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Warm Up 1.Name the modes of inheritance. 2.If a person has the genotypes I A I A or I A I, what blood type do they have? 3.When there are only 3 phenotypes

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Text of Warm Up 1.Name the modes of inheritance. 2.If a person has the genotypes I A I A or I A I, what...

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Slide 2 Warm Up 1.Name the modes of inheritance. 2.If a person has the genotypes I A I A or I A I, what blood type do they have? 3.When there are only 3 phenotypes in an organism, what are the possible types of inheritance? Slide 3 Agenda Objective: SWBAT: identify that DNA is made up of the nucleotides adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine Go over Quizzes and options to improve your grade KWL Chart on DNA DNA Activity Approximately 20 minutes to work on corrections Notebooks: please turn them in at the end of class today Slide 4 Quizzes Hand back Pass out cheat sheet Options for improving grade Retake (You would have to come in after school or during lunch) Corrections (You will have an opportunity to start during class today) Slide 5 Correction Example Mom is heterozygous for Type A blood. Dad has type AB blood. What possible blood types could their children inherit? (2 points) Based on the Punnett Square, there are three different possibilities. If a person has a genotype of I A I A or I A i, then they have type A blood. If a person has I B i then they have type B blood. Finally if a person has I A I B then the person has type AB blood. That means these parents could have a child with Type A, B or AB blood. Slide 6 Another example Human height and weight are determined by multiple different genes. As a result, there is a wide variety of heights and weights for people to express. What type of inheritance is this? (incomplete, co-dominance, multiple alleles, polygenic, sex-linked)? (1 point) Say I put down that it was incomplete dominance. I would explain that its actually polygenic because the problem says both traits are determined by multiple genes. Polygenic literally means many genes. Slide 7 KWL Chart Slide 8 What do we already know about DNA? Its a type of nucleic acid It stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA is found in all cells In Eukaryotic cells, DNA is found in the nucleus It carries our genetic information and determines our traits Segments of DNA are called genes DNA is bundled up into chromosomes Slide 9 Why is DNA important? DNA contains our genetic information DNA is a set of instructions within the cell for making proteins Proteins determine just about everything about you Whether you are lactose intolerant What skin color you have Your eye color Control the rate of reactions in our body Slide 10 Warm up Directions: Unless I tell you otherwise, you do not have to copy the questions anymore But you need to date every warm up. Name at least two reasons why DNA is important. Write in complete sentences. Slide 11 Agenda Objectives: SWBAT: identify that DNA is made up of nucleotides that follow the base pairing rule AND compare and contrast DNA and RNA by creating a chart Finish Building DNA Activity Notes Exit Ticket Work on Quiz Corrections Slide 12 Announcements Quiz Corrections are due tomorrow. You will get a little time at the end of class to work and ask me questions. You can come in to retake, or take the quiz for the first time, during lunch or after school For warm-ups you will not always get a stamp if you simply finished the warm up. I will start checking for correct answers. Slide 13 DNA building activity Slide 14 What is the Structure of DNA? a.Deoxyribonucleic Acid or DNA looks like a twisted ladder or double helix b.Its made up of subunits called nucleotides -Each nucleotide has a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogen base Slide 15 Label the parts on your copy: Phosphate Sugar Nitrogen Base Hydrogen Bonds a.DNA has the sugar deoxyribose D for deoxyribose D for deoxyribose Slide 16 Types of Nitrogen Bases a.There are 4 types of nitrogen bases in DNA -A= Adenine -T= Thymine -C= Cytosine -G= Guanine b.Nitrogen bases connect the 2 strands of DNA together, like the rungs (steps) of a ladder Slide 17 Exit Ticket 1.Each nucleotide has a ________, ____________ and ___________ ________ 2.If one strand of DNA was ACTACTGGG, what would be the complimentary strand? Slide 18 Warm Up 1.Give yourself a rating for each one of the following categories. Be honest. Slide 19 Agenda Objectives: SWBAT: compare and contrast DNA and RNA by creating a chart AND Describe that replication is when DNA makes a copy of itself. Comparison Chart Coloring and Labeling Activity Video White Board Activity ( If we have time) Exit Ticket Reminder: Turn in your quiz corrections. Friday is the last day to do a retake. Slide 20 DNA Contains all our genetic information Is made up of subunits called ______________ Each subunit contains a phosphate, _________ and _______________ _________ Slide 21 Base Pairing a.Nitrogen bases pair up to make the steps of the ladder b.In DNA -A always pairs with T And -C always pairs with G Slide 22 Complementary Strands a.Each strand of DNA is complimentary to the other That means that each strands nitrogen bases match up (A - T, C - G) b.Example: If the code on one strand of DNA is ACGTC, then the complimentary strand would be TGCAG Slide 23 Practice Problems: Write the Complimentary Strand 1. ATCGC 2. TGCAGA 3. CCCGTACGTA 4. TAGTGACTAGC Slide 24 RNA a.RNA is another type of nucleic acid thats found in the nucleus and cytoplasm of a cell b.Unlike DNA, RNA is made up of only one strand of nucleotides Slide 25 Difference in Nitrogen Bases a.Instead of having the base thymine, RNA has the base uracil b.That means when RNA is formed, adenine pairs with uracil (A - U) Slide 26 Sugars a.One main difference between RNA and DNA is that they are made up of different sugars -RNA has the sugar ribose -DNA has the sugar deoxyribose Slide 27 DNA vs. RNA DNARNA Slide 28 DNA vs. RNA Found in the nucleus Found in the nucleus and cytoplasm Double-stranded (double helix) Single-stranded Deoxyribose sugarRibose sugar A pairs with TA pairs with U T pairs with AU pairs with A Slide 29 You will have 10 minutes to color in your molecule of DNA and strand of mRNA. Create a key that shows me which shape represents each base. Make each base a different color Slide 30 Warm Up 1.Name the 4 nitrogen bases of DNA 2.If a strand of DNA has the bases AATGGCTCA, what would the complimentary strand look like? 3.What is one difference between DNA and RNA Slide 31 Agenda Objectives: SWBAT explain that replication, transcription and translation are codependent processes that ultimately make proteins AND In transcription, a strand of mRNA is created from a strand of DNA with uracil replacing thymine. Notes White Board Practice Video Clips Practice Problems Slide 32 Before a cell divides, what does it need to do? Demo Slide 33 DNA Replication Video Slide 34 http://www.dnatube.com/video/365/DNA- Replicationhttp://www.dnatube.com/video/365/DNA- Replication Slide 35 Slide 36 Enzymes a.Enzymes are responsible for unzipping the DNA and adding the bases to form the 2 new molecules. b.Enzymes are proteins in our cells. They help regulate chemical reactions in our body. c.Helicases are enzymes that split the DNA and DNA polymerase adds the bases d.Proteins help make proteins! Slide 37 White Board Practice Slide 38 1. Whats missing in this nucleotide? deoxyribose + phosphate + _________ Slide 39 2 What type of sugar does RNA have? Slide 40 3 What are the subunits that make up DNA and RNA called? Slide 41 4 A stands for what? C stands for what? Slide 42 5. A pairs with ____ C pairs with ____ Slide 43 6. G stands for what? T stands for what? Slide 44 7 (DNA or RNA)_________ is made up of 2 strands of nucleotides. Slide 45 8 If the code of bases on one strand of DNA is AGCCTAGG, then what is the code on the complimentary strand? Slide 46 9 What is the process that makes a copy of DNA? Slide 47 10 In RNA, Thymine is replaced with ________ Slide 48 11 Is this a strand of DNA or RNA? AGCCGUUAUGCGAU Slide 49 Importance of DNA DNA is responsible for providing instructions to make proteins. Proteins are responsible for the expression of our genes. Ex. A protein is responsible for the amount of melanin in your skin. The more melanin you have, the darker your skin is. Slide 50 How are proteins made? In order to make proteins, 3 processes must occur -DNA Replication (makes DNA) -Transcription (makes mRNA) -Translation (makes proteins) Slide 51 What happens during Transcription? A strand of messenger RNA (mRNA) is made using DNA as a template. Slide 52 What happens during Transcription? One strand of the DNA is the template Nitrogen bases attach to the DNA by following the base pairing rule except U will replace T The sequence (order of the nitrogen bases) of RNA depends on the strand of DNA Example:A-C-C-A-A-A U-G-G-U-U-U Slide 53 demo Slide 54 mRNA Just like DNA is split up into segments called genes, a strand of mRNA is split up into sections called codons. Codons are words of mRNA that are made up of three nitrogen bases. Example: AUC or GGU Codons code for amino acids that make up proteins Slide 55 Slide 56 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=983lhh20rGY http://www.teachersdomain.org/search/?q=dna+r eplication&start=0&fq_media_type=Video&fq_gra de=PK&fq_grade=PShttp://www.teachersdomain.org/search/?q=dna+r eplication&start=0&fq_media_type=Video&fq_gra de=PK&fq_grade=PS Slide 57 Practice Work Sheet Slide 58 Brain Pop Video http://www.brainpop.com/health/geneticsgrowthan ddevelopment/rna/http://www.brainpop.com/health/geneticsgrowthan ddevelopment/rna/ http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/body/cracking-the- code-of-life.htmlhttp://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/body/cracking-the- code-of-life.html Slide 59 Warm Up Slide 60 Agenda Objectives: SWBAT explain that replication, transcription and translation are codependent processes that ultimately make proteins AND In transcription, a strand of mRNA is created from a strand of DNA with uracil replacing thymine. Transcription Activity Exit Ticket Slide 61 http://www.schooltube.com/video/d2d0cc18a0164 5f19168/DNA-Rap-Videohttp://www.schooltube.com/video/d2d0cc18a0164 5f19168/DNA-Rap-Video