??Web view2013-2014 AP Environmental Science Summer Assignment. Glenelg High School. Dr. Jennifer Shepard . Jennifer_Shepard@hcpss.org

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<p>2013-2014 AP Environmental Science Summer Assignment</p> <p>Glenelg High School</p> <p>Dr. Jennifer Shepard </p> <p>Jennifer_Shepard@hcpss.org</p> <p>DrShepard.wikispaces.com</p> <p>Welcome to the 2013-2014 class of AP Environmental Science! Im looking forward to working with you next year.</p> <p>AP Environmental Science is designed to be the equivalent of a one-semester introductory college course in Environmental Science. This course will provide students with the scientific principles, concepts and methodologies required to understand the interrelationships of the natural world, to identify and analyze environmental problems both natural and human-made, to evaluate the relative risks associated with these problems, and to examine alternative solutions for resolving or preventing them. The laboratory component consists of hands on learning including field observations and analysis.</p> <p>AP Environmental Science is a rigorous science course that emphasizes a multidisciplinary approach integrating biology, chemistry, physics, geology, climatology, oceanography, in addition to political and economic approaches.</p> <p>In order to cover all the material for APES before the AP exam next May and to set the tone for the class you will need to complete some work during the summer. The summer assignment will have 4 parts: email to Dr.Shepard, prerequisite knowledge and skills review, article review, outdoor activity and reflection. I have also attached a book review assignment that will be assigned during the first quarter to allow you to get a head start during the summer.</p> <p>The summer assignment will be worth 5% of your quarter 1 grade and will be due no later than Tuesday September 3, 2013. We will also be having a quiz on the prerequisite knowledge and skills during the 2nd week of school. </p> <p>This information will be available on my website by June 17th (DrShepard.wikispaces.com). Please feel free to email me at any time over the summer with questions on the assignments. I will be out of town periodically so allow a few days response time.</p> <p>Part I: Email to Dr. Shepard</p> <p>Please email Dr. Shepard (Jennifer_Shepard@hcpss.org) with the following information. This allows me to better prepare our focus for the fall AND to get an idea if you have a working email address.</p> <p>1. Your full name and what you prefer to be called.</p> <p>2. 1-2 sentences on who you are and your interests.</p> <p>3. Why you are taking APES</p> <p>4. What qualities or abilities do you have that will help you become successful in this class and on the May AP exam.</p> <p>5. List your previous and concurrent math and science courses.</p> <p>6. What are your college and career aspirations?</p> <p>7. Answer the following 3 questions</p> <p>a. How am I connected to the Earth and other living things?</p> <p>b. What is my purpose and/or responsibility as a human being on this planet?</p> <p>c. What is the role of nature?</p> <p>Part 2: You are expected to enter the course with a good understanding of basic scientific and mathematical concepts and skills as well as strong reading, writing and speaking abilities. Although we will continue to develop these skills throughout the year, your success in the class is also dependent upon what you bring to it at the onset. Over the summer, review the scientific concepts and mathematical calculations in the attached document. We will be building upon and referencing them throughout the year. You should be prepared to take a quiz on these skills and concepts during the second week of school. </p> <p>Part 3: Select and review one article drawn from the following topics:</p> <p>1. Human population growth</p> <p>2. Transgenic species</p> <p>3. Non-native (invasive) species</p> <p>4. Food production, food safety</p> <p>5. Fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas)</p> <p>6. Renewable resources (solar, wind, geothermal, hydroelectric)</p> <p>7. Nuclear energy</p> <p>8. Air quality</p> <p>9. Water quality (surface or groundwater)</p> <p>10. CO2 and global warming</p> <p>11. Recycling, waste management</p> <p>12. Endangered species</p> <p>13. Deforestation</p> <p>14. Ozone depletion</p> <p>15. International treaties dealing with environmental issues (Kyoto Accord)</p> <p>Articles must be at least 5 paragraphs long and should come from sources such as the following:</p> <p>New York Times (On Tuesdays there is a special science section), Washington Post (On Mondays there is a special science section), news magazines (ex. Newsweek), science magazines (Discover, Scientific American, Nature, Science, Smithsonian, National Geographic). Each article must be at least 4 5 paragraphs in length and be no more than 1 year old (2010).</p> <p>Each article review will be typed in 12 point font, using Times Roman and double-spaced. The format is as follows:</p> <p>Article Title:</p> <p>Date:</p> <p>Source:</p> <p>Summary: In 250-500 words, address the following questions:</p> <p>-What are the key points made in the article?</p> <p>-What are the points of view presented about this issue?</p> <p>-Does the article teach you something new?</p> <p>-Does it support or refute other information you have heard or read? Explain.</p> <p>A copy of the article must be attached to the review. Please be very careful to use your own words. </p> <p>Part 4: Having an appreciation for the outdoors will help you understand the importance of this course. I would like you to spend 2 hours (or more) camping, hiking, canoeing/kayaking, visiting a state or national park, volunteering for an environmental group or learning center.</p> <p>Provide documentation of your visit (i.e., a photo of you taken during the activity, or a signed letter from a supervisor on-site with his or her phone number). Write a one-page reflection (12 point font, double spaced) of your visit, including any observations of wildlife, environmental problems (pollution, etc.), and how you enjoyed the activity. </p> <p>Part 5 (Due at the end of Quarter 1): You will be required to write a 650 word summary and self reflection of the book you read during the first quarter of 2013. If you feel that it would benefit you to do this during the summer, please see the reading list, that can be found on my website (DrShepard.wikispaces.com), for a list of books that you may choose from. </p> <p>Prerequisite knowledge and skills</p> <p>You are expected to enter the course with a good understanding of basic scientific and mathematical concepts and skills as well as strong, reading, writing and speaking abilities. Although we will continue to develop these skills throughout the year, your success in the class is also dependent upon what you bring to it at the onset. Over the summer, review the scientific concepts and mathematical calculations below. We will be building upon and referencing them throughout the year. You should be prepared to take a quiz on these skills and concepts during the first week of school.</p> <p>Prerequisite Basic Scientific Concepts:</p> <p>You should be familiar with the following terms/concepts from Biology, Chemistry, and Earth Science:</p> <p>1</p> <p>Organic vs. Inorganic</p> <p>Natural vs. Synthetic</p> <p>Kinetic vs. Potential Energy</p> <p>Radioactive decay</p> <p>Half life</p> <p>Law of Conservation of Matter</p> <p>1st Law of Thermodynamics</p> <p>2nd Law of Thermodynamics</p> <p>Entropy</p> <p>Organism</p> <p>Species</p> <p>Population</p> <p>Community</p> <p>Ecosystem</p> <p>Producers/Autotrophs</p> <p>Consumers/Heterotrophs</p> <p>Decomposers</p> <p>Photosynthesis (reactants and products)</p> <p>Cellular Respiration (reactants and products)</p> <p>Aerobic vs. Anaerobic</p> <p>Adaptation</p> <p>Mutation</p> <p>Gene Trait</p> <p>Chromosome </p> <p>Gene pool </p> <p>Natural Selection </p> <p>Biodiversity </p> <p>Extinction </p> <p>Plate Tectonics </p> <p>Weathering </p> <p>Climate Change </p> <p>Rocks vs. Minerals </p> <p>Climate vs. Weathe</p> <p>The full name of each of these chemical abbreviations: CO2, CO, C6H12O6, CH4, H2, H2O, N2, NOX, NO3-, NH3, 02, 03, P, P043-, S, S02, Cl, K, NaCl, Pb, Hg, Rn, U</p> <p>Prerequisite Basic Mathematical Skills</p> <p>Percentage</p> <p>17% = 17/100 = .17</p> <p> Remember that "percent" literally means divided by 100.</p> <p> Percentage is a measure of the part of the whole. Or part divided by whole.</p> <p>-15 million is what percentage of the US population? 15 million / 300 million = .05 = 5%</p> <p>-What is 20% of this $15 bill so that I can give a good tip? $15 x .20 = $15 x 20/100 = $3</p> <p>Rates</p> <p>Rise Y2-Y1slope change y=mx+b dX</p> <p>Run X2-X1time dt</p> <p> All of the above are ways to look at rates. The second equation is the easiest way to calculate a rate,especially from looking at a graph. Rates will often be written using the word "per" followed by aunit of time, such as cases per year, grams per minute or mile per hour. The word per means todivide, so miles per gallon is actually the number miles driven divided by one gallon.</p> <p> Rates are calculating how much an amount changes in a given amount of time.</p> <p>Scientific Notation</p> <p>Thousand = 103 =1,000 </p> <p>Million = 106 =1,000,000 (people in the US) </p> <p>Billion = 109 =1,000,000,000 (people on Earth) </p> <p>Trillion = 1012 =1,000,000,000,000 (National debt)</p> <p> When using very large numbers, scientific method is often easiest to manipulate. For example, the USpopulation is 300 million people or 300xl06or 3xl08</p> <p> When adding or subtracting, exponents must be the same. Add the numbers in front of the ten andkeep the exponent the same.</p> <p> When multiplying or dividing, multiply or divide the number in front of the ten and add the exponents ifmultiplying or subtract the exponents if dividing</p> <p>Ex. 9xl06/ 3xl02 = (9/3) x 10(6-2) = 3 x 104</p> <p>Dimensional Analysis</p> <p>You should be able to convert any unit into any other unit accurately if given the conversion factor. Online tutorials are available:</p> <p>http://www.chemprofessor.com/dimension_text.htm http://www.chem.tamu.edu/class/fyp/mathrev/mr-da.html</p> <p>Prefixes</p> <p>m (milli) =1/1000 =10-3</p> <p>c (cent)=1/100 = 10'-2</p> <p>k (kilo)=1000=103</p> <p>M (mega)=1,000,000=106</p> <p>G (giga)=1,000,000,000=109</p> <p>T (tera)=1,000,000,000,000 =1012</p> <p>Sample Math Problems</p> <p>Be sure you are able to complete the following types of problems.</p> <p>1) What is one million times one thousand? Show your work in scientific notation. Give the answer in scientific notation and in words.</p> <p>2) A population of deer had 200 individuals. If the population grows by 15% in one year, how many deer will there be the next year?</p> <p>3) One year I had 40 AP Environmental Science students and the next year I had 50 Environmental Science students, what percentage did the population of APES students grow by?</p> <p>4) Electricity costs 6 cents per kilowatt hour. In one month one home uses one megawatt hour of electricity. How much will the electric bill be? (be sure to look at the prefixes chart on the previous page for the conversion of kilo to mega)</p> <p>5) Your car gets 15 miles to the gallon and your friend's car gets 25 miles to the gallon. You decide to go on a road trip to Virginia Tech, which is 300 miles away. If gas costs $4 per gallon and you decide to split the gas money, how much money will you save in gas by driving your friend's car?</p> <p>6) Virginia Beach is 10 miles wide and 30 miles long. If one inch of rain falls on Virginia Beach, how many cubic feet of rain fell on Virginia Beach. (Hint: convert all units to feet first).</p> <p>7) An MP3 takes up about 16 kilobytes of memory per second of music. If you owned a one terabyte hard drive and filled it with only mp3s, how many days worth of music would you have? (keep track of units: kilobytes to terabytes and seconds to days)</p> <p>Reading List</p> <p>Abbey, Edward. Desert Solitaire: A Season in the Wilderness. 1967, 1990.</p> <p>Abbey spent a year alone as a ranger in a national park in southeastern Utah. His book describes his time there, what he learned about the land in front of him, the world around him, about himself, and also explores his perception of the growing exploitation of the wilderness by oil and mining interests.</p> <p>Arms, Myron. Riddle of Ice: A Scientific Adventure into the Arctic. 1999.</p> <p>During a 1991 sailing expedition off the coast of Labrador, the author is blocked by a mass of ice ? an unusual occurrence in such a warm summer. In 1994, he goes back to complete his journey and determine if climatic shifts are causing the change in Arctic ice production. Riddle of Ice is the result of that second exploration.</p> <p>Bormann, F. Herbert and Stephen Kellert (eds.). Ecology, Economics, Ethics: The Broken Circle. 1993.</p> <p>Environmental specialists argue that in order to solve global problems we must view them from a broad interdisciplinary perspective that acknowledges the relationship between ecology, economics, and ethics. This book covers a variety of topics, ranging from global atmospheric degradation to the loss of forests and massive species extinctions.</p> <p>Brown, Kenneth. Four Corners: History, Land and People of the Desert Southwest. 1996.</p> <p>Brown takes readers on a tour of the Four Corners region, where Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah intersect, with a mix of geology, biology, and human history.</p> <p>Brown, Tom. Tom Brown's Field Guide to Nature Observation and Tracking. 1986.</p> <p>Noted outdoorsman Tom Brown presents a useful field guide, part of a best-selling series.</p> <p>Burns, Loree Griffen. Tracking Trash: Flotsam, Jetsam, and the Science of Ocean Motion. 2007.</p> <p>This book, for younger students, is a fascinating account of ocean currents, drifting trash, and the scientists that study them.</p> <p>Cohen, Joel. How Many People Can the Earth Support? 1996.</p> <p>Predictions for how many people the Earth can support have varied from 4 billion to 16 billion; Cohen suggests that the defining limits of land, food production, and water supply will lead to a more definitive number. Cohen also argues that while we might be able to prepare for future restrictions on our needs, our governments, our own personal choices, and time itself will ultimately determine the boundaries of our existence.</p> <p>Carson, Rachel. Silent Spring.</p> <p>First published in 1962, this book raised awareness about the environmental and human risks of using pesticides, such as DDT, and was one of the contributing factors that spurred the modern environmental movement.</p> <p>Cone, Marla. Silent Snow: The Slow Poisoning of the Arctic. 2006.</p> <p>Cone, a U.S. environmental journalist, reports her findings from an investigation into why the Arctic 's native inhabitants are heavily impacted by pollution due to chemicals being carried to the area by winds and waves, and how Arctic cultures are adapting.</p> <p>Cronon, William. Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England.1983, 2003.</p> <p>Cronon examines the relationship between humans and nature and the changing land-use patterns on the ecosystem in colonial New England .</p> <p>Devall, Bill and George Sessions. Deep Ecology: Living as if Nature Mattered. 1985, 2001.</p> <p>An introduction to the emerging theme of deep ecology, a way to develop harmony betweenindividu...</p>