. This book describes her experience,the people she met, the changing of the seasons, and the beautiful landscapes.Ehrlich, Paul. The Population Bomb. 1968In this 1968 book, biologist Ehrlich predicted that rapid population growth would lead to worldwide famine and environmental degradation.Ehrlich, Paul, et al. The Stork and the Plow: The Equity Answer to the Human Dilemna.1997.Population experts argue that to diminish the possibility of widespread starvation, we need to increase the equity of women and support farmers in developing countries.Feynman, Richard. Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman! Adventures of a Curious Character.1986, 2000.The life story of Nobel Prize winner Richard Feynman, based on a collection of his reminiscences. Feynman was as well known for his lab work as he was for his sense of humor and sense of vitality. The book shows his human side through funny anecdotes but also discusses more serious issues, such as the development of the atomic bomb and the death of his first wife from tuberculosis.Forsyth, Adrian and Ken Miyata. Tropical Nature: Life and Death in the Rain Forests of Central and South America. 1987.Based on the authors' experiences in rain forests, each chapter in this book describes a different element that is found in the rainforests, exploring insects, birds, animals, and plants.Garrett, Laurie. The Coming Plague: Newly Emerging Diseases in a World Out of Balance.1995.In this gripping, often harrowing study, Laurie Garrett takes readers on a 50-year journey through the world's battles with microbes, and examines the conditions that have culminated in recurrent outbreaks of newly discovered diseases, epidemics of diseases migrating to new areas, and mutated old diseases that are no longer curable.Graedel, Thomas, and Paul Crutzen. Atmosphere, Climate and Change. 1997.Two experts on the chemistry of the atmosphere explore the workings of the atmosphere as a component of Earth as a system. They look at the causes of long-term commercial change and the sources and pitfalls of scientific prediction. The authors also offer a look ahead to potential future changes and what can be done about them.Gray, Mike and Ira Rosen. The Warning: Accident at Three Mile Island, A Nuclear Omen for the Age of Terrorism. 1982, 2003.A narrative of the accident that occurred at the Three Mile Island nuclear plant in Harrisburg , Pennsylvania in 1979. The 2003 edition incorporates information from renewed discussions on energy and the environment, energy alternatives, and current thoughts on nuclear energy. An additional chapter covers new facts that have since been revealed about the accident.Hardin, Garrett. "The Tragedy of the Commons." Science 162 (December 13, 1968): 1243-1248.In this classic article, Hardin present the problem of shared resources. A herdsman benefits by maximizing the number of cattle he has grazing on a common pasture. But, the pasture will be of no benefit to any herdsman if it has been overgrazed. Thus, in the absence of mechanisms to protect public resources, individuals will act in self-interest without regard to collective good.Harr, Jonathan. A Civil Action. 1996.This best-selling book recounts the costly and lengthy lawsuit filed against several corporations on behalf of a group of Woburn, Massachusetts residents stricken with leukemia. The suit, eventually settled out of court, alleged that the corporations were responsible for contaminating the local water supply.Henson, Robert (Rough Guides). The Rough Guide to Climate Change. 2006.Robert Henson has written this guide to a pressing issue facing the world. The guide looks at visible symptoms of change on a warming planet, how climate change works, the evolution of our atmosphere over the last 4.5 billion years and what computer simulations of climate reveal about our past, present, and future. It looks at the skeptics' grounds for disagreement, global warming in the media and what governments and scientists are doing to try to solve the problem.Hertsgaard, Mark. Earth Odyssey: Around the World in Search of Our Environmental Future. 1998, 2000.Hertsgaard set off on a world tour spanning 19 countries from 1991-1997 to find out what people thought of environmental problems. His book reports on environmental issues through the eyes of people who have witnessed them first hand.Houle, Marcy. The Prairie Keepers: Secret of the Grasslands. 1996.Houle, a wildlife biologist, spent a season studying buteo hawks in Zumwalt Prairie in northeastern Oregon . Her account details how ranchers, grazing, and wildlife can coexist, and emphasizes that they must coexist in order to save the native prairies.Leakey, Richard and Roger Lewin. The Sixth Extinction: Patterns of Life and the Future of Humankind. 1996.The authors conclude that there have been five great extinctions in this history of life on Earth, and argue that humans will bring about a sixth extinction which could threaten all of life.Leopold, Aldo. A Sand County Almanac. 1968, 2001.Says Aldo Leopold, "There are some who can live without wild things and some who cannot. These essays are the delights and dilemmas of one who cannot." In this series of nature essays, Leopold articulates an elegant statement of the appropriate relationship between humans and the land.Levitt, Steven D. and Stephen J. Dubner. Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything. 2006.Levitt and Dubner are economists exploring how economics can explain phenomenon in everyday life ? including drops in crime rate and the impact parenting has on children. The two discover fascinating explanations, and may just change the way people view economics.Lewis, Martin. Green Delusions: An Environmentalist Critique of Radical Environmentalism.1994.Lewis, a self-described environmentalist, counters those who believe in a get-back-to-nature ideal. Lewis reviews evidence that suggests primitive societies were not necessarily peaceful or environmentally benign and argues that technology and economic growth can be beneficial.Lopez, Barry. Of Wolves and Men. 1979, 2004.A study of the history of how wolves and humans have interacted and the way the wolf has been prominent in our thinking about animals. Lopez argues for the necessity of wolves in the world drawing from personal experience and a wide variety of literature.Lovins, Amory. Soft Energy Path: Towards a Durable Peace. 1977.Lovins compares ?soft energy? and ?hard energy? paths, arguing for ?soft energy? and that we can rely on less energy supply than is usually assumed.Mann, Charles C. 1491: New Revelations of the Americas before Columbus. 2005.In 1491, Mann challenges the traditional view that historic Native American societies were relatively small and harmless to the environment. He puts forward the notion that Native American cultures were both rather large and technologically advanced long before European explorers set foot in the New World.McPhee, John. Encounters with the Archdruid. 1971, 2003.This book contains narratives of four journeys through three wildernesses ? coastal land, a westernmountain range, and the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. The four men portrayed environmentalist David Brower, mineral engineer Charles Park, resort designer Charles Fraser, anddam builder Floyd Dominy provide different environmental perspectives as they encounter eachother during their journeys.Miller, Benjamin. Fat of the Land: The Garbage behind New York ? The Last Two Hundred Years. 2000.Miller traces the history of garbage in New York City while addressing the social and scientific theoriesof class and disease. Fat of the Land connects trash disposal to larger concerns regarding the city's infrastructure and discusses who gains and who loses in the endless battle over garbage.Muir, John. My First Summer in the Sierra. 1911, 2004.A collection of journal entries Muir wrote during his time as a sheep herder in the Sierra Nevada details the beautiful surroundings he encountered and explains his transformation from an industrial engineer to a pioneer of the environmental movement.Nash, Roderick. Wilderness and the American Mind. 2001.A classic study of America 's changing attitudes towards wilderness. The latest (4th) edition explores the future of wilderness.Peterson, Rolf. The Wolves of Isle Royale: A Broken Balance. 1995, 2007.In this book, a wildlife biologist provides a first-hand account of a 25-year association with the study of the wild wolves of Isle Royale National Park and their prey, the moose.Phillips, Kathryn. Tracking the Vanishing Frogs: An Ecological Mystery. 1995.Phillips details scientists' efforts in wetlands, woodlands, rain forests, and laboratories to learn why so many species of frogs are vanishing. She describes the environmental and human factors thatthreaten the creature, and illustrates how science and scientists work.Plotkin, Mark. Tales of a Shaman's Apprentice: An Ethnobotanist Searches for NewMedicines in the Amazon Rain Forest. 1994, 2001.This book details research conducted by an ethnobotanist among native healers in the Amazon forest to identify native cures used for arthritis, skin fungi, colds, and other afflictions.Pollan, Michael. The Omnivores Dilema. 2007Tracing from source to table each of the food chains that sustain us -- whether industrial or organic, alternative or processed -- he develops a portrait of the American way of eating.Preston, Richard. The Wild Trees: A Story of Passion and Daring. 2007.In his book, The Wild Trees, Preston uses the timeless Northwestern redwood forest as the backdrop for a tale of nature, love, and history, taking the reader on a journey to discover the secrets that the great forest holds.Quammen, David. Song of the Dodo: Island Biogeography in an Age of Extinctions. 1997.Quammen explores why island life differs so much from mainland life. By relaying the accounts of his globe-circling journey to the islands of Madagascar to Guam, Quammen shows why island biogeography yields important insights into the origins and extinction of species everywhere.Quinn, Daniel. Ishmael: An Adventure of the Mind and Spirit. 1995.When a man in search of truth answers an ad in a local newspaper from a teacher looking for serious students, he finds himself alone in an abandoned office with a gorilla named Ishmael. Quinn provides a new perspective on humanity's relationship to the world and, through Ishmael, offers a wide-ranging examination of our civilization, offering solutions for our global problems.Quinn, Daniel. My Ishmael. 1998.In the sequel to Ishmael, the gorilla has a new pupil who is 12 years old and intent on saving the world. Quinn critiques educational systems around the world, suggesting that their function is not to usefully dictate, but to regulate the flow of workers in a Taker society.Raup, David. Extinction: Bad Genes or Bad Luck? 1992.Raup, best known for his theory that extinctions come in 25-million-year cycles, examines whatwe know and don't know about extinction.Reisner, Marc. Cadillac Desert: The American West and Its Disappearing Water. 1986, 1993.A provocative, opinionated, and interesting history of how California, the Bureau ofReclamation, and the Corps of Engineers remade the West by damming its rivers. The authorexplores the early history of Western settlement and the mistaken belief of the time that "rain follows the plough."Revkin, Andrew. Burning Season: The Murder of Chico Mendes and the Fight for the Amazon Rain Forest. 1990, 2004.The story of the Brazilian rubber tapper and grass-roots environmentalist who was murdered in1988.Ruddiman, William F. Plows, Plagues and Petroleum: How Humans Took Control of Nature. 2005.Climatologist William F. Ruddiman's book explains how scientists are able to determine our planet?s climatic history. He argues that humans have actually been changing the climate for some 8,000 years, as a result of the earlier discovery of agriculture, and is the first to trace the full historical sweep of human interaction with Earth's climate.Sagan, Carl. The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark. 1997.An inquiry into why science is so hard to learn and teach and why so many people embrace the sort of pseudoscience associated with New Age beliefs. Sagan shows how scientific thinking can cut through prejudice and hysteria and uncover the truth, and how it is necessary to safeguard our democratic institutions and our technical civilization.Scarce, Rick. Eco-warriors: Understanding the Radical Environmental Movement. 1990, 2005.Eco-warriors provided the first in-depth look at the people, actions, history, and philosophies of the controversial radical environmental movement. Scarce reviews several environmental groups with examples of their activities, and discusses the future of the movement; the updated 2005 version brings the path of the movement up to date.Shermer, Michael. Why People Believe Weird Things: Pseudo-Science, Superstition, and Other Confusions of our Time. 2002.Shermer, editor of Skeptic magazine that has been at the forefront of debunking beliefs that don't stand up to scientific inquiry, compiles a collection of pieces from the magazine.Steingraber, Sandra. Living Downstream: An Ecologist Looks at Cancer and theEnvironment. 1997.Writing from the perspective of both a survivor and a scientist, the author links high concentrations of environmental toxins with the high incidence of cancer in rural Illinois.Terborgh, John. Where Have all the Birds Gone? Essays on the Biology and Conservation of Birds that Migrate to the American Tropics. 1990.By scrutinizing ill-planned urban and suburban development in the U.S. and tropical deforestation in Central and South America, Terborgh summarizes our knowledge of the subtle combination of circumstances that is devastating bird populations.Thoreau, Henry David. Walden.An autobiography written when Thoreau spent two years living in a forest near Walden Pond provides a detailed account of his time living off the land and presents his critique of the contemporary Western world.Turco, Richard. Earth Under Siege: From Air Pollution to Global Change. 1996, 2002.Turco offers a description of environmental systems and provides a basic understanding of how the physical world functions and how human activities are impacting it. He defines underlyingenvironmental principles and processes including the role of evolutionary forces in shaping the environment, Earth's energy balance, and biogeochemical cycles.Wessels, Tom. Reading the Forested Landscape: A Natural History of New England. 1999.The author uses the forests in his native New England to demonstrate how to "read the landscape." He shows how to find evidence of human activities and disturbances, such as fire, logging, pastures, and blight, and how to trace the history of the land and the forests.Wheelwright, Jeff. Degrees of Disaster: Prince William Sound: How Nature Reels and Rebounds. 1996.An account of the ecological effects of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill on Prince William Sound, telling the complex story of a region where natural disturbance is normal. Wheelright concludes that the clean up efforts may have caused more damage than the oil did and that, left alone, the Sound would have repaired itself quickly.Wilkinson, Charles. Crossing the Next Meridian : Land, Water, and the Future of the West.1993.Explores the core issues facing the American West now and in years to come. Wilkinson combines legal history with examples of present day consequences of the laws to trace the origins and development of the laws and regulations that govern mining, ranching, forestry, and water use.Willis, Delta. The Sand Dollar and the Slide Rule: Drawing Blueprints from Nature. 1996.Willis explores the relationship between natural forms and human design brings to life a group of architects, physicists, and biologists devoted to a new science of form called Construction Morphology. The book provides an account of how successful engineering and research often mirror the naturalworld.Wilson, Edward O. The Diversity of Life. 1999, 2003.With fascinating stories and rich detail, biologist Edward O. Wilson surveys the origin and role of species diversity and discusses areas of ongoing research in this field.Wolfe, David. Tales from the Underground: A Natural History of Subterranean Life. 2002.There are over one billion organisms in a pinch of soil, and many of them perform functions essential to all life on the planet, yet we know very little about soil life. Cornell ecologist David W. Wolfe takes a tour of this unfamiliar subterranean world, introducing the bizarre creatures that live there as well as the devoted scientists who study them.12