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Chapter 14

Warm UpOpen books to page 432Read selection from NightChapter 14Section 3The War in the PacificJapanese AdvancesDrove American forces from Wake Island and GuamCaptured Hong Kong and Singaporethe greatest disaster capitulation in British history - Winston Churchill Japanese conquered Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) Captured British colonies of Burma and BorneoJapanese gained key oil reserves and strategic basesThe PhilippinesJapanese invasion began on Dec. 8, 1941Defense of islands led by Gen. Douglas MacArthurAmerican forces retreated to the Bataan Peninsula MacArthur was ordered to leave his men,-vowed I shall returnBataan Death March10,000 Americans & 60,000 Filipino soldiers surrendered -Starving and sickJapanese forced soldiers to march through jungle on way to prison camp -Given little food or water-Those who stepped out of line were beaten or shot-Those who fell sick were left to die5,000-10,000 Filipino soldiers died600-650 American soldiers died

5Japanese Empire, 1943

The fact that we have had a small success at Pearl Harbor is nothingPersonally, I do not think that it is a good thing to whip up propaganda to encourage the nation. People should think things over and realize how serious the situation isJapanese Admiral Isoroku YamamotoFortunes Shift in the PacificLt. Col. James Doolittle leads air raid over Tokyo, April 16, 194216 bombersLaunched from aircraft carrier off coast of JapanFirst U.S. attack against Japan-Little strategic significance-Huge moral victory for the U.S.The Battle of Coral SeaFollowing the attacks at Pearl Harbor, only U.S. aircraft carriers avoided damage-Became the backbone of American fleetU.S. carriers prevented a Japanese invasion of New Guinea, May 1942-Led by Chester Nimitz-First time a Japanese advance had been haltedThe Battle of MidwayJapanese wanted to lure remaining U.S. fleet into large battle-Attacked Midway IslandJapanese had more ships and carriers -Americans had broken Japanese code, were prepared for attackAmerican aircraft destroyed all four Japanese aircraft carriers , Americans lost 1 carrier Turning point of the war in the Pacific

Allied StrategyIsland Hopping - The Allies planned to capture important islands that would bring them close enough to invade JapanFocused on weak spots, avoided strongholdsAllied Progress

War in the PacificAmerican industrial output proved to be deciding factor-American factories were quickly able to produce ships and planesCode Talkers -members of the Navajo nation translated all Allied communication into the Navajo language-Language was complex and completely foreign to Japanese-Was never cracked during the warNavajo Code Talkers

Back to the PhilippinesBattle of Leyte Gulf, Oct. 1944Largest naval engagement of history-300 shipsJapanese lost 4 carriers, 3 battleshipsAfter battle, Japanese fleet was no longer a threatFirst major use of kamikaze attackKamikazeDivine WindRefers to storm that destroyed Mongol fleet that was preparing to invade Japan in 1200sKamikaze pilots loaded plane with bombs, deliberately flew into enemy shipsSuicide attackMacarthur ReturnsMacArthur returned to the Philippines-Oct. 1944American forces retook the islands after 2 months of fighting

Bombing of JapanAmerican B-29 Bombers began making regular raids of JapanNeeded closer bases to launch these raidsAmericans launched attacks of Iwo Jima and Okinawa -Heavily fortified by Japanese soldiersBattle of Iwo JimaFeb., 1945750 miles from Japanese mainlandJapanese soldiers refused to surrender, fought to the death7,000 Americans killed20,000 Japanese killed

Battle of OkinawaApril, 1945350 miles from coast of JapanJapanese soldiers were dug into a series of caves and tunnelsFought to the death12,000 Americans killed110,000 Japanese killedChapter 14Section 4The Home FrontSacrifice at HomeRationing- limiting the amount of a good that an individual can get-Coffee, butter, sugar & meatGasoline, rubberRecycling beganMetal, nylon, rubber and glassVictory gardensAmericans grew their produce at home8 million tons of produceInvesting in VictoryWar BondsCitizens bought bonds to help finance the war$185 billionTwice the entire federal budget in 1945Japanese Internment Executive Order 9066Feb 1942established concentration camps on the West Coast for Japanese Americans2/3 were U.S. citizens110,000Japanese were seen as not being loyal to the U.S.Could only bring the belongings they could carryAll other property was left behind or soldKenjiListen & ReadJapanese Loyalty442 Regimental Combat TeamFought in EuropeMade up of Japanese-American soldiersNisei Received more medals & awards than any unit of its size in U.S. historyRead page 448Answer #1-2