EUROGRAPHICS 99 / P. Brunet and R. Scopigno(Guest Editors)
Volume 18 (1999), Number 3
Virtual Dunhuang Art Cave:A Cave within a CAVE
B. Lutz and M. Weintke
(Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics, Darmstadt, Germany)
AbstractVirtual Reality can present historical places in a three-dimensional and interactive way, giving visitors a pho-torealistic impression of objects. Not only existing scenarios can be shown, but VR can also be used to rebuildscenarios that were damaged or destroyed a long time ago, giving new life to the cultural heritage.We used Virtual Reality to present the Mogao Grottos in Dunhuang. This cave site is one of the most importantcultural and religious places by the ancient Silk Road. The presentation is to give visitors the impression of visitingthe cave site and provide information about the caves, paintings and statues in an interesting way. To achieve this,we developed a new, intuitive interaction paradigm, which enables the user to explore the caves. To give observersa photorealistic impression of the caves and to create a feeling of immersion, innovative rendering techniqueswere integrated.The resulting presentation combines Virtual Reality and archaeology to give tourists a realistic experience of thiscave site and to support scientists in their research work.
The city of Dunhuang is an oasis town located in the north-west of China. Formerly, Dunhuang was an important pointby the Silk Road, which splits in Dunhuang to follow thenorthern and southern borders of the Taklamakan Desert.Nowadays, the town is famous for the Mogao Grottos, a cavesite which is one of the major and best-preserved cultural re-licts of the ancient Silk Road. The site consists of about 500caves (see Figure 1, more than 3,000 statues and over 45,000m2 of painted murals. These caves were dug and decorated
Figure 1: A part of the cavesite
by Buddhist monks between the fourth and the fourteenthCentury. The most famous cave is the library cave (cave17), which was discovered in 1900 by Wang Yuanlu, a Daoistpriest. Inside that cave more than 40,000 ancient documentswere found1. These documents contain important informa-tion about religion and everyday life in former times.Sand, humidity, time, and tourists have destroyed parts of the
cave site. Today only about 40 of the 500 caves are open tothe public. To protect the paintings and statues, shields wereinstalled in the caves. In 1943, the Dunhuang Academy wasfounded. This academy is responsible for the protection andstudy of the Dunhuang relicts and runs a museum close tothe cave site. The cave site is under the protection of theChinese government. In 1987, the Mogao Grottos were de-clared a World Heritage by the UNESCO.In a cooperation between the Zhejiang University inHangzhou (China) and the Fraunhofer-IGD in Darm-stadt/Rostock (Germany), a computer-based environmentfor the preservation, restoration and propagation of Dun-huang art will be developed.A new approach to combine archaeology and Virtual Realitywas developed, giving us the possibility to present historicalplaces to tourists and to support researchers in their researchwork. A new interaction device enables visitors to explorehistorical places in an intuitive and interesting way.
2. Goals of the ProjectThe goal of this project is to use computer technology to helppreserve, restore and propagate Dunhuang art. The Germanpart of the project is divided into three main topics2:
The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishers 1999. Published by BlackwellPublishers, 108 Cowley Road, Oxford OX4 1JF, UK and 350 Main Street, Malden, MA02148, USA.
Lutz and Weintke / Virtual Dunhuang Art Cave
Dunhuang InfoWeb Internet-based VR High-end VR presentation
This paper focuses on the high-end VR presentation. Twodifferent kinds of users, tourists and researchers, were iden-tified. In the first phase of this project, we mainly developeda system for the propagation of the Mogao Grottos. The VRpresentation will give tourists a photorealistic impression ofthe beauty of the caves, they can virtually visit the Dunhuangcaves. They even can enter those which are normally closedfor the public and explore all the statues and paintings in-side. Additionally, it is possible to obtain more informationabout these paintings and statues and about the constructionof the caves.To support research processes, a visualization system forrestoration results was developed.
3. Generation of the Models
3.1. Acquisition of Data
For the generation of the models and the presentation, dif-ferent kinds of data were needed. It was not possible to getoriginal data from the Dunhuang Academy, due to the exportregulations of the Chinese government. It is also forbiddento take photographs at the cave site. Thus, we had to focuson those caves which provide enough information (caves 428and 303) to create the virtual models (see colorfigure 15).The following data was used for the modeling process:
Plans of the caves and the cave site. Photographs of the interior and exterior of the caves. Historical information about Dunhuang. General information about the caves and the cave site. Personal experience.
In March 1998, our team visited the cave site to get fur-ther information and to get an impression of the caves. Thishad great influence on our realization of the presentation andhelped us to obtain a realistic representation of the caves.
3.2. Modeling the Caves and Statues
The first step to take was the generation of the 3D geometri-cal models of the caves.The modeling of the cave geometry was done with formZ,a 3D modeling program, by using plans as well as picturesof the cave. All the missing measurements were calculatedusing known values and pictures of the objects.The same base models were used for the web-based and thehigh-end VR presentation. For the web-based presentation,the limitations of the Internet (like the limited bandwidth)and the limitations of the soft- and hardware (PC / VRMLplayer) had to be considered. Therefore, the modeling startedwith a simple representation of the cave interior. Only themost important geometries, like the walls and the middlepillar, were modeled (see figure 2). For details, like statues,
textures were used to reduce complexity. Replacing 3D ob-jects by textures proved to be sufficient if only 2D projec-tions were used and if the object could only be seen fromnearly the same direction as the picture had been taken. InDunhuang, statues often were placed inside niches, so thatthe viewing angle was limited. The simple geometry of thecave 428 was built with less than 100 polygons. These mod-els were generated for the web-based presentation, but werealso used as a basis for the detailed models for the high-endVR presentation. The objects were exported as VRML mod-els and included into the Dunhuang Info-Web.For the high-end VR presentation, the limitations of the
Figure 2: Simple model of the middle pillar
Figure 3: More detailed model of the middle pillar
VR system (see chapter 4) and the hardware had to be con-sidered, but due to the use of a high end-graphics work-station, the models could be more complex. The high-end model consisted of 14,560 polygons, while the VRMLmodel only consisted of less than 100 polygons. Taking intoaccount that we used stereo projection, more details had tobe added, especially where textures were used instead ofthree-dimensional objects. Otherwise these textures wouldlook flat and this would destroy the feeling of immersion.
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Lutz and Weintke / Virtual Dunhuang Art Cave
Three-dimensional representations of objects were neces-sary to achieve a realistic illumination and to generate shad-ows. Only for some of the smaller objects textures were usedinstead of detailed geometry to reduce the complexity of thescene.
During this phase, more details were added (see figure 3)to the base models. The textures used for the statues in theVRML models had to be replaced by 3D objects. These ge-ometries are the most complex objects inside the cave 428;the Buddha statue in cave 428 consists of 4,719 polygons.Statues were very difficult to model because of their organicform. We used Softimage to generate these organic formswith Metaballs. Photographs were used to control the mod-eling process. Furthermore, no plans or other data of the stat-ues were available, therefore all the measurements had to becalculated from photographs3; 4 of the statues.Finally, the geometric models were converted to the FHS(Fraunhofer Standard) data format that is used by the Vir-tual Design II VR system5 (see chapter 4.1).The models were built using plans of the cave, giving us themost important measurements, like the height of the ceilingor the dimensions of the floor. Using this information, somedetails, which may be important for scientist, could not bemodeled. For example, all the walls were modeled as pla-nar faces, which is not true for the real walls. The qualityof the virtual caves is good enough to give tourists a realis-tic impression of the caves. These models can also be usedby scientists to compare the different styles of caves duringthe different dynasties, however, there are not enough de-tails for doing scientific research on a specific cave. Withoriginal data available (exact measurements of the caves,photographs of all the paintings and statues, etc.), modelswith the necessary level of detail for research work could bebuilt. The use of a 3D scanner or photometric modeling toolswould speed up the modeling processes of these statues.
Figure 4: The real grotto
The Dunhuang Caves are very famous for their paintings,which include:3
Figure 5: The virtual model
Buddhist stories Illustrations of Buddhist Sutras Portraits of donors Daoist deities and mythological figures Apsaras and music goddesses Decorative patterns
Like the documents found in the library cave, these imagesgive researchers important information about Buddhismand the everyday life in former times. For a tourist, thesepaintings with their small details and the variety of scenesare very impressive. One can spend hours inside one caveexploring all these artworks. Almost every wall are painted,and the visitor is surrounded by the mural paintings. Topresent this variety of images and to achieve a realisticimpression of the cave interior, high-resolution textureswere used.The generation of the textures was difficult because ofthe lack of original data. There were only a few cavesthat provided us with enough pictures to get the necessarytextures, and even in those caves some images were notavailable. In locations where we had no photographs, similarpictures from other places inside the cave were used instead.Because of the varying lighting conditions and perspectivedistortions, the images had to be postprocessed after scan-ning. To use the textures for the web-based presentation,the images were reduced in resolution to lower the loadingtime.To support the restoration of the caves, we added thepossibility to visualize restored images. A virtual cavegives researchers the opportunity to see the results ofthe restoration process in advance. The different renewedimages can be viewed in their original surrounding and inrelation to neighboring images. To show the possibilitiesof VR for the visualization of restoration, images of thecave in its original state were needed. Since such imageswere not available, an image processing program has beenused to renovate the textures. We removed scratches,included missing parts and enhanced the faded colors (see
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Lutz and Weintke / Virtual Dunhuang Art Cave
colorfigure 15). We did not take into account any seriousscientific methods for restoring these images. Our goalwas to demonstrate new methods and approaches for thepreparation of the restoration process . Our partners at theZhejiang University in China will develop an expert systemfor color restoration. As soon as this system is finished, itwill be connected to the VR system and the images will bereplaced by images generated by this expert system (seechapter 6). The resulting virtual model presents geometricalsimplicity with high-quality textures, thus appearing to bevery realistic in comparison to the pictures of the real cave428 (see figures 4 and 5).
4. Generation of the Presentation
4.1. Technical Description of the VR System
The VR system Virtual Design II5 is used for the presenta-tion. This VR system was developed by the Fraunhofer-IGD.Virtual Design II allows us to use many different output de-vices. A five-sided CAVE6 was mainly used for the genera-tion of the presentation. Alternatively, a large-screen stereoprojection can be used, which is a good way to show the Vir-tual Dunhuang Art Caves as part of an exhibition or a mu-seum. If needed, a monitor can be used or video tapes can begenerated.It was very important for us to have the ability to developspecial interaction devices, and to achieve special renderingeffects. Both are possible with Virtual Design II.
4.2. Principles of the CAVE Presentation
Whenever presenting a digital architectural model in aCAVE, one has to take into account the characteristics andlimitations of this particular output device from the point ofarchitecture. For VR presentations, the actually simple roomof a CAVE turns into a corridor to an apartment or an en-trance to a more complex world. You have to make the visi-tors curious to see the whole apartment.Overcoming the boundaries of the CAVE (2,4 m x 2,4 m x2,4 m), to create the feeling of being in the virtual worldmeans widening the room inside the CAVE to the extensionsof the scenario. Attracting the visitors whole attention willmake him/her forget the fact, that he is actually surroundedby five projection walls presenting realtime stereo images.Enabling the visitors to satisfy their expectations of free in-teracton and corresponding to their behavior in real environ-ments, we integrated a new interaction device to the virtualworld of the Dunhuang Grottos.
5.1. The Flashlight
To achieve a realistic impression of the caves, we appliedradiosity calculations to the scene using Genesis7. The
Figure 6: Presenting the cave within a CAVE
result was a well done three-dimensionality with diffusereflections, emphasizing the mural paintings and the supe-riority of the sculptures. The lighting conditions inside thereal caves were simulated very well, but just like inside thereal caves, it was too dark to recognize the details of thepaintings. To show the beauty of the colorful paintings andstatues to the visitor, additional light sources are necessary.Until now, it is not possible to recalculate radiosity values inrealtime in complex scenarios with moving light sources.With the demand of showing all treasures and exhibits wellilluminated, we used the normal hardware shading, but thatadded an unrealistic brightness to...