Videotaped teaching segments and the preservice teacher: Developing reflective practice

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<ul><li><p>This article was downloaded by: [Washington State University Libraries ]On: 11 November 2014, At: 18:51Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T3JH, UK</p><p>The Teacher EducatorPublication details, including instructions forauthors and subscription information:</p><p>Videotaped teaching segmentsand the preservice teacher:Developing reflective practiceJill C. Miels aa Elementary Education , Ball State UniversityPublished online: 20 Jan 2010.</p><p>To cite this article: Jill C. Miels (1999) Videotaped teaching segments and thepreservice teacher: Developing reflective practice, The Teacher Educator, 34:3,181-188, DOI: 10.1080/08878739909555198</p><p>To link to this article:</p><p>PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE</p><p>Taylor &amp; Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of allthe information (the Content) contained in the publications on ourplatform. However, Taylor &amp; Francis, our agents, and our licensorsmake no representations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy,completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinionsand views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views ofthe authors, and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor &amp; Francis.The accuracy of the Content should not be relied upon and should beindependently verified with primary sources of information. Taylor andFrancis shall not be liable for any losses, actions, claims, proceedings,demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoeveror howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, inrelation to or arising out of the use of the Content.</p><p>This article may be used for research, teaching, and private studypurposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution,</p><p></p></li><li><p>reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any formto anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms &amp; Conditions of access and usecan be found at</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Was</p><p>hing</p><p>ton </p><p>Stat</p><p>e U</p><p>nive</p><p>rsity</p><p> Lib</p><p>rari</p><p>es ]</p><p> at 1</p><p>8:51</p><p> 11 </p><p>Nov</p><p>embe</p><p>r 20</p><p>14 </p><p></p></li><li><p>VIDEOTAPED TEACHING SEGMENTSAND THE PRESERVICE TEACHER:</p><p>DEVELOPING REFLECTIVE PRACTICE</p><p>Jill C. Miels,Elementary Education, Ball State University</p><p>AbstractThis article describes a project that uses videotaped segments of "best</p><p>practice" teaching methods with freshman practicum students in amidsized university. The rationale, process of collecting teaching segments,and preliminary use of two tapes are presented. Initial response suggeststhat using videotaped teaching segments with preservice teaching majorsis a positive approach to introducing students to the intricacies ofteaching and learning.</p><p>Educational reformers have suggested that teacher educationinstitutions rethink how preservice programs support prospectiveteachers in reflecting on their beliefs and practices about classroominstruction (Darling-Hammond, Wise, &amp;C Klein, 1995; Goodlad,1990, 1994; Schon 1990). Goodlad (1994) advocated that "programsfor the education of educators be characterized in all respects by theconditions for learning that future teachers are to establish in theirown schools and classrooms" (p. 84). Preservice teachers will need tobe immersed in the types of experiences that encourage explorationof these conditions for learning, conditions such as guided reflection,examination of personal beliefs about teaching and learning, and theability to communicate their beliefs. For effective behaviors tobecome habits, preservice teachers should encounter these conditionsfrequently and in a variety of settings. In an effort to begin providingquality experiences for freshman teacher educatiommajors, a projectwas proposed that used a variety of videotaped, school-relatedepisodes. Taping took place at a laboratory school on the campus of amidsized university.</p><p>The Purpose of and Impetus for the ProgramThree factors influenced the implementation of this project.</p><p>First, it was believed that video clips of "best practice" strategies, asdemonstrated by classroom teachers, would clearly illustrate theobjectives established for an introductory practicum course forpreservice teachers. The course in question included a seminar</p><p>181</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Was</p><p>hing</p><p>ton </p><p>Stat</p><p>e U</p><p>nive</p><p>rsity</p><p> Lib</p><p>rari</p><p>es ]</p><p> at 1</p><p>8:51</p><p> 11 </p><p>Nov</p><p>embe</p><p>r 20</p><p>14 </p></li><li><p>component and a lab component consisting of four classroomexperiences.</p><p>It was also expected that using videotaped teaching segmentswould enable preservice teachers to participate in guided reflectionthroughout the semester rather than just during the four assigned labdays. Videotaping would also allow multiple viewings at any timeduring the semester.</p><p>Finally, monies were available to faculty who wished to learn newtechnology and who would incorporate the knowledge gained intoexisting practices. Funding came from an internal source with anemphasis on videotaping and editing.</p><p>The purpose of this project was to develop, in cooperation withthe laboratory school faculty, a video library depicting effectiveteaching strategies. Footage was to be accumulated that preservedauthentic examples of teaching and learning in categories relevant tothe preservice teacher's needs and that supported instruction in theDepartment of Elementary Educations sequence of practicumcourses. Categories to be emphasized in the video series included butwere not limited to lesson planning, management situations, gradelevel expectations, environmental aspects of teaching, and specialopportunities such as transition times. An additional intent was toprovide opportunities for the education majors to experience,observe, and discuss aspects of classroom life that are not accessible tothem because of scheduling or because those aspects are experiencedonly upon securing a teaching position.</p><p>Videotapes and the Preservice TeacherA review of literature revealed some evidence of the use of video-</p><p>taped "best practice" episodes with preservice teachers. Videotape use,however, was primarily seen with juniors and seniors. Kasten andFerraro (1995) used the evaluation of videotaped teaching segmentswith student teacher interns. They found that videotape provided"the scaffolding necessary for the interns to link previous knowledgefrom professional course work with current experiences" (p. 9). Thestructured opportunity for reflection appeared to have positive effectsfor both preservice teachers and university instructors. Kasten andFerraros study emphasized the importance of providing multipleopportunities for preservice teachers to engage in reflection.</p><p>Jensen (1994) used videotaped teaching segments in a juniorpracticum placement. His study also supported the use of audiovisualtechnology as a tool for reflection in teacher education. Jenson noted,</p><p>182</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Was</p><p>hing</p><p>ton </p><p>Stat</p><p>e U</p><p>nive</p><p>rsity</p><p> Lib</p><p>rari</p><p>es ]</p><p> at 1</p><p>8:51</p><p> 11 </p><p>Nov</p><p>embe</p><p>r 20</p><p>14 </p></li><li><p>"preservice teachers could benefit from more instruction andexperience with videotaping, self assessment, and reflection ingeneral" (p. 9).</p><p>Thompson and Wiegmann (1993) reported on a videodiscproject sponsored by the Illinois State Board of Education thatrecorded outstanding classroom teachers teaching in their ownclassrooms. The segments were to be used to illustrate pedagogicalconcepts. Thompson and Wiegmann noted that preservice teachers .would finally be able to "view the same lesson through the eyes of achild, the teacher, a science educator, or their own . . ." (p. 6).</p><p>A final project relevant to this research was reported by Rowleyand Hart (1996). The video series "Becoming a Star Urban Teacher"(Rowley &amp; Hart, 1995) used a video case method to encouragereflective practice among preservice, novice, and veteran teachers.Based on the characteristics of successful urban teachers, these tapesprovided a scenario that served as the basis for dialogue related to agiven teaching situation.</p><p>The above review of literature would suggest that opportunitiesto view "best practice" strategies in a guided situation would increasethe preservice teachers ability to become a reflective practitioner.Presenting freshman practicum students with real educational issuesnot only enables them to examine their own beliefs about teachingbut also to view teaching from the perspective of the learner.</p><p>Project ComponentsA list of segments to be taped was developed before the project</p><p>began. The list was based on "best practice" issues covered in theseminar component of an introductory teaching course as presentedby Blair (1988) in Emerging Patterns of Teaching: From Methods toField Experiences. Instructional principles provided the framework forthe videotaped segments and included (a) cultivating student feelingand emotions, (b) maintaining effective classroom control, (c)establishing an appropriate balance between fostering direct learningand inquiry abilities, (d) maximizing the use of classroom time toteach students what they need to know, (e) diagnosing studentstrengths and weaknesses and providing instruction based on studentneeds, (0 using a variety of materials to teach what their studentsneed to know, and (g) believing in their abilities as teachers to make adifference and convince their students that they will learn (pp. 8-9).In addition to these guiding principles, course content focused on theneed for learning to be child centered, experiential, authentic,developmental, and collaborative (Zemelman, Daniels, &amp; Hyde,</p><p>183</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Was</p><p>hing</p><p>ton </p><p>Stat</p><p>e U</p><p>nive</p><p>rsity</p><p> Lib</p><p>rari</p><p>es ]</p><p> at 1</p><p>8:51</p><p> 11 </p><p>Nov</p><p>embe</p><p>r 20</p><p>14 </p></li><li><p>1993). The videotaping of a variety of situations in grades K5 tookabout 15 months.</p><p>Fifty hours of raw footage were collected. The events included inthe raw footage featured segments from the first day of school, thelast day of school, special days, transitions, group work, individualwork, a variety of classroom events at all grade levels, and "TeacherTalks" in which teaching majors had the opportunity to ask questionsof the classroom teachers.</p><p>The raw footage was then edited, which resulted in six mastertapes; "Teacher Talks," "Classroom Management," and four"Teaching Segments." Once the segments had been edited intofinal form, they were transferred onto individual blank videotapes,with one segment on each tape. The teaching segments ranged inlength from 90 seconds to 45 minutes. A list of titles can be foundin Table 1.</p><p>Preliminary UseGiven the variety of topics, grade levels, and segment lengths,</p><p>this video library supported instruction in the freshman, sophomore,and junior practicum courses. A guide sheet for each tape wasdeveloped to provide basic content information and discussionpoints. Each guide sheet was to be revised as segments were used withpreservice teachers. A sample guide sheet can be found in Figure 1.</p><p>The first time the segment entitled "Letter Reading" (tape #9)was used, university students had been engaged in discussions aboutevents that can either invite or discourage learning (Wong &amp; Wong,1991). The focus had not only been on teacher behaviors but also onenvironmental factors and student behaviors. Before viewing thevideotape, the university students were directed to watch for bothverbal and non-verbal things that either enhanced or discouragedlearning. After viewing this tape, they were able to identify twelveinvitational factors and four instances they believed were inhibiting.</p><p>Behaviors observed by the preservice teachers can be found inFigure 2. As Figure 2 indicates, the students believed learning wasenhanced by personal characteristics exhibited by the teacher, theenvironment that had been established, and the power of the lessonitself. Possible inhibitors to learning were identified in a specificstudent/student interaction and an instance where one student hadher hand raised and was not acknowledged. Although the preserviceteachers identified the video camera as a possible detractor, thechildren in this school were quite used to being filmed.</p><p>184</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Was</p><p>hing</p><p>ton </p><p>Stat</p><p>e U</p><p>nive</p><p>rsity</p><p> Lib</p><p>rari</p><p>es ]</p><p> at 1</p><p>8:51</p><p> 11 </p><p>Nov</p><p>embe</p><p>r 20</p><p>14 </p></li><li><p>Table 1List of Teaching Tapes</p><p>TapeNo.</p><p>1</p><p>2345678</p><p>91011</p><p>1213141516</p><p>171819202122232425262728</p><p>29303132333435363738394041</p><p>Area</p><p>S.S.LA/Sci.L AS.S.S.S.Sei.Cl. Man.L.A.LAMathL.A.VariousL.A.VariousProf.Prof.Prof.Prof.L.A.L AL.A.Cl. Man.VariousVariousProf.S.S.MathMathL.A.MathL.A.MathVariousCl. Man.Cl. Man.VariousCl. Man.VariousCl. Man.Cl. Man.Sei.</p><p>Title</p><p>Community BuildingCalendar/Story/InsectGroup WorkPioneer UnitDyeing LessonTeethClass PlanningThe CayLetter ReadingGraphingBook BuddiesCentersAutograph SessionMusicTeacher TalkTeacher TalkTeacher TalkTeacher PlanningOral ReadingL.A. LessonMusic/ReadingField Day PlanningSleep OverCentersTeacher's DayDyeing LessonGraphing Teeth/Pizza ToppingMath Problem SolvingLetter WritingMath Problem SolvingReading PracticeComputers Math PracticeGroup WorkManagement VignettesBeginning Year RulesBookmaking/Ind. PracticeLesson Prep/TransitionsField TripTransitionsMusic/Choosing PartnersEnvironmental Science</p><p>Grade</p><p>411 .3325532</p><p>1/4K</p><p>12</p><p>K/l</p><p>4/52/34/5</p><p>2</p><p>5551</p><p>1/332333533</p><p>1/5Various</p><p>12</p><p>31</p><p>324</p><p>Time inMinutes</p><p>1927162320146</p><p>12</p><p>10</p><p>195</p><p>355</p><p>2521</p><p>252925152816</p><p>77494</p><p>411028321429</p><p>15/1910</p><p>3310</p><p>74</p><p>102</p><p>45</p><p>Note.S.S. = Social Studies, L.A. = Language Arts, Sei. = Science, Cl. Man. = Classroom</p><p>Management, and Prof. = Professional Development</p><p>185</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Was</p><p>hing</p><p>ton </p><p>Stat</p><p>e U</p><p>nive</p><p>rsity</p><p> Lib</p><p>rari</p><p>es ]</p><p> at 1</p><p>8:51</p><p> 11 </p><p>Nov</p><p>embe</p><p>r 20</p><p>14 </p></li><li><p>Figure 1Sample Guide Sheet to Accompany Videotape on Letter Reading</p><p>Tape Number 9 Title Letter ReadingTotal Tape Length 19 minutes Segments 1_Classroom Teacher(s) T mith Grade 2Topic Reading welcome letters from a previous class</p><p>Content Description:This segment features Mrs. Smith's 2nd grade class opening and readingletters of welcome from the previous year's 3rd graders (see Letter Writing,tape #29). The lesson, which takes place during the first week of the schoolyear, consists of an introduction, a time for students to practice reading theletters independently, and a time for oral reading to the whole class. There isa focus during independent reading on a group of 5 students.</p><p>Look for:*Many questions at the beginning to focus attention*Daily routinespassing papers, hand raising*Materials prepared*Culturally fair languageThoroughness of directions givenExpectations of success</p><p>*Progress monitoring*Possible focus questions:</p><p> As you view this film, watch for things that either enhance or discouragelearning.</p><p> What non-verbal factors made this activity successful? (time, teacherexpectation, environment, atmosphere)</p><p>What kind of verbal invitations did you hear? (from the teacher, from thechildren?)</p><p>Production Notes:Some audio during i...</p></li></ul>


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