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  • Visual Dictionary

  • Air paper barrier

    Definition: material that controlsair leakage into and out of heinterior/exterior environments of abuilding.

    What is it doing? It is preventing rainfrom getting into the wall assemblywhile letting water vapor passthrough to the exterior.

  • Air paper barrier cont.

  • Attic ventilationmaterials

    Soffit vent

    Ridge vent

    Gable vent

    Roof turbine

  • Soffit vent

    The soffit vent is the vent openinglocated under the eaves.

    Why is it needed? it allows fresh airto enter the attic area and flowupward to the roof vents, where itis exhausted.

  • Ridge vent

    A ridge vent is a vent along the entireridge line of a roof.

    Why is it needed? It allows air to flowout of the attic, moisture to escape, andprevents ice dams.

  • Gable vent

    A louver (screened vent) mounted atthe top of a gable.

    Why is it needed? It allows air passagefor the attic.

  • Roof turbine

    Why is itneeded? Toexhaustmoist, hotair fromyour attic.

  • backhoe

    Width ofbucket: 3ft.

  • Backhoe cont.

    Definition: an excavator whosebucket is rigidly attached to a hingedpole on the boom and is drawnbackward toward the machine whenit is in operation.

    Type of work: primarily used fordigging in the ground and removinglarge amounts of dirt, gravel, orsand. With other attachments, abackhoe can be used to lift heavyobjects, dig circular holes, andbreak up concrete and asphalt.

  • Batterboards

    Definition: atemporary framebuilt justoutside thecorner of anexcavation usedto carry marksthat lie on thesurface planesof the basementthat will be builtin theexcavation.

  • Brick arches

    Brick arch #1:segmental

  • Brick arches cont.Brick Arch #2:


  • Brick arches cont.

    Arch witha keystone

  • centering

    Definition:temporaryformworkfor anarch, dome,or vault.

  • Brick Bonds

    Brick bond #1:Flemish(alternatesstretcher andheader everyrow)

  • Brick bonds cont.

    Brick bond #2: Running

    (stretchersevery row;seams dontline up)

  • Brick bonds cont.


  • Brick bonds cont.


  • Brick bonds cont.


  • Brick bonds cont.


  • Brick bonds cont.


  • Brick sizesModular:2 1/4 x3 5/8 x7 5/8

  • Brick sizes cont. Utility

    brick:3 1/2 X11 5/8 X3 1/2

  • bulldozer

  • Bulldozer cont.

    Definition: a tracked vehicleequipped with a substantial metalplate used to push large quantitiesof soil, sand, rubble, etc. duringconstruction work.

    May be found on small and largescale construction sites, mines andquarries, military bases, heavyindustry factories, and largegovernmental and publicengineering projects as well asfarming.

  • cladding

    Brick clad

    Efis clad

    Stone clad

    Wood board clad

  • Brick clad structure

  • Efis clad structure

  • Stone clad structure

  • Wood board clad

  • Cladding cont. (woodshingle structure)

  • Cladding cont.

    Wood shingle- a small unit ofwood nailed in overlappingfashion with many other suchunits to render a wall orsloping roof watertight.

    Wood shake- a shingle splitfrom a block of wood.

    What is in the photo? - shingle.

  • Code requirements Egress


  • Measurements of egresswindow

    Sill height aff- 22 1/2

    Height- 28 3/4

    Width- 35 1/2

    Area- 6.99 ft.

  • Ibc requirements foregress window

    The clear opening must be at least5.7 sq. ft.

    The clear width must be at least 20inches.

    The clear height must be at least 24inches.

    Sill may be no higher than 44 inchesabove floor.

    This window meets the requirementsbecause it is within all the requiredmeasurements.

  • Code requirementscont.



    Riser- 8

  • Code requirementscont. (stairs)

    IBC Code for tread and riser: Tread- minimum of 10

    Riser- maximum of 7 1/2

    These stairs meet the IBC codebecause they do not exceed themaximum riser measurement and hasat least a10 tread.

  • Concretejoints

    Black- controljoint

    Red- crack control joint: an

    intentional, lineardiscontinuity in astructure orcomponent,designed to form aplane of weaknesswhere cracking canoccur in responseto various forcesso as to minimize oreliminate crackingelsewhere in thestructure.

  • Concrete joints cont.

    Isolation joint separating sectionsof a concrete wall.

    Rubbery substance allowsseparation and room for expansion.

  • Isolation joint

    Definition: separation thatallows adjoining parts of astructure to move freely fromone another, both in thehorizontal and verticaldirections.s

  • Concrete masonry units

    1 CMU= 3 brick courses

  • CMU cont.

    CMU (concrete masonry unit)- ablock of hardened concrete,with or without hollow cores,designed to be laid in the samemanner as brick or stone.

    Typical dimensions: 8 X 8 X 16

  • CMU size comparison



  • Decorative concretemasonry units

    Split block ribbed block

  • Doors

    Exteriorflush door

  • Exterior paneldoor

    Gray- toprail


    Red- lockrail



  • Doors cont.

    Transom- ahorizontalcrosspieceover a dooror between awindow aboveit.

    Sidelight- awindow oropening at theside of a door.

  • Electrical components


    Service head


    Service panel

    Duplex receptacle

  • Transformerbox

    Function: anelectricaldevice thatchanges thevoltage ofalternatingcurrent.

  • Service head

    Function: totransfer theelectricityfrom the localelectricitycompany toyour housethrough a mainfuse.

    Connected tothe meter

  • meter Function:

    receives theelectricity fromthe service headand measuresthe consumptionof the power inyour house.

    The dials on themeter recordthe number ofunits of powerused so you canbe billed.

  • Service panel Function: toconnect all theelectricalcircuits of abuilding into themain power lineand allow eachindividual circuitto be protected byfuses or breakers.

    Contains breakerto disconnecthouse from thepower source.

  • Duplex receptacle

    A wall outletwith tworeceptacles;allows the useof electricitysafely in thehome or workspace.

  • Framing elements #1 Anchor bolt #2 Sill plate #3 Floor joist #4 Sub-flooring #5 Sole plate #6 Stud #7 Top plate #8 Ceiling joist #9 Rafter #10 Roof decking #11 Sheathing #12 Stringer

  • #1 Anchor bolts

  • #2 sill plate

  • #3 floor joist

  • #4 sub-flooring

  • #5 sole plate

  • #6 stud

  • #7 top plate

  • #8 ceiling joist

  • #9 rafter

  • #10 roof decking

  • #11 sheathing

  • #12 stringer

  • Front end loader

  • Front end loader cont.

    Definition: earth moving equipmentdesigned to move loose earthand/or loads into vehicles. A multipurpose bucket is fitted toarticulate arms at the front of thevehicle. It may either be wheeled ortracked. It doesnt have a longextended arm like a backhoe or thelarge steel plate of the bulldozer.

  • Gypsum board

  • Gypsum board cont.

    Definition: panels or slabs ofwallboard consisting ofnoncombustible gypsum core,surfaced and edged with acovering material designed forvarious uses.

    A.k.a. Drywall, plasterboard

  • Heat pump/ air handlingunit

  • Heat pump/air handlingunit

    What is itdoing?

  • Heat pump/ air unit cont.

    One advantage of heat pumps:they dont burn oxygen orcreate stuffiness like openfires do. They are designed foryear round comfort.

    One disadvantage of heat pumps:they require regular servicingfor optimum performance.

  • Compressor

    This compressor istransferring and recyclingheat.

  • insulation

    Batt insulation

    Loose fill insulation

    Foamed insulation

    Rigid board insulation

  • Batt insulation

    The purpose of insulation is toprovide resistance to the flow ofheat and therefore increase theefficiency of our heating andcooling and end the drafts anduneven temperatures that are a by-product of heat flow.

  • Loose fill insulation

  • Loose fill cont.

    The purpose of insulation is toprovide resistance to the flowof heat and therefore increasethe efficiency of our heatingand cooling and end the draftsand uneven temperatures thatare a by-product of heat flow.

  • Foamed insulation

    The purpose of insulation is to provideresistance to the flow of heat andtherefore increase the efficiency ofour heating and cooling and end thedrafts and uneven temperatures thatare a by-product of heat flow.

  • Rigid board insulation

    The purpose of insulation is to provideresistance to the flow of heat andtherefore increase the efficiency ofour heating and cooling and end thedrafts and uneven temperatures thatare a by-product of heat flow.

  • lintel


    Definition: ahorizontalbeam used inconstruction;usually abovea door orwindow.

  • mortar

    Joint #1:raked


    Size: 1/2

    Mortar: n


  • Mortar Cont.

    Joint #2:Concave

    Tooled Size: 1/2 Mortar: n Building

    Type:dudley hall

  • Oriented strand board

  • Oriented strand boardcont.

    Definition: a non-veneered panelproduct composed of long shredsof wood fiber oriented in specificdirections and bonded togetherunder pressure.

    How is it manufactured? Strands,flakes, or wafers of wood aresliced from small diameter, roundwood logs and bonded with anexterior type binder under heat andpressure.

  • plumbing


    Water closet


    Plumbing roofvent

    Kitchen sink

  • lavatory Size of


  • Water closet

    Size ofpiping todraintoilet: 3

  • tub

    Tub set intoframing priorto gypsumboard beinginstalled.

  • Plumbing roof vent

    The VTR has two purposes: one, todivert sewer gases out of the buildingto the outside air. Two, to equalizepressure in plumbing pipes when watergoes through the drain.

  • Kitchen sink(undermount)

  • plywood

  • Plywood cont.

    Definition: a wood panel composedof an odd number of layers of woodveneer bonded together underpressure.

    How is it manufactured? The layersare glued together so that adjacentplies are at a right angle to eachother for greater strength.

    Veneer: a thin surface layer, as offinely grained wood, glued to theface of an inferior material.

  • Radiant barrier

    Reflectivebarriersthat inhibitheattransferby thermalradiation.

  • rebar

  • Rebar cont.

    Size of diameter: .625 inches;#5/8

    Purpose of the deformations:to help the concrete get a gripon the bar.

  • Steep roof drainage




  • gutter

  • Gutter cont.

    Definition: a channel thatcollects rainwater andsnowmelt at the eave of a roof.

  • downspout

    Definition: Avertical pipe forconductingwater from aroof to a lowerlevel.

  • Splash block

    Definition: asmallprecastblock ofconcrete orplastic usedto divertwater at thebottom of adownspout.

  • Steep roof materials


    Clay tile roof

    Wood shingle roof

  • underlayment

  • Underlayment cont.

    Definition: asphalt saturatedfelt used beneath roofing toprovide additional protectionfor the deck.

  • Clay tile roof

  • Metal panel roof



  • Woodshingle

    roof Shingle: a small

    unit of water-resistant materialnailed inoverlappingfashion with manyother such unitsto render a wallor sloping roofwatertight.

  • Steep roof shapes

    Gable roof

    Gambrel roof

    Hip roof

    Mansard roof

  • Gable roof

  • Gambrel roof

  • Hip roof

  • Mansard roof

  • Steep roof terms







    Building without fascia

  • ridge

    Definition: thelevelintersectionof two roofplanes in agable roof

  • valley

    A troughformed bytheintersectionof two roofslopes.

  • eave

    The horizontal edge at the lowside of a sloping roof

  • rake

    The slopingedge of a steeproof

  • soffit

    The undersurface of a horizontalelement of a building, especially theunderside of a stair or roofoverhang.

  • fascia

    Theexposedverticalface ofan eave.

  • Buildingwithout a


    Building hasno eave, andtherefore,no fascia.

  • stone

    Random rubble

    Coursed rubble

    Random ashlar

    Coursed ashlar

  • Random rubble

  • Coursed rubble

  • Random ashlar

  • Coursed ashlar

  • Vaporretarder

    Defintion: amaterial thatprevents thepassage ofwater vapor.

    Which side ofinsulation?Underneath.

  • waterproofing

    Category:loosely laid

    What is it doing?Keeping waterout of thebuilding.

  • Weephole

    Definition:small openingsin the outerwall ofmasonryconstructionused as anoutlet forwater inside abuilding toescape andevaporate

  • Welded wire fabric

    Dimensions:10 X 6

  • windows Window #1: single hung Has one moveable sash that slides up

    and down

  • Windows cont. Window #2: Hopper Sash tilts inward; hinged on sill

  • Windows cont.

    Window #3:Casement

    Sash tiltsoutward;hinged onverticaljamb