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Water conservation methods in the textile industryLauren KimSustainable systemsHow much water is needed?The textile industry is known for using large quantities of water for a single product (denim, cotton, wool) More than 100 gallons of water are needed to produce a single pound of raw cotton or shorn wool900-1500 gallons of water are needed for a single pair of jeans T-shirt requires 250 gallons 505 gallons of water needed to produce just one pair of levis 501 jeansIndian textile industry consumes 425,000,000 gallons a day for fabrics

steps to processing textilesWater baths are needed for special/finishing chemicals for dyesDesizing, (removing size from warp yarn), scouring (removing wax and making the textile water absorbent), bleaching and mercerizing (final treatment of cotton with caustic alkaline) are just preparation steps for the fabricThe fabric must be washed again before each step to get rid of the chemicals85% of water used in creating fabrics goes solely into dyeingAny dye that does not bond with the fabric must be rinsed out again with warm water

How does this effect us?After each preparation step, the fabric needs to be washed again to get rid of the previous chemicals The wastewater is then returned back into our ecosystem without being properly treatedThe water can contain pbde (polyurethane, building materials, electronics), organochlorines (insecticides), and other chemicals Pollutes ground water which can cause health issues

Current dyeing methodRaw cotton is grown and ginned to remove impurities, then spun into yarn which a mill weaves/knits into fabric and finally dyed Dye bath is created by adding red, blue and yellow into a solutionChemicals are required for the dye to bond to the fabric Local municipal water and/or ground water is used for extensive washingthe wastewater ends up back into streams, rivers and lakes

5What ends up in the water?Leftover dye can end up in waterways Salt from the dye baths can kill marine animalsAlkali can disrupt the pH balance of the water, thus killing any living creatureNot as common but bleach (used to whiten and clean fabrics) can alter the oxygen balance which is harmful to animals and humansAcid is used to counter alkali in the dyeing process and if not properly neutralized, can cause a low ph level, killing aquatic lifeSoaps clean the cotton but are harmful to the environment

airdye Dyeing method that does not use waterA special machine is used that transfers paint on paper, then a stencil with the paint is applied onto the textile and heatedUses air rather than water to dye fabricsUses both sublimation printing and cationic dyeingDyes are penetrated through the fibers at a molecular levelDye goes into the fabric rather than on top so the color lasts longer and is more vibrantEnergy consumption is reduced by 85% Uses 90% less water total45 gallons of water can be saved on a single garment

7H&m and wwfH&m and worldwide fund for nature have teamed up to promote and educate both customers and employees about water conservationOver 500 supplier factories will be trained on responsible water use, water recycling and reduced water useWill also have appropriate waste water treatmentsBy 2020, all h&m stores and warehouses will have water efficient equipmentH&m and wwf china implemented a yangtze basin engagement plan to improve water quality and protect the finless porpoiseH&m for water was a program that donated 25% of sales to support projects that support sustainable water resources