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PAKISTAN HORTICULTURE DEVELOPMENT & EXPORT BOARD PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY ESTABLISHMENT OF COLD CHAIN SYSTEM UNDER NATIONAL TRADE CORRIDOR IMPROVEMENT PROJECT VOLUME-III COLD STORAGES AND CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE STORAGES Ju ne 200 7 405-406, Shaes Centre, Block 13 C, Gulshan-e-Iqbal, Karachi

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    PAKISTAN HORTICULTURE

    DEVELOPMENT & EXPORT BOARD

    PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY

    ESTABLISHMENT OF COLD CHAIN SYSTEM

    UNDER

    NATIONAL TRADE CORRIDOR IMPROVEMENT PROJECT

    VOLUME-III COLD STORAGES AND CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE

    STORAGES

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    ESTABLISHMENT OF COLD CHAIN SYSTEM UNDER NATIONAL TRADE

    CORRIDOR IMPROVEMENT PROJECT

    PREFEASIBI LI TY REPORT

    VOLUME-III COLD STORAGE AND CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE

    STORAGE

    Table of Content

    1- CURRENT STATUS & FUTURE NEEDS 6

    1.1 Cold storage (Production Area and Markets) 7

    1.2 Cold storage (Airports/Sea ports) 8

    2- TYPES OF COLD STORAGE 12

    2.1 MEDIUM TEMPERATURE COLD STORES

    12

    2.2 FROZEN FOOD STORES

    12

    2.3 CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES

    12

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    4.1 Factors to be Considered for Site Selection 15

    4.2 Size Determination 15

    4.3 MECHANICAL OPERATIONS 16

    4.4 STRUCTURE AND THERMAL INSULATION 16

    4.5 REFRIGERATION LOAD 19

    4.6 EFFECT OF HARVEST TEMPERATURE ON

    REFRIGERATED STORAGE

    21

    4.7 Regulations 21

    4.8 Civil Work Planning & Design 21

    5- ENGINEERING DESIGN 23

    5.1 Size and Layout Options 23

    5.2 PRODUCE FLOW PATTERNS

    24

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    6.3 Temperature Control 30

    6.4 Sanitation 30

    6.5 Maintenance 31

    6.6 Storage Facility Loading 31

    6.7 Packing Container Design and Positioning 32

    6.8 Storage Compatibility 33

    7- TYPICAL LAYOUT OF VARIOUS CAPACITIES COLD

    STORAGES

    34

    8- PROPOSED MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE 39

    9- COSTING OF PROJECT 40

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    13- RECOMMENDATIONS 64

    12- IMPLEMENTATION PLAN72

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    The country needs to increase and maintain its cold storage capacity from current 6.37%

    to around 15% of production, with most of the new storage facilities to be established

    close to the production area (nearest market centers) if it is to meet the cold chain needsand to substantially reduce the post-harvest losses.

    According to PHDEB sources, Government has approved following new collection

    points cum cold storage facilities at Haripur and Butkhela 1200 tons each in NWFP, and

    Loralai & Khuzdar 1000 tons each in Balochistan.

    1.1 Cold Storage (Production Area and Markets)

    Several kinds of fruits and vegetables are cultivated seasonally depending upon locationof land and other climatic conditions. These have to be preserved both at producing

    centres as well as consuming centres, and by employing correct storage practices it is

    possible to store them for extended period.

    In order to assess the immediate needs of fruits and vegetables storage, a comprehensive

    survey was done in major markets and production areas, and following cold storages havebeen proposed (Table III-2) at different locations to meet the requirement. The proposed

    cold storages are listed in Table III-2 and illustrated in Fig III-1 These cold stores are inaddition to existing cold store facilities with the pack houses to store the fruits.

    Table III-2: Proposed Cold Stores*

    Province City/Area Requirement Capacity (Tons) Commodity*

    Punjab

    Sargodha

    (Production Area) 1 CS 3000 (6 X 500) Kinnow

    Sargodha(F&V MKT) 1 CS 1500 (3 X 500) Fruits and vegetables

    Kot Momin 1 CS 5000 (10 X 500) Kinnow

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    1.2 Cold Storage (Airports/Seaports)

    Currently, there is no cold storage facility at any of the port. In order to maintain the coldchain, cold storage facilities are required at all international airports and seaports. The

    cold storage requirement at various airports and seaports were assessed and finalized in

    consultation with the industry. The proposed cold storages are listed in Table III-3 and

    illustrated in Fig III-2

    Table III-3--Proposed Cold Stores Requirement at Airports and Seaports

    AirPorts/Sea

    Ports

    Capacity ColdStore + Freezer

    Unit (Tons)

    Products Remarks

    Karachi 500 (5x100) Fruits and vegetables,meat, frozen food &

    pharma products. ----

    Lahore 300 (3 x100) Extendable to 500Faisalabad 200 (2x100) Extendable to 300

    Multan 200 (2x100) Extendable to 300

    Quetta 200 (2 x100) Extendable to 300

    Peshawar 200 (2 x100) Extendable to 300

    Islamabad 200 (2 x100) Extendable to 300

    Sea Ports

    PortQasim,Karachi

    5000 (10 x500)----

    Karachi 5000 (10 x 500)

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    Kinnow, Apple, Potato

    CAS (1)

    Apple, Peach, Potato

    CAS (1)

    F & V

    CS (2)

    F & V

    CS (1)

    Apple, F & V

    CAS (1) Kinnow, F & V

    CS (2)

    Kinnow

    CS (1)

    Apple, Peach

    CAS (1) `

    Apple

    CAS (1)

    Kot Momin

    Muzaffargar

    RY. Khan

    Chitral

    Wana

    Zhob

    KilaSaifullah

    Lora Lai

    Chaman

    Sargodha

    Waziristan

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    EH + CS (Airport)

    CS (Airport)

    CS (Airport)

    CS (Airport)

    CS (Airport)

    CS (Airport)

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    Table III-4: Recommendations of CA or MA Conditions During Storage and/or

    Transport of Selected Fruits and Vegetables

    Commodity

    Temperature

    Range* (C) CA

    %O2 %CO2

    Fruits

    Apple 0-5 1-2 0-3

    Apricot 0-5 2-3 2-3

    Grapes 0-5 2-5 1-3Grapefruit 10-15 3-10 5-10

    Lemon 10-15 5-10 0-10

    Lime 10-15 5-10 0-10

    Mango 10-15 3-7 5-8

    Orange 5-10 5-10 0-5

    Peach 0-5 1-2 3-5

    Pear, Asian 0-5 2-4 0-3

    Pear, European 0-5 1-3 0-3Plum 0-5 1-2 0-5

    Vegetables

    Onion Mature Bulb (Dry) 0-5 1-2 0-10

    Tomatoes (Green) 12-20 3-5 2-3

    Tomatoes (Ripe) 10-15 3-5 3-5

    Potato 7 - -

    Mandarin/Tangerine 4-7 - -

    Notes:

    * Usual or recommended range; a relative humidity of 90-95% is recommended.

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    Kader, A. 2002. Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops (3

    rd

    edition). Univ. of California2- TYPES OF COLD STORAGE

    Temperature-wise there are two types of cold stores used for different applications:

    2.1 Medium Temperature Cold Stores

    These are generally designed for storing a variety of products at 0 to 8 deg C.

    Commodities include various types of fresh fruits and vegetables, dry fruits, spices,pulses, milk products etc. Most cold stores in Punjab, Sindh & NWFP are designed for

    single commodity storage such as potatoes. Units in Punjab and parts of Sindh are of

    multipurpose type designed for storage of various commodities. The occupancy levels in

    the multi commodity stores are much better than those used for single commoditystorage. However, the chambers in multi commodity stores have to be designed for

    maintaining different temperatures and sometimes relative humidities to suit different

    products.

    Construction practices vary largely, in different parts of the country depending on the

    type of usage. The bulk commodity stores have chambers of large sizes whereas the

    multi-purpose units have many chambers of smaller sizes to suit the customer needs.These medium temperature cold stores are generally constructed with 2 to 6 levels. The

    capacity range is from 500 M.T. to 10,000 M.T. or more. However, in case of cold stores

    with pre-cooling facility the capacities are much smaller and the units are designed withsingle floor construction.

    2.2 Frozen Food Stores

    Frozen food stores are, normally, a part of a food processing and freezing complex.

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    2.4 Thermal Insulation

    In some old units cheaper material like rice husk was used as the thermal insulation.

    Although the insulation itself is very cheap it necessitated very large wall thicknesses and

    also caused many maintenance problems.

    For over three decades now the better designed cold stores have been insulated withmaterials like Expanded Polystyrene, Fiberglass or Polyurethane. Whereas the insulation

    on walls and ceilings is finished with cement sand plaster in conventional cold stores, the

    latest trend is to use sheet metal cladding. The cladding materials are aluminium sheet orpre-coated galvanized steel sheet.

    A vapour barrier is provided in all cases to arrest moisture migration to the cold store.

    Barrier material (such as steel, aluminum, reinforced plastic sheets, metal foils, mastic

    type hot or cold application paints) is provided on the warmer side of the insulation.

    2.5 Prefab insulated panel structure

    The development of pre-insulated panels has brought in a revolution in cold storage

    construction the world over. These panels have been in use for cold storage constructionfor over two decades in the developed countries. Modern prefab panels have been

    introduced around 10 years back. Prefab panels, also called sandwich panels, are mainly

    available in two types:

    EPS panels with expanded polystyrene insulation bonded to sheet metal skins by

    using a special adhesive.

    PUF panels using polyurethane as insulation material foamed between two metalki Th l t t ll t d h b tt i l ti l

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    3- SITE SELECTION

    The type of cold storage depends on the desired function. The primary function of the

    facility determines the location.

    For example, for retail sales, location of the cold storage must be near a major road, and

    the area must have adequate parking space.

    If the facility is mainly to store produce prior to shipping, it should be close to the

    grading and packing room with convenient access to fields or orchards. Also, there must

    be space available for movement and storage of empty containers, equipment, andsupplies.

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    4- DESIGN BASIS & TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

    4.1 FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED FOR SITE SELECTION

    The following factors are required to be considered for selecting an appropriate site for

    cold store.

    A cold storage facility must be in a well-drained area. It requires drains to remove

    water from condensation, and cleaning and sanitation operations. Providing good

    drainage is essential.

    Availability of water Availability of Electricity

    Three phase of electricity is necessary when more than 10 tons of refrigeration is

    needed.

    Wastewater disposal facility

    Appropriate sewage collection and disposal system must be considered.

    If any of above facility is not available the arrangement for the same must be done prior

    to construction of cold store.

    4.2 SIZE DETERMINATION

    To define the size of the refrigerated storage, the following factors are required to be

    evaluated.

    Volume of product to store.

    Produce containers (pallet bins, boxes, bulk).

    Volume required per container (ft3/container).

    Aisle space needed (mechanical or manual operation).

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    S = the maximum number of containers to be stored at one time.

    The volume (V) obtained from the above formula does not include space for air

    circulation, aisles and walkways. An additional 40 percent of the volume is used instacking, spacing, and air circulation. As a rule of thumb, 25 percent of the floor area is

    devoted to aisles and walkways.

    4.3 Mechanical Operation

    The aisles should be at least 1 times the width of the forklift. For air circulation, allow

    68 inches of space between containers and walls, at least 18 inches between containers

    and the ceiling. Also, allow enough space to spread the produce for rapid cooling.

    The space available at the site for cold storage might be the major constraint in

    determining its size. In this case, special attention should be paid to operating needs of

    the facility during peak storage demand.

    The number of doors in a cold storage room should be minimal, without compromising

    the operations. Every time a door is opened, cold air leaves the storage and warm aircomes in. The doors should provide a good seal and must have the same insulation aswalls. They should be weather-stripped to reduce warm air infiltration, have adequate

    gaskets to provide a good seal, have good quality hinges and latches, and should open

    from both inside and outside. In medium and large sized facilities, plastic strip curtainsare recommended to prevent heat gain during loading and unloading operations.

    The size of the doors corresponds to the type of operations mechanized or manual. If a

    forklift is used, the door width must be at least 1 times the forklift width.

    4.4 Structure and Thermal Insulation

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    Nonetheless, sprayed-on and foam-in-place materials provide good seals and reduce labor

    and material costs because they are relatively easy to apply, do not require interior panel,

    and reduce the wall or ceiling thickness. Insulation is good as long as it is dry. To preventcondensation, install a vapor barrier on the warm side of insulation in the walls, ceiling

    and floor.

    A storage facility must have the means to circulate air above the unit. This will preventhot air in the summer from overloading refrigeration equipment. If the cold storage

    facility is under the same roof as the packing area, the packing area does not need as

    much insulation. The minimum insulation requirements for a small cold storage room for

    fruits and vegetables, located in a warehouse or sheltered area are R-10 for the floor, R-20 for walls and R-30 for the ceiling. The larger the R-value the lesser the heat absorbed

    and lower the refrigeration requirements. Insulation values for selected building materials

    is given in Table III-5.

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    Table III-5: Insulation values for selected building materials R-value

    Material

    R-value

    Per-inch (Approximate) For thickness listed

    Batt and Blanket insulationGlass or mineral wool, fiberglass

    3.003.80*

    Fill-type insulationCelluloseGlass or mineral wool

    VermiculiteShavings or sawdustHay or straw, 20"

    3.133.702.503.00

    2.202.22

    30+

    Rigid insulation

    Exp. polystyrene,Extruded, plain

    Molded Beads

    Expanded rubber

    5.00

    5.00

    4.55

    Expanded polyurethane, aged

    Glass fiber

    Wood or cane fiberboardPolyisocyanurate

    6.25

    4.00

    2.507.04

    Foam-in-place insulationPolyurethane 6.00

    Building materials

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    4.5 Refrigeration Load

    The most common unit used to quantify refrigeration load is the refrigeration ton. Oneton of refrigeration is defined as the energy removed from one ton (2,000 pounds) of

    water so it freezes in 24 hours. It is equivalent to 288,000 Btu in one day or 12,000 Btuper hour.

    To maintain the optimum temperature inside a cold storage facility, the system must have

    a properly designed refrigeration load. Determining the refrigeration load requiresquantifying field heat and heat of respiration of the produce, conductive heat gain,

    convective heat gain, equipment load, and service and defrosts factors of the facility.

    Field Heat. Field heat is the amount of cooling necessary to reduce the produce from

    harvest temperature to the safe storage temperature within a given time period; the hotter

    the produce coming into the cold storage facility, the more energy needed to reduce the

    temperature, and the more time required to operate the equipment.

    Heat of Respiration.The heat of respiration is the energy released by the produce as it

    respires during storage. The warmer the produce, the more heat of respiration generated.

    Conductive Heat Gain. The conductive heat gain is heat gained by conduction through

    the building floor, walls, and ceiling. It is directly related to the insulation installed in the

    facility. The better insulated the cold storage facility, the less conductive heat gain.

    Convective Heat Gain. The convective heat gain is heat that enters the facility during

    the mixing of outside air with the cool inside environment. This load is directly related tothe number of doors in the facility. The more doors in the facility, the higher the

    possibility of air currents. The amount of heat gained increases with the amount of times

    and periods that doors are open.

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    The position of the evaporator coil fans should provide air flow to the end of the longest

    side of the facility. If using additional fans to pre-cool produce, they should be properly

    located, and the refrigeration equipment should accommodate that purpose. When forcedair is used to pre-cool produce, the cooling time could be reduced by 80 percent.

    The most common refrigeration systems for cold storage facilities are the direct

    expansion system and the flooded system. Most small storage units work with the directexpansion system; the flooded system is used only in large facilities.

    FIGURES III-5 AND III-6 SHOW SCHEMATIC DIAGRAMS OF

    THE DIRECT EXPANSION AND THE FLOODED SYSTEMRESPECTIVELY.

    Ph

    Condenser

    Heat Output

    Liquid

    receiver

    Expansion

    valve

    Evaporator

    Heatinput

    Compressor

    Energy

    V

    VV

    L

    V = vapourL = liquidPh = high pressure

    Pl = low pressure

    Pl

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    4.6 Effect of Harvest Temperature on Refrigerated Storage

    A SAMPLE REFRIGERATION LOAD CALCULATION FOR TWODIFFERENT PRODUCE (300 TONS OF TOMATOES AND 380 TONS

    OF GRAPES) ARE REPRODUCED HEREUNDER IN TABLE III-6.

    The tomatoes are stored at 13 C and the grapes are stored at 0 C. A 13 C difference in

    the harvest temperature of the tomatoes indicates an extra load requirement of 3.0 tons of

    refrigeration for those harvested at 270C. A 12 C difference in the harvest temperature

    for the grapes demands 6.5 more tons of refrigeration to cool down and maintain the

    grapes.

    Therefore, it is recommended to harvest the produce in morning hours while the

    temperature is lower.4.7 REGULATIONS

    The cold store designer must be acquainted with the applicable laws regulations

    Tomatoes Grapes

    Harvest Temperature (C) 27 21 26 14

    Storage Temperature (C) 13 13 0 0

    Storage Capacity (ton) 300 300 380 380

    Harvest Rate Per Day (ton) 30 30 38 38

    Refrigeration Load (ton) 16.5 13.5 18.0 11.5

    Table III-6: Cooling Load for Alternative Harvesting Temperatures

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    The next element is the height of cold store floor from ground level. This must always be

    carefully evaluated so that the height is enough to properly dock reefer trucks as well as

    the distribution vans. The minimum height of the cold store floor from natural groundlevel (N.G.L) should at least be equal to the height of the refrigerated container floor of

    primary distribution truck from N.G.L plus six inches.

    The level of ramps in front of the loading/unloading doors should be carefully worked outaccording to the vehicles that are planned to be used.

    Above a certain width of cold store in panel construction, its roof panels need to be

    supported either from below (pillars) or from top (hung by tie rods from the shed trusses).Generally, it is undesirable to have pillars inside the cold store. The roof panels are

    therefore normally hung from the shed trusses slab. The shed on top of the cold store is

    therefore designed with a view to have enough strength to take the load of roof panels.Secondly, in most cases, the evaporators are also hung from the shed trusses. Hence,

    provision for their load should also be kept in the design. The weight of roof panels and

    the evaporators can always be acquired from the supplier for onward communication tothe shed designer. In view of this it is recommended to have the shed design sent to the

    cold store supplier for comments with regard to provisions required for roof panels andevaporators.

    Another point to keep in mind is, that in case of panel joints on the cold store roofwater will always seep through if allowed to stand on the roof. This is extremely

    undesirable and may even damage the panels in some cases. This normally

    happens in rainy seasons. To avoid this, it is possible to attach vertical sheetaround the periphery of the shed hanging down enough so as to ensure that the

    rainwater does not reach on top of the roof keeping in mind the wind factor.

    Electrical distribution boards and plugging points for the refrigerated vehicle

    charging area will also be designed

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    5- ENGINEERING DESIGN

    5.1 SIZE AND LAYOUT OPTIONS

    Cooling of produce can be accomplished in three-ways as shown in Fig III-7.

    Option 1: Provide two storages; one for forced-air cooling hotproduce, with the otherstorage to hold cold produce after cooling;

    Option 2: Provide one storage where hot produce is forced-air cooled in one area, whilecold produce is held in another area of the same storage;

    Option 3: Provide one storage where hot produce is room cooled in one area, whilecold

    produce is held in another area of the same storage.

    Fig III-7 Plan view of three storage layout options

    Option 2

    Option 1

    Option 3Forced Air Cooling

    Storage AirHolding

    Storage

    ForcedAir Cooling Area

    Holding Area

    Room Cooling AreaHolding Storage Area

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    Option 3 is least preferred, but is also the least expensive one to build since it has the

    least floor area. Because no forced-air cooling is used, produce containers must be ventedvery well, and high airflows are needed from the evaporator fans. Unfortunately, cooling

    rates may be unacceptably slow using this method.

    5.2 Produce Flow Patterns

    The flow of produce into and out of a refrigerated storage and related areas should bekept in one direction if possible. Produce should be arranged to allow a first-in, first-out

    policy. To acquire optimum cooling typical plan view of produce flow pattern is given in

    Fig III-8.

    Fig III-8. Plan view of produce flow pattern

    Exterior hinged or sliding doors are expensive, but two or more may be necessary on

    walls parallel to the room airflow direction. They should line up with aisles inside the

    Evaporator Coils & Air Flow

    Direction0.2m (8) Minimum Space on Walls Parallel to

    Airflow

    0.3m (12) Minimum Space on Wall

    Perpendicular to Airflow

    0.1m (4) Minimum Space between Pallets or Rocks

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    5.3 Airflow Patterns

    Good airflow in storage is almost as important as having enough refrigeration capacity. Across sectional view of a storage facility showing airflow pattern is given III-9.

    Ceiling-mounted evaporator coils with high-capacity fans will direct cold air across theceiling a distance of at least 15 m (50 ft), providing there are no obstructions. Leave at

    least 0.5 m (1.5 ft) of space between the top of the pallets or racks of produce and the

    ceiling to allow unrestricted air passage to the back of the room. In storages kept at or

    near 0C, the air coming off the evaporator coils will likely be below 0C. The spaceabove the produce helps temper this air, and prevent produce from freezing.

    Produce should be spaced at least 0.3 m (12") from walls downstream and upstream of

    the evaporator coils. This layout will allow the cooled air from the evaporators to passdown the wall, around the produce, and finally back to the coils. Leave at least a 0.2 m

    (8") air-gap on walls parallel to the room airflow. Air along the walls is often warmer,and the walls may need protection from forklift abuse.

    Fig III-9. Cross-sectional view of a storage showing airflow patterns

    In rooms where both hot and cold produce are stored together, the hot produce should be

    placed under the evaporator coils with cold produce placed near the downstream part of

    Warmed Air

    WALL0.3m (12) Minimum

    Ceiling

    Cold Air

    0.5m (18) Minimum Evaporator Coils

    Pallet or

    Rack

    Floor

    0.1m (4)Minimu

    m S ace

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    forced-air rapid cooling of freshly picked hotproduct, and the other used for cold packed

    product.

    Most storages have walls between 2.4 m to 4.8 m (8' to 16') high. Low walls under 2.4 m

    (8') restrict airflow, future changes in stacking arrangements, and other uses during the

    off-season, and should not be used. In general, making the walls a little higher doesn't

    cost that much more, and it barely affects the refrigeration needs from the standpoint ofmore heat gain due to more wall surface area. For instance, increasing the wall height

    from 2.4 m to 3.6 m (8' to 12') in storage with a floor area of 90 m2(1000 ft

    2) represents a

    50% increase in wall height. However, the increased construction and refrigeration costs

    would likely rise only about 15%.

    For similar volumes of produce stored, it is usually less expensive to stack produce

    higher than to spread it out on the floor. That is, for containers that allow stacking oneach other, the floor area and construction costs are reduced. Stacking higher is not

    always possible for some containers, and forklift capital and operating costs increase with

    lifting height requirements. In some cases, steel shelving racks can be installed toaccommodate pallets that will not stack. Figure III-10 shows three holding storage sizes

    that will each accommodate 192 bulk bins, 1.2 m x 1.0 m x 0.6 m (48" x 40" x 24"), forproduce such as Orange & Mango.

    A= 32 x 40 x 10 height

    Floor Area of 1280 ft2

    48 Bins / Layers x 4=192 Bins

    B= 32 x 32 x 13 height

    Floor Area of 1024 ft2

    31 Bins / Layers x 6=192 Bins

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    5.4 Refrigeration System

    The refrigeration system in a cold storage is usually a vapor compression systemcomprising the compressor, condenser, receiver, air-cooling units and associate pipingand controls.

    In smaller cold rooms and walk-ins the practice is to use air-cooled condensing units withseal, semi-sealed or open type compressors. In the light of the CFC phase out the trend

    now is to use HCFC-22, HFC-134a or other substitute refrigerants.

    In the medium and large sized units say 500 M.T and larger capacities, the practice is touse a central plant with ammonia as the refrigerant. It is estimated that almost 95% of the

    large cold store units in Pakistan have ammonia refrigeration systems. Needless to say,

    that ammonia has proved itself as an economical and reliable refrigerant, especially, inthe industrial refrigeration field including cold stores.

    Modular HCFC-22/HFC units, which are compact, light weight and easy to maintain are

    being used in medium and large sized units with pre-fab insulated panels. However, theselection of the system and the refrigerant is a matter of designer's choice for a particular

    application.

    Reciprocating compressors of slow speed type have been used on a large number of cold

    store units in the past. The medium speed reciprocating compressors with speeds ranging

    from 750 to 1450RPM, with a better energy efficiency and built-in capacity control havebeen installed in most of the recent units.

    For very large cold stores and frozen food stores, screw compressors are being preferred.

    Screw compressors have very few moving parts and offer advantage of steeples capacitycontrol in the range of 10 to 100%.

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    the top floor with conventional ceiling fans used for air circulation over the coils. These

    units occupy large volumes in the cold store, carry large quantities of ammonia and have

    a very inefficient cooling performance. In cold stores constructed later, floor mounted air-cooling units with prime surface coils and sheet metal air distribution ducting have been

    used (Refer Fig.III-11). Finned coils have also been used in these units in some cases.

    However, the recent trend is to use ceiling mounted units with finned coils and axial flow

    Fig III-11. Section through a typical multi floor bulk cold store

    with floor mounted A.C unit with ducting

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    6- COLD STORE OPERATION

    Any fruit and vegetable storage facility must operate reliably. Equipment maintenance,monitoring and management are integral parts of all the activities. More specifically, the

    aspects that need special attention when managing a cold storage system are:

    Condensation and humidity control

    Temperature control

    Sanitation

    Maintenance

    Container design and positioning

    Storage compatibility of commodities

    6.1 Condensation And Humidity Control

    The relative humidity in refrigerated storage must be within the optimum range for the

    commodity. For most fruits and vegetables, the optimum relative humidity is 9095percent. When relative humidity inside the refrigerated storage is less than 90 percent, the

    facility should use a humidifier. The relative humidity of the storage can be monitored

    with a recording hygrometer or at intervals with a sling psychrometer.

    6.2 TEMPERATURE

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    time to maintain the temperature in the refrigerated storage, consuming more electricity

    and reducing the lifetime of the refrigeration unit. Some of the ways to eliminate ice

    accumulations on the coils are electrical defrost, warm water sprays, reverse refrigerantflow, and equipment shutdown for 68 hours. The selection of one of these depends on

    the equipment and facility size.

    6.3 TEMPERATURE CONTROL

    A thermostat is important in the refrigerated facility. The thermostat controls the

    operation of the refrigeration unit so a desired temperature can be maintained in the

    storage. The thermostats thermometer should not be used to monitor the storagetemperature. A separate recording thermometer should be installed for this purpose. This

    type thermometer will be helpful in determining whether storage facilities are

    maintaining ideal conditions.

    A thermometer that fixes the maximum and minimum is necessary to check the pulp

    temperature of the produce. A comparison of the produce pulp temperature, the amountof time the produce has been in storage, and the thermostat setting can indicate to the

    operator if the thermostat needs resetting or the equipment needs adjusting. Therefrigerated facility should be equipped with more than one thermometer so they can be

    compared and recalibrated if necessary. To prevent under cooling or chill injury to theproduce, and the resulting economic losses, readings of a sling psychrometer and settings

    of the thermostat and humidistat must be compared. These thermometers, however,

    indicate the air temperature in the facility and not the produce temperature. The mostimportant temperature to control is the produce temperature. For this reason, it is

    necessary to check the pulp temperature of the produce. A comparison of the produce

    pulp temperature, the amount of time the produce has been in storage, and the thermostatsetting can indicate to the operator if the thermostat needs resetting or the equipmentneeds adjusting. The refrigerated facility should be equipped with more than one

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    cleaning should be done more often, and handling practices should be changed to ensure

    a cleaner workplace.

    6.5 MAINTENANCE

    Refrigerated storage for produce calls for regular inspection of refrigeration coils, fans,

    motors, compressor, ducts, doors, locks and hinges, lights, and any other equipment.When inspecting the refrigeration coils, all dust and dirt must be removed. Adjustments

    should be made so there are no parts touching the fans or other moving elements. Belts

    should have protective covers at all times; if a cover is not good, it must be fixed, but not

    removed. Any unusual noise must be inspected and repaired. The oil level in thecompressor must be checked, changed, and maintained. Doors or seals must be checked

    to prevent air infiltration if any.

    6.6 STORAGE FACILITY LOADING

    Following factors determine how produce should be loaded into storage:

    Period of storage

    Maturity of ripeness at harvest

    Packing type

    Produced are pre-cooled or not

    The size and shape of the storage facility

    Mechanical or manual loading

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    6.7 PACKING CONTAINER DESIGN AND POSITIONING

    The packing container design and its positioning in the refrigerated storage facilities must

    allow for air circulation within containers and around produce. Containers should not

    obstruct air circulation. There should be 68 inches space between the containers and the

    walls, and at least 18 inches between containers and the ceiling. Guidelines painted on thefloor and walls are helpful in getting containers and pallets spaced correctly.

    The cold air must move freely not only around the containers but also around the

    produce. For that reason, produce containers should have from 58 percent of the lateralarea open (perforated), and 35 percent of the bottom area open. A properly designed

    container should be structurally sound and allow air circulation for the produce within the

    containers. General stacking pattern for produce is shown in Figure III-12.

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    6.8 STORAGE COMPATIBILITY

    Precaution is necessary when storing different types of produce together. Warm-seasonproduce needs temperatures of 7C13C and will suffer chilling injury if stored at

    temperatures best for cool season produce (0C2.5C). If cool-season produce is stored

    at higher temperatures, its storage life are shortened Commodities that are ethylene

    sensitive should not be mixed with ethylene producing ones.

    Good management of storage facility operations is important to make it efficient and

    profitable. It is good to keep in mind that produce quality cannot be improved; it can only

    be maintained.

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    7- TYPICAL LAYOUT OF VARIOUS CAPACITIES COLD STORAGES

    Typical layout plans for 1000 ton and 500 ton storages are developed for providing guideline for area calculation and space utilization for pallets and are enclosed as Figure III-13

    & III-14. However the dimension of cold storages can only be designed on the basis of

    available land.

    Based on the cold storages requirement at airports (Refer Table # III-2) the typical layout

    plans are prepared. Fig # III-15 indicates the layout for Karachi & Lahore Airport

    facilities and Figure # III-16 indicates the layout for other airports. Enough land for

    container movement is included for costing of land required for airports facilities.

    Since the seaports need 5000 ton cold storage which will be multiple of 500 ton capacity

    and allied facilities.

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    3 M

    5 M

    12 M

    10.2 M

    Processing Hall

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    8- PROPOSED MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE

    Fig # III-17. Management Structure

    General Manager

    (Cold Storage)

    Quality Control

    OfficerManager Finance &

    Manager

    Operation &

    Maintenance Engineer

    Technicians

    Labours

    Office Staff

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    9- COSTING OF PROJECT

    A detailed area calculation for both covered and external areas are prepared along with

    the land requirement for various capacities cold storages are prepared and enclosed as

    Table III-7.

    Table III-7: Area Calculation for Cold Store Facilities

    Sr # Description

    5000 T 3,000 T 2,000 T 1,500 T 1,000 T 500 T 250 T

    CS CS CS CS CS CS CS

    I. R.C.C Structure Covered Area (Sq.M)

    Cold Storage5475 x

    (5x1095)

    3285

    (3x1095)

    2190

    (2x1095)

    1869

    (2x623)

    1620

    (4x405)603 405

    Plant Room 150 150 93 93 93 93 93

    Plant Room Office 30 30 30 30 30 30 30

    Laboratory 16 16 16 16 16 16 16

    Worker Sitting Room 60 60 42 42 42 42 42

    Wash Rooms 60 60 42 42 42 42 42

    Cold Storage Office 150 150 150 150 150 150 150

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    TABLE III-9: 1 CS (1,500 TONS) AT SARGODHA F & V MARKET FOR FRUITS & VEGETABLES

    Sr.#

    Description Unit Unit Price Amount Total AmountPak Rs. Pak Rs. Pak Rs.

    1Cost of Land @ 1,000,000 per acre at an

    Average2,000,000

    2 Building

    Cost of RCC Structure @ Rs. 10,800 / SqM 35,791,200

    Cost of Boundary Wall @ Rs. 5900 / M 2,124,000 37,915,200

    3 Plant & Machinery

    Cost of Refrigeration Equipment, 4,000,000

    Racking System 4 High 1,800,000

    Handling Equipment including Double ReachForklift, Hand Pallets & Safety Equipment 4,000,000

    Standby Generator 2,000,000 11,800,000

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    TABLE III-10: 1 CS (5,000 TONS) AT KOT MOMIN FOR KINNOW

    Sr.

    #Description

    Unit Unit Price Amount Total Amount

    Pak Rs. Pak Rs. Pak Rs.

    1Cost of Land @ 1,000,000 per acre at an

    Average3,000,000

    2 Building

    Cost of RCC Structure @ Rs. 10,800 / SqM 76,096,800

    Cost of Boundary Wall @ Rs. 5900 / M 2,596,000 78,692,800

    3 Plant & Machinery

    Cost of Refrigeration Equipment, 8,000,000

    Racking System 4 High 6,000,000

    Handling Equipment including Double Reach

    Forklift, Hand Pallets & Safety Equipment4,000,000

    Standby Generator 4,000,000 22,000,000

    4Import Expenses including Clearing Charges

    & Duties (15%)3,300,000

    5 Erection / Instalation (8%) 1,760,000

    6 Utilities Connections 3,000,000

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    TABLE III-11: 1 CAS (5,000 TONS) AT ISLAMABAD (SECTOR I-9) FOR KINNOW, APPLE, POTATO

    Sr.

    #Description

    Unit Unit Price Amount Total Amount

    Pak Rs. Pak Rs. Pak Rs.

    1Cost of Land @ 1,000,000 per acre at an

    Average3,000,000

    2 Building

    Cost of RCC Structure @ Rs. 10,800 / SqM 76,096,800

    Cost of Boundary Wall @ Rs. 5900 / M 2,596,000 78,692,800

    3 Plant & Machinery

    Cost of Refrigeration Equipment, 8,000,000

    Racking System 4 High 6,000,000

    Handling Equipment including Double Reach

    Forklift, Hand Pallets & Safety Equipment4,000,000

    Ethyelyne Scrubber/Humidity 150,000

    Standby Generator 4,000,000 22,150,000

    4Import Expenses including Clearing Charges

    & Duties (15%)3,322,500

    5 Erection / Instalation (8%) 1,772,000

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    TABLE III-12: 1 CAS (5,000 TONS) AT PESHAWAR FOR PEACH, APPLE, POTATO

    Sr.#

    Description Unit Unit Price Amount Total AmountPak Rs. Pak Rs. Pak Rs.

    1Cost of Land @ 1,000,000 per acre at an

    Average3,000,000

    2 Building

    Cost of RCC Structure @ Rs. 10,800 / SqM 76,096,800

    Cost of Boundary Wall @ Rs. 5900 / M 2,596,000 78,692,800

    3 Plant & Machinery

    Cost of Refrigeration Equipment, 8,000,000

    Racking System 4 High 6,000,000

    Handling Equipment including Double ReachForklift, Hand Pallets & Safety Equipment 4,000,000

    Ethyelyne Scrubber/Humidity 150,000

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    TABLE III-13: 1 CAS (2,000 TONS) AT MARDAN FOR PEACH AND APPLE

    Sr.

    #Description

    Unit Unit Price Amount Total Amount

    Pak Rs. Pak Rs. Pak Rs.

    1 Cost of Land @ 1,000,000 per acre at anAverage

    2,000,000

    2 Building

    Cost of RCC Structure @ Rs. 10,800 / SqM 39,258,009

    Cost of Boundary Wall @ Rs. 5900 / M 2,124,000 41,382,009

    3 Plant & Machinery

    Cost of Refrigeration Equipment, 6,000,000

    Racking System 4 High 2,400,000

    Handling Equipment including Double Reach

    Forklift, Hand Pallets & Safety Equipment4,000,000

    Ethyelyne Scrubber/Humidity 150,000

    Standby Generator 2,500,000 15,050,000

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    TABLE III-14: 1 CAS (2,000 TONS) AT WAZIRISTAN FOR APPLE

    Sr.

    #Description

    Unit Unit Price Amount Total Amount

    Pak Rs. Pak Rs. Pak Rs.

    1Cost of Land @ 1,000,000 per acre at an

    Average2,000,000

    2 Building

    Cost of RCC Structure @ Rs. 10,800 / SqM 39,258,009

    Cost of Boundary Wall @ Rs. 5900 / M 2,124,000 41,382,009

    3 Plant & Machinery

    Cost of Refrigeration Equipment, 6,000,000

    Racking System 4 High 2,400,000

    Handling Equipment including Double Reach

    Forklift, Hand Pallets & Safety Equipment4,000,000

    Ethyelyne Scrubber/Humidity 150,000

    Standby Generator 2,500,000 15,050,000

    4Import Expenses including Clearing Charges

    & Duties (15%)2,257,500

    5 Erection / Instalation (8%) 1,204,000

    6 Utilities Connections 3 000 000

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    TABLE III-15: 1 CS (1,000 TONS) AT CHITRAL FOR FRUITS & VEGETABLES

    Sr.

    # Description

    Unit Unit Price Amount Total Amount

    Pak Rs. Pak Rs. Pak Rs.

    1Cost of Land @ 1,000,000 per acre at an

    Average1,750,000

    2 Building

    Cost of RCC Structure @ Rs. 10,800 / SqM 33,102,009

    Cost of Boundary Wall @ Rs. 5900 / M 1,988,300 35,090,309

    3 Plant & Machinery

    Cost of Refrigeration Equipment, 4,000,000

    Racking System 4 High 1,200,000

    Handling Equipment including Double Reach

    Forklift, Hand Pallets & Safety Equipment

    4,000,000

    Standby Generator 1,500,000 10,700,000

    4Import Expenses including Clearing Charges

    & Duties (15%)1,605,000

    5 Erection / Instalation (8%) 856,000

    6 Utilities Connections 1,725,000

    7 Pre-operating Expenses (5%) 2,586,315

    9 C lti Ch (7%) 3 801 884

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    TABLE III-16: 1 CS (1,000 TONS) AT CHAMAN FOR FRUITS & VEGETABLES

    Sr.

    #

    DescriptionUnit Unit Price Amount Total Amount

    Pak Rs. Pak Rs. Pak Rs.

    1Cost of Land @ 1,000,000 per acre at an

    Average1,750,000

    2 Building

    Cost of RCC Structure @ Rs. 10,800 / SqM 33,102,009

    Cost of Boundary Wall @ Rs. 5900 / M 1,988,300 35,090,309

    3 Plant & Machinery

    Cost of Refrigeration Equipment, 4,000,000

    Racking System 4 High 1,200,000

    Handling Equipment including Double Reach

    Forklift, Hand Pallets & Safety Equipment4,000,000

    Standby Generator 1,500,000 10,700,000

    4Import Expenses including Clearing Charges

    1 605 000

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    TABLE III-24: TOTAL PROJECT COST

    Sr.

    #Description

    Unit Unit Price Amount Total Amount

    Pak Rs. Pak Rs. Pak Rs.

    1Total Cost of Land @ 1,000,000 per acre at anAverage\ 46,000,000

    2 Total Building1,013,128,636

    3 Total Plant & Machinery338,994,000

    4Total Import Expenses including Clearing

    Charges & Duties (15%) 50,849,100

    5 Total Erection / Instalation (8%)27,119,520

    6 Total Utilities Connections54,850,000

    7 Total Pre-operating Expenses (5%)76,547,061

    8 Furniture/Fixture6,900,000

    9 Vehicles

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    TABLE III-17: 1 CAS (5,000 TONS) AT QUETTA FOR APPLE

    Sr.

    # Description

    Unit Unit Price Amount Total Amount

    Pak Rs. Pak Rs. Pak Rs.

    1 Cost of Land @ 3,000,000 per acre 3,000,000

    2 Building

    Cost of RCC Structure @ Rs. 10,800 / SqM 76,096,800

    Cost of Boundary Wall @ Rs. 5900 / M 2,596,000 78,692,800

    3 Plant & Machinery

    Cost of Refrigeration Equipment, 8,000,000

    Racking System 4 High 6,000,000

    Handling Equipment including double reach

    fork lift, hand pallets and safety equipments

    4,000,000

    Ethelyne Scrabber / Humidity Controller 150,000

    Standby Generator 4,000,000 22,150,000

    4Import Expenses including Clearing Charges

    & Duties (15%)3,322,500

    5 Erection / Instalation (8%) 1,772,000

    6 Utilities Connections 3,000,000

    7 P ti E (5%) 5 596 865

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    TABLE III-18: 1 CS (5,000 TONS) AT TURBAT FOR DATES & OTHER FRUITS

    Sr.

    #

    DescriptionUnit Unit Price Amount Total Amount

    Pak Rs. Pak Rs. Pak Rs.

    1Cost of Land @ 1,000,000 per acre at an

    Average3,000,000

    2 Building

    Cost of RCC Structure @ Rs. 10,800 / SqM 76,096,800

    Cost of Boundary Wall @ Rs. 5900 / M 2,596,000 78,692,800

    3 Plant & Machinery

    Cost of Refrigeration Equipment, 8,000,000

    Racking System 4 High 6,000,000

    Handling Equipment including Double Reach

    Forklift, Hand Pallets & Safety Equipment4,000,000

    Standby Generator 4,000,000 22,000,000

    4Import Expenses including Clearing Charges

    3 300 000

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    TABLE III-19: 1 CS (5,000 TONS) AT KHAIRPUR FOR DATES

    Sr.

    #Description

    Unit Unit Price Amount Total Amount

    Pak Rs. Pak Rs. Pak Rs.

    1Cost of Land @ 1,000,000 per acre at an

    Average3,000,000

    2 Building

    Cost of RCC Structure @ Rs. 10,800 / SqM 76,096,800

    Cost of Boundary Wall @ Rs. 5900 / M 2,596,000 78,692,800

    3 Plant & Machinery

    Cost of Refrigeration Equipment, 8,000,000

    Racking System 4 High 6,000,000

    Handling Equipment including Double Reach

    Forklift, Hand Pallets & Safety Equipment4,000,000

    Standby Generator 4,000,000 22,000,000

    4Import Expenses including Clearing Charges

    & Duties (15%) 3,300,000

    5 Erection / Instalation (8%) 1,760,000

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    TABLE III-20: 1 CS (3000 TONS) AT SUKKUR FOR DATES & OTHER FRUITS

    Sr.

    #Description

    Unit Unit Price Amount Total Amount

    Pak Rs. Pak Rs. Pak Rs.

    1Cost of Land @ 1,000,000 per acre at an

    Average2,000,000

    2 Building

    Cost of RCC Structure @ Rs. 10,800 / SqM 41,644,800

    Cost of Boundary Wall @ Rs. 5900 / M 2,124,000 43,768,800

    3 Plant & Machinery

    Cost of Refrigeration Equipment, 6,000,000

    Racking System 4 High 3,600,000

    Handling Equipment including Double Reach

    Forklift, Hand Pallets & Safety Equipment4,000,000

    Standby Generator 3,000,000 16,600,000

    4Import Expenses including Clearing Charges

    & Duties (15%)2,490,000

    5 Erection / Instalation (8%) 1,328,000

    6 Utilities Connections 2 600 000

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    TABLE III-21: 2CS (500 TONS) AT KARACHI & LAHORE AIRPORTS FOR FRUITS & VEGETABLES

    Sr.

    #Description

    Unit Unit Price Amount Total Amount

    Pak Rs. Pak Rs. Pak Rs.

    1Cost of Land @ 3,000,000 per acre for Air

    Port & See Ports on an average *2 1,500,000 3,000,000 3,000,000

    2 Building

    Cost of RCC Structure @ Rs. 10,800 / SqM

    (See Refer III-15)2 3,456,000 6,912,000

    Cost of Boundary Wall @ Rs. 5900 / M 2 1,062,000 2,124,000 9,036,000

    3 Plant & Machinery

    Cost of Refrigeration Equipment, 2 4,667,000 9,334,000

    Handling Equipment 2 125,000 250,000

    Standby Generator 2 1,500,000 3,000,000 12,584,000

    4Import Expenses including Clearing Charges

    & Duties (15%)1,887,600

    5 Erection / Instalation (8%) 1,006,720

    6 Utilities Connections 2 1,600,000 3,200,000 3,200,000

    7 Pre operating Expenses (5%) 1 535 716

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    TABLE III-23: 3CS (5000 TONS) AT PORT QASIM, KPT & GWADAR PORT FOR FRUITS & VEGETABLES

    Sr.

    #

    DescriptionUnit Unit Price Amount Total Amount

    Pak Rs. Pak Rs. Pak Rs.

    1Cost of Land @ 3,000,000 per acre for airports

    & seaports on an average *3 3,000,000 9,000,000 9,000,000

    2 Building

    Cost of RCC Structure @ Rs. 10,800 / SqM 3 76,096,800 228,290,400

    Cost of Boundary Wall @ Rs. 5900 / M 3 2,596,000 7,788,000 236,078,400

    3 Plant & Machinery

    Cost of Refrigeration Equipment, 3 8,000,000 24,000,000

    Racking System 4 High 3 6,000,000 18,000,000

    Handling Equipment 3 4,000,000 12,000,000

    Standby Generator 3 4,000,000 12,000,000 66,000,000

    4Import Expenses including Clearing Charges

    9 900 000

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    10- PROPOSED MEANS OF FINANCING

    LOAN

    Long Term Loan 70% 1,287,724,042

    Total Loan 1,287,724,042

    EQUITY

    Sponsors Equity

    Government Equity 15% 275,940,866

    Private Sponsors Equity 15% 275,940,866

    Total Sponsor Equity 551,881,732

    TOTAL FINANCING 100% 1,839,605,774

    Debt equity ratio is taken as 70:30 and 70% of total project cost will be borrowed from bank

    as long term loan on 12% per annum interest rate. But as per government's policy for codl

    chain 6% mark up will be paid by government of Pakistan and the investor / sponsor has to

    pay only 6% on loan amount.

    Equal public private partnership is proposed and as per this arrangement government equity

    will be 15% and private sponsors equity will be 15%.

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    11-FINANCIAL ANALYSIS

    A detailed financial analysis is carried out and enclosed in this section.

    Projected Income Statement is prepared and enclosed as Table III-25. The key

    assumptions as detailed in Section 11.1 is made basis for calculating total sale.

    Projected Profitability Statement, inclusive of total sales, gross profit, operating expenses,

    operating profit and non operating profit is developed making basis of key assumptions

    given in section 11.1 and enclosed in section 11.2. The projected profitability statement

    clearly indicates that the project can be successfully operated from very first year.

    In continuation of above Project Cash Flow Statement is prepared and enclosed in

    Section 11.3. According to the projected cash flow Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is 30.81and Net Present value (NPV) is Rs. 3.09 billion.

    Projected Balance Sheet is also prepared and enclosed in section 11.4. Return on equity iscalculated and found quite reasonably increasing with the passage of time.

    Break Even Analysis shows that breakeven point for first year is 82.53% which is a little

    bit risky but the break even points for second and third year decreases gradually (ReferSection 11.5), and from fourth year the project can be successfully operated at less then

    half of design capacity (i.e. 47.5%).

    Benefit Cost Ratio of the project is 1.76 and is given in Section 11.6.

    In the light of above discussion it is concluded that the project is financially viable,highly profitable and of very low risk.

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    TABLE III-25: PROJECTED INCOME STATEMENT (CS)

    (RS. IN MI LLI ON)

    Assumption

    Cold Storage

    Income

    Design

    Capacity

    100 %

    Year 1

    60%

    Year 2

    70%

    Year 3

    80%

    Year 4

    90%

    Year 5

    90%

    Year 6

    90%

    Year 7

    90%

    Year 8

    90%

    Year 9

    90%

    Year

    10

    90%

    723 433.8 506.1 578.4 650.7 650.7 650.7 650.7 650.7 650.7 650.7

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    3. Electricity Charges

    Electricity cost per month for 1000 ton

    Cold Storage = Rs. 124,200

    Unit consumes by 1000 ton cold storage = 28.75 Kw/Hr

    Average Unit Cost = Rs. 6/-

    Total Storage Capacity = 60,300 Ton

    Total Electricity Charges/ Year = 89.87 Million

    4. Diesel Expense = Rs. 3% Electricity Charges

    5. Salaries

    6. Amortization of Pre-operating ExpensesRecovery Period = 5 Years

    S. No. Description

    No. of

    Persons

    per Month

    Salary Per

    MonthTotal Salary

    1 General Manager 23 30,000 690,000

    2 Quality Control Officer 23 15,000 345,000

    3 Manager Finance 23 25,000 575,000

    4 Operating & Maintenance Engineer 23 20,000 460,000

    5 Office Staff 46 8,000 36,800

    6 Technicians 46 10,000 460,000

    7 Labour 460 6,000 2,760,000

    Total Monthly Salaries 5,326,800

    Total Yearly Salaries 63,921,600

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    11.2 Financial Results

    The projected profitability statement, projected cash flow, balance sheet and otherfinancial indicators are given on page numbers 67-71

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    13- RECOMMENDATIONS

    This prefeasibility study is conducted to establish a complete cold chain system under

    National Trade Corridor Improvement Project and divided in to three interconnected

    links including export pack houses, cold storages and refrigerated containers. In this

    volume, recommendations for cold storages will mainly be discussed.

    Since the horticultural crops (fruits and vegetables) are highly perishable in nature and

    quality of produce deteriorate in very short period. To overcome the avoidable post

    harvest losses and to provide the local and international consumers with qualityproduce it becomes inevitable to establish an effective nation wide cold chain system.

    This will not only improve the fresh produce quality and reduce post harvest losses

    but also enhance the international trade opportunity.

    To develop a comprehensive national cold chain system, 13 cold storages at

    production and market areas and 10 facilities at airports and seaports (Table III-2 &

    III-3) are recommended in all four provinces of Pakistan. These facilities are mainly

    for Kinnow, Mango, Peach, Apple, Apricot, Potato, Onion, Grapes and Dates but can

    also be utilized for other fruits and vegetables.

    PROJECT COST

    For calculation of project cost land value is taken on an average, which may increase

    or decrease depending upon the selected sites. Total project cost inclusive of

    infrastructure, machinery and plants and initial expenses comes out to be 1.84 billion(refer Table III-24)

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    The potential investors for participation in private sector equity are possible to be

    from exporters, big farmers, entrepreneurs, industrialist with experience in related

    fields industrial projects, Pakistanis living abroad, multinationals etc. It is alsopossible that a consortium of private investors who are willing to invest for these

    facilities may be formed comprises of various identified stakeholders as above.

    Risk analysis

    Although the Break Even Point of first year is on higher side but it comes down with

    the passage of year. From fourth year the project can be successfully operated on less

    than half of full design capacity (i.e. 47.5%) and it reduces the risk to quite an extent.

    Government must make sure that the high-tech plants and machinery must be used for

    the project to provide competitive edge over existing traditional cold stores.

    Once the cold storages are constructed in production areas growers will be benefited

    by getting higher prices of fruits and vegetables as well as timely direct payment from

    exporters. Apart from above export will be increased and export prices gaps can be

    significantly reduced.

    Technical assistance

    It must make compulsory that plants and machinery suppliers will provide technical

    know how to operate and maintain the project. Training programs for sponsors and

    investors shall be organized for technical and administrative staff including visit to

    foreign countries and attending local workshops. This will help in learning the

    functioning of state of the art facilities and proper implementation of the project.

    ROLE OF STAKEHOLDERS

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    Constant Research and Development in horticulture sector especially cold

    chain.

    Future expansion and acquiring updated equipment and technologies.Constant follow up to explore and capture new export markets.

    Making mandatory to use cold chain facilities for export of fruits &

    vegetables.

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    Description Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10

    Sales 433.800 506.100 578.400 650.700 650.700 650.700 650.700 650.700 650.700 650.700

    Cost of Goods Sold

    Machine Maintenance 4.169 4.169 4.169 4.169 4.169 4.169 4.169 4.169 4.169 4.169

    Direct Electircity 89.870 94.364 99.082 104.036 109.238 114.699 120.434 126.456 132.779 139.418

    Diesel Expense 2.696 2.831 2.972 3.121 3.277 3.441 3.613 3.794 3.983 4.183

    Total 96.735 101.363 106.223 111.326 116.684 122.309 128.216 134.419 140.931 147.769

    Gross Profit 337.065 404.737 472.177 539.374 534.016 528.391 522.484 516.281 509.769 502.931

    Operating Expenses

    Salaries & Remuneration 63.921 67.117 70.473 73.997 77.696 81.581 85.660 89.943 94.440 99.162

    Amortization of Pre-Operating Expenses 15.310 15.310 15.310 15.310 15.310 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

    Promotional Expenses 4.338 5.061 5.784 6.507 6.507 6.507 6.507 6.507 6.507 6.507

    Depreciation 123.694 123.694 123.694 123.694 123.694 123.694 123.694 123.694 123.694 123.694

    Total 207.263 211.182 215.261 219.508 223.207 211.782 215.861 220.144 224.641 229.363

    Operating Profit 129.802 193.555 256.916 319.867 310.809 316.608 306.622 296.137 285.127 273.567

    Non Operating Expenses

    Financial Charges on Long Term Loan 77.263 69.537 61.810 54.080 46.358 38.632 30.910 23.179 15.453 7.720Profit Before Tax 52.539 124.018 195.106 265.787 264.451 277.976 275.712 272.958 269.674 265.847

    Tax

    Profit After Tax 52.539 124.018 195.106 265.787 264.451 277.976 275.712 272.958 269.674 265.847

    Accumulated Profit 52.539 176.556 371.662 637.449 901.900 1179.876 1455.589 1728.547 1998.221 2264.068

    11.2 PROJECTED PROFITABILITY STATEMENT

    Exempted for 10 Years

    (RS. IN MI LL ION)

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    Description Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10

    Sources

    Profit After Taxation 52.539 124.018 195.106 265.787 264.451 277.976 275.712 272.958 269.674 265.847

    Add Depreciation 123.694 123.694 123.694 123.694 123.694 123.694 123.694 123.694 123.694 123.694

    Add Ammortization 15.310 15.310 15.310 15.310 15.310 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

    Total Sources 191.543 263.022 334.110 404.791 403.455 401.670 399.406 396.652 393.368 389.541

    Utilization

    Repayment of Loan 128.770 128.770 128.770 128.770 128.770 128.770 128.770 128.770 128.770 128.770

    Total Utilization 128.770 128.770 128.770 128.770 128.770 128.770 128.770 128.770 128.770 128.770

    Surplus Funds 62.773 134.252 205.340 276.021 274.685 272.900 270.636 267.882 264.598 260.771

    Balance B/F 0.000 62.773 197.024 402.364 678.385 953.070 1225.970 1496.607 1764.489 2029.087

    Balance C/F 62.773 197.024 402.364 678.385 953.070 1225.970 1496.607 1764.489 2029.087 2289.858

    Net Present Value of Cash Outflow = NPV = Rs 3.086 billion, Assume Discount Rate = 11%

    Internal Rate of Return = IRR = 30.81%

    (RS. IN MI LLI ON)

    11.3 PROJECTED CASH FLOW STATEMENT

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    11.4 PROJECTED BALANCE SHEET

    Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10

    Cash 0.000 62.773 197.025 401.592 675.368 945.718 1211.628 1472.113 1726.220 1973.012 2211.569

    Land 46.000 46.000 46.000 46.000 46.000 46.000 46.000 46.000 46.000 46.000 46.000

    Fixed Assets 1717.058 1717.058 1717.058 1717.058 1717.058 1717.058 1717.058 1717.058 1717.058 1717.058 1717.058

    Depreciation 123.694 247.388 371.082 494.776 618.470 742.164 865.858 989.552 1113.246 1236.940

    Net Fixed Assets 1763.058 1639.364 1515.670 1391.976 1268.282 1144.588 1020.894 897.200 773.506 649.812 526.118

    Intangible Assets

    Preoperating Expenses 76.547 76.547 61.237 45.927 30.617 15.307 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

    Amortization 15.310 15.310 15.310 15.310 15.310 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

    76.547 61.237 45.927 30.617 15.307 -0.003 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

    Total Assets 1839.605 1763.374 1758.622 1824.185 1958.957 2090.303 2232.522 2369.313 2499.726 2622.824 2737.687

    Long Term Loans 1287.724 1287.724 1158.952 1030.180 901.408 772.636 643.864 515.092 386.320 257.548 128.776

    Less: Repayment 128.772 128.772 128.772 128.772 128.772 128.772 128.772 128.772 128.772 128.772

    Total Liabilities 1287.724 1158.952 1030.180 901.408 772.636 643.864 515.092 386.320 257.548 128.776 0.004

    Owners Equity 551.882 551.882 551.882 551.882 551.882 551.882 551.882 551.882 551.882 551.882 551.882

    Unappropriated Profit 52.539 176.556 371.662 637.449 901.900 1179.876 1455.589 1728.547 1998.221 2264.068

    Total Equity 551.882 604.421 728.438 923.544 1189.331 1453.782 1731.758 2007.471 2280.429 2550.103 2815.950

    Total L iabilities & Equity 1839.606 1763.373 1758.618 1824.952 1961.967 2097.646 2246.850 2393.791 2537.977 2678.879 2815.954

    Sales 433.800 506.100 578.400 650.700 650.700 650.700 650.700 650.700 650.700 650.700

    Net Income 52.539 124.018 195.106 265.787 264.451 277.976 275.712 272.958 269.674 265.847

    ROE (%) 8.692 18.349 26.119 32.505 32.395 33.497 33.315 33.092 32.825 32.510

    (RS. IN M ILL ION)

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    YEAR I YEAR 2 YEAR 3

    Sales 433.800 506.100 578.400

    Sno. Description

    Total

    Operating

    Cost

    Variable

    Operating

    Cost

    Fixed

    Operating

    Cost

    Total

    Operating

    Cost

    Variable

    Operating

    Cost

    Fixed

    Operating

    Cost

    Total

    Operating

    Cost

    Variable

    Operating

    Cost

    Fixed

    Operating

    Cost1 Machine Maintenance 4.169 2.918 1.251 4.169 2.918 1.251 4.169 18.340 7.859

    2 Direct Electricity 89.870 71.896 17.974 89.870 71.896 17.974 89.870 71.896 17.974

    3 Diesel Expense 2.696 2.696 ---- 2.696 2.696 ---- 2.696 2.696 ----

    4 Salaries & Remuniration 63.921 51.137 12.784 67.117 53.694 13.423 70.473 56.378 14.095

    5 Promotional Expenses 4.338 4.338 ---- 5.061 5.061 ---- 5.784 5.784 ----

    6 Financial Charges on Lo 77.263 ---- 77.263 69.537 ---- 69.537 61.810 ---- 61.810

    7 Amortization 15.310 ---- 15.310 15.310 ---- 15.310 15.310 ---- 15.310

    8 Depreciation 123.694 ---- 123.694 123.694 ---- 123.694 123.694 ---- 123.694

    Total 381.261 132.985 248.276 377.454 136.265 241.189 373.806 155.094 240.742

    Sales-V .cost 300.815 369.835 423.306

    Breakeven - % 82.534 65.215 56.872

    YEAR 4 YEAR 5

    Sales 650.700 650.700

    Sno. Description

    Total

    Operating

    Cost

    Variable

    Operating

    Cost

    Fixed

    Operating

    Cost

    Total

    Operating

    Cost

    Variable

    Operating

    Cost

    Fixed

    Operating

    Cost

    1 Machine Maintenance 4.169 18.340 7.859 4.169 18.340 7.859

    2 Direct Electricity 89.870 71.896 17.974 89.870 71.896 17.974

    3 Diesel Expense 2.696 2.696 ---- 2.696 2.696 ----

    4 Salaries & Remuniration 73.997 59.197 14.799 77.696 62.157 15.539

    5 Promotional Expenses 6.507 6.507 ---- 6.507 6.507 ----

    6 Financial Charges on Lo 54.080 ---- 54.080 46.358 ---- 46.358

    7 Amortization 15.310 ---- 15.310 15.310 ---- 15.310

    8 Depreciation 123.694 ---- 123.694 123.694 ---- 123.694

    Total 370.323 158.636 233.716 366.300 161.596 226.734

    Sales-V .cost 492.064 489.104

    Breakeven - % 47.497 46.357

    11.5 BREAK EVEN ANAYLSIS

    Break Even Point (Q) = FC x 100

    Sale - VC

    Break Even Point for year 1 = 82.53%

    Break Even Point for year 2 = 65.21%

    Break Even Point for year 3 = 56.87%

    Break Even Point for year 4 = 47.50%Break Even Point for year 5 = 46.36%

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    11.6 BENEFIT COST RATIO

    Description Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10

    Factor based on 0.870 0.756 0.658 0.572 0.497 0.432 0.376 0.327 0.284 0.247

    15% discount

    Sales 433.800 506.100 578.400 650.700 650.700 650.700 650.700 650.700 650.700 650.700

    377.406 382.612 380.587 372.200 323.398 281.102 244.663 212.779 184.799 160.723

    2920.269

    Cost of Goods Sold 96.735 101.363 106.223 111.326 116.684 122.309 128.216 134.419 140.931 147.769

    Operating Expenses 207.263 211.182 215.261 219.508 223.207 211.782 215.861 220.144 224.641 229.363

    Total Cost 303.998 312.545 321.484 330.833 339.891 334.092 344.078 354.563 365.573 377.133

    264.478 236.284 211.536 189.237 168.926 144.328 129.373 115.942 103.823 93.152

    1657.079

    Benefit Cost Ratio = 1.762

    (RS. IN M ILL ION)

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    SL Month Month Month Month Month Month Month Month Month Month Month Month Month Month Month Month

    # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

    1 Pre-feasibility Report

    2 PC - 1

    3 Government Approval

    4 Public / Private J.V.

    5 Procurement of Land

    6 Civil Works

    7Opening L.C. / Machinery

    Procurement

    8 Arrival of Machinery

    9 Erection and Installation

    10 Commissioning

    Fig III-18: Implementation Plan

    12- IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

    Months

    Description

    A tentative implementation plan is prepared and given in Figure III-18