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VI Всероссийская научно-техническая конференция ''Нейроинформатика-2004''. Лекции по нейроинформатике

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  • ,

    - ( )

    2004

    2004

    VI -

    2

    -

    2004

  • 004.032.26 (06) 32.818582

    2004. VI -- 2004: . 2. .: , 2004. 200 .

    , - , 2830 2004 VI - - 2004.

    , - , - .

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    ISBN 572620526X c - ( ), 2004

  • 6

    . . . 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 . . . 19 . . . . . . 26

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    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

    . . . - 57 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 . . . . . . . . . . . 59

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60- . . . . . . 61

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    004.032.26 (06) 3

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    4 004.032.26 (06)

  • ISBN 572620526X

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    004.032.26 (06) 5

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    6 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 7

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    004.032.26 (06) 9

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    , - . . , - , , - . . - , - . , -. , . . . . [12], . . [13] 2001 .

    9. - . . - - , , , , . . - 2002 [14] 2003 [15]. - . - , , - , - . , - -, - -. - - (reinforcementlearning), . - . - - -.

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    10 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 11

  • ISBN 572620526X

    ResearchIndex - .

    ResearchIndex, - [20], - [18].

    , - - , , , , - , [15].

    - , - , - , - , . , , ( ), (- .) . .

    , , . . - [email protected] .

    1. : - -

    // III - -2001, 2326 2001 . / . .. . . .: - , 2001. 212 .

    2. : - - // IV - -2002, 2325 2002 . / . .. . . 1. .: - , 2002. 164 .

    3. : - - // IV - -2002, 2325 2002 . / . .. . . 2. .: - , 2002. 172 .

    4. : - - // V -

    12 004.032.26 (06)

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    -2003, 2931 2003 . / . .. . . 1. .: - , 2003. 188 .

    5. : - - // V - -2003, 2931 2003 . / . .. . . 2. .: - , 2003. 180 .

    6. (). , // .: . 1. .: -, 2002. . 66113.

    7. . . -: // .: -. .: - , 2001. . 103141.

    8. . . // .: . 2. .: - , 2003. . 2979.

    9. : // 2- - - -2000, 1921 2000 .; III - - -2001, 2326 - 2001 . / . . . . . .: - , 2001. 104 .

    10. . . - // .: . 1. .: - , 2002. . 114163.

    11. . . // .: . 2. .: - , 2003. . 119179.

    12. . ., . . - // .: -. .: - , 2001. . 1859.

    13. . . // .: . .: - , 2001. . 60102.

    14. . . - // .: -. 2. .: - , 2002. . 94120.

    15. . . // .: -. 1. .: - , 2003. . 149187.

    16. . . , , // .: . 2. .: - , 2002. . 121169.

    004.032.26 (06) 13

  • ISBN 572620526X

    17. . . // .: -. 1. .: - , 2003. . 86148.

    18. (Matlab, Fortran, C++ . .)URL: http://www.mathtools.net/

    19. NEC Research Institute CiteSeer (also known as ResearchIndex) ScienticLiterature Digital Library.URL: http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/

    20. The Archive arXiv.org e-Print archive Physics, Mathematics, Nonlinear Sciences,Computer Science.URL: http://arxiv.org/

    , . .

    E-mail: [email protected]

  • . . ,

    [email protected]

    1

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    004.032.26 (06) 15

  • ISBN 572620526X

    A. ZHDANOVInstitute for System Programming, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

    [email protected]

    ABOUT A TECHNIQUE OF AUTONOMOUS ADAPTIVE CONTROL

    AbstractA bionic-based approach to control system design is suggested named as au-tonomous adaptive control (AAC) technique. Some basic concepts of this ap-proach are considered. A principle of operation and structure of control systemare derived from general nervous system properties such as discrete structureand functioning, initial knowledge uncertainty as well as necessity to combinecontrol and learning processes within the same time period. Specic decisionsare proposed, which allow to make real-world control systems. These decisionsinclude techniques to build formal neurons, pattern generation and recognitionsubsystems, knowledge base, decision making and emotion subsystems. Someapplication problems are described solved by means of AAC technique. TheAAC approach is compared with alternative articial intelligence research ar-eas. It is demonstrated that the approach suggested could be regarded as somenew research area and could be named as autonomous articial intelligencesystems.

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    004.032.26 (06) 17

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    004.032.26 (06) 23

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    004.032.26 (06) 25

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    004.032.26 (06) 27

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    28 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 29

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    004.032.26 (06) 33

  • ISBN 572620526X

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    004.032.26 (06) 35

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    004.032.26 (06) 37

  • ISBN 572620526X

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    004.032.26 (06) 39

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    004.032.26 (06) 41

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    004.032.26 (06) 49

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    004.032.26 (06) 51

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    1. . : . . 2- . ., 1968.2. Cannon W. B. Bodily changes in pain, hunger, fear and rage. Appleon-Century,

    1929.3. . . // . -

    (, 2428. 1968 ). . - . .: , 1970.

    4. . ., . . // .: . , 1971.

    004.032.26 (06) 53

  • ISBN 572620526X

    5. Mesarovic M. D. Conceptual basic for a mathematical theory of general systems// Kybernetes, 1, 1972.

    6. McCulloch W. S., Pitts W. A. logical calculus of the ideas immanent in nervous activity// Bull. Math. Biophys. 1943, 5 [. .: ., . , // . . .: , 1956]

    7. . . .: , 1965.8. . . . pp

    H . ., 1991.9. Zhdanov A. A. Application of pattern recognition procedure to the acquisition and

    use of data in control // Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis. v. 2, No. 2, 1992.10. Zhdanov A. A. A principle of pattern formation and recognition // Pattern Recognition

    and Image Analysis. v. 2, No. 3, 1992.11. . .

    // . . - . . 2. ., 1996.

    12. . . - // . . . . 3. ., 1997.

    13. . . // . .. . .: ,1997.

    14. Zhdanov A. A. About an autonomous adaptive control methodology // ISIC/CIRA/(ISAS'98), NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland. September 1417, 1998.

    15. Zhdanov A. A. The mathematical models of neuron and neural network in autonomousadaptive control methodology // WCCI'98(IJCNN'98), IEEE World Congress onComputational Intelligence, Anchorage, Alaska, May 49, 1998.

    16. . ., . ., . . // . . . . . 19. .: , 1998.

    17. . ., . . - // .. . -. 99,. 1. .: , 1999.

    18. . ., . . // . . . -. -99, . 1. .: , 1999.

    54 004.032.26 (06)

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    19. . ., . . // . . . -. - 99, . 3. .: , 1999.

    20. . ., . . - // . . V - (99). ., 1719 1999.

    21. Zhdanov A. A., Vinokurov A. N. Emotions simulation in methodology of autonomousadaptive control // 14th IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Control/Intelligent Systems and Semiotics ISIC/ISAS'99. Special session Emotions andIntelligent Systems. September 1517, 1999. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.Paper No. 99002I6.

    22. . . // , 2. - . ., 1996. . 171206.

    23. . . // - . . 1999, 5. . 127134.

    24. . ., . . // - . . . . . .: - , 2002. . 119135.

    25. Zhdanov A. A., Ryadovikov A. V. Neuron models in the autonomous adaptive controlmethod // Optical Memory and Neural Network. 2002. v. 9, No. 2. pp. 115-132.

    26. . ., . . - // . - . 2. .: , 2001. . 141179.

    27. Zhdanov A. A., Zemskikh L. V. The evolutionary growth of neural networks for theautonomous adaptive control system // The 5th World Multiconference on Systemics,Cybernetics and Informatics (SCI 2001) and the 7th International Conference onInformation Systems Analysis and Synthesis (ISAS 2001), Orlando, USA, July 2225, 2001. pp. 404409.

    28. . ., . . // : , . 2, 2001.

    29. . ., . . - // . . . . . 20. .: . 1999. . 111146.

    004.032.26 (06) 55

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    30. . . // . 2000, 1, . 5864; 2, . 1416.

    31. / . . . . - 2-. . .:, 2003. c. 267.

    32. URL: http://www.ispras.ru/zhdanov/33. . . . .: , 1991.34. . ., . . . . -

    // - (IMS'2002), . . 115118.

    35. Hopeld J. J. Neural networks and physical systems with emergent collectivecomputational abilities // Proc. of the National Academy of Science. 1982. 79. pp. 25542558.

    36. Bernold T. Expert systems and knowledge engineering. Elsevier, SciencePublishers, 1986.

    37. . ., . ., . . - // . 2004. 1 ( ).

    38. . ., . ., . . - // , 2004 ( -).

    , -, ,. : , , . 60 .

  • . . -

    E-mail: [email protected]

    - ( , ), . , - . , - , , . .

    LEV A. STANKEVICHSaint-Petersburg State Polytechnical University

    E-mail: [email protected]

    NEUROLOGICAL MEANS FOR CONTROL SYSTEMS OFINTELLECTUAL ROBOTS

    AbstractUsage possibilities are discussed for neurological control means (basic modules,cognitive and actuator structures) as applied to control systems of intellectualrobots. These means are suggested to be able to learn and to form a rationalbehavior. It is shown control systems for the modern intellectual robots must besimilar functionally and structurally to the human nervous system. Such systemscould be developed using neurological means, sensor fusion and intelligent con-trol techniques as well as multiagent technology. An example of developmentand application of the neurological means with reference to control system forhumanoid robot is considered.

    004.032.26 (06) 57

  • ISBN 572620526X

    , - [1, 2]. . - , . - : -, - -. , , , , - .

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    58 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 59

  • ISBN 572620526X

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    60 004.032.26 (06)

  • ..

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    (1)

    Aj j Gi; Vq q Aj ; ins_g ; has_a has_v . : - , , . ., , . . , , , . . , . . - ( , , ) (- , , .). , .

    -

    - (). , . (SAM) (MAM) .

    AM, SAM AM :

    AM = {X,Y, S, U, F},SAM = {Px, Py, AM},

    MAM = {Px, Py, {AMt, t = 1, . . . , T}}.(2)

    , , : X,Y (); S,U -

    004.032.26 (06) 61

  • ISBN 572620526X

    , ; F , ; Px, Py ; AMt SAM t ; T t, AMt, M .

    - , , .

    (C Cell) , - -. :

    Mc = {X, Wc,Hx, Sc,Hy, BF, y}, (3) X = {x0, . . . , xn} ; Wc = {w0, . . . , wv} (m > n); Hx = {hx1, . . . , hxq} - , ; Hy = {hy1, . . . , hye} - , -; Sc = (sc1, . . . , scr) , ; BF = (bf1, . . . , bfk) ; y .

    -- (.1):

    C = ins_f(IG, A(a1, . . . , aN , Sc,Wc), DG, Tc), (4)

    IG , Hx;A() , ai, i =1, . . . , N , - Hy Sc - Wc; DG , y; Tc , Sc Wc - X y, y = F (X);ins_f - .

    (- ), n . -

    62 004.032.26 (06)

  • ..

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    , - , Wc = (Wx,Wh, wy).

    004.032.26 (06) 63

  • ISBN 572620526X

    BFc. , . , . BFc : ; - , : , - , - .

    (N Nucleus) (.2). - (3), X = (X1 X2 XM ) , ; WN , Hx, Hy - , SN , , BF , - ; y Y .

    , , , , . .

    N = ins_f(IGN , AN , DGN , TN ). (6) -

    , ( ). - - . , , , . .

    Y = F (X) yj = fj(x1, . . . , xN ); j = 1, . . . , N. (7) ,

    . - , . - , .

    64 004.032.26 (06)

  • ..

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    004.032.26 (06) 65

  • ISBN 572620526X

    (LN Local Network) . - (.2).

    - :

    M = {PX(X, CX),WLN , SLN , PY (Y, CY )}, (8) X CX PX , . . - , ( ) PX ; WLN , ; SLN , ; Y CY PY , . . - , (- ) PY .

    :

    LN = (C1, . . . , CQ; N1, . . . , NK , LLn), (9) Ci Nj i j , ;LLn (Learner), WLN .

    ( ) - . - . - .

    (DN Distributed Network) -. (), () (.2). - , . , - .

    : , ,

    66 004.032.26 (06)

  • ..

    . :

    PX/ti Fk1(PX , PZ1) . . . Fq(PX , PZq) PY/t1 (OY ) PS/t2 PX/t2,

    (10)

    t1 t2 , 1- 2- ; Fki i ; PS - ; PX , PY , PZ , . , wi,i+1. -, PZ .

    - , . . , -. - . , , - , .

    , . - - . - , ,, .

    , , -. - . - - .

    004.032.26 (06) 67

  • ISBN 572620526X

    , . .

    . - (Reinforcement learning RL) [13]. RL . , , . . , . : , RL . , - , RL. - RL . , c .

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    68 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 69

  • ISBN 572620526X

    (.3).

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    70 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 71

  • ISBN 572620526X

    . - - , .

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    72 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 73

  • ISBN 572620526X

    : ; ; -

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    , - . , -, . , - ( -).

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    Y = sign (wk)m

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    i j(Xj). (13)

    : n , ; m - ; wi i ; k .

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    74 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 75

  • ISBN 572620526X

    , - . - - - .

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    , - .

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    mk p n

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    -

    - - -

    - - -

    : n ; mk k ; p ; e ; t1 ; t2 / .

    PC Pentium 1 - : n: 412; mk:57; p: 812; e: 2002000; t1 = 10t2.

    76 004.032.26 (06)

  • ..

    (cognition) - [14]. - . -, , . . - . - , - . - . , . . , . , , , .

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    , - [1, 2]. -

    004.032.26 (06) 77

  • ISBN 572620526X

    -

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    78 004.032.26 (06)

  • ..

    .

    , - , : , ( - ) - (.7). - . , :

    {E S CSP CSB B CSB CSC AS A R E},

    E , S , CSP , CSB --, B , CSB --, CSC -,AS , A , R , E .

    , -. , - ( ). - . - - . - , . .

    - , - . , [15]. -, , - . ,

    004.032.26 (06) 79

  • ISBN 572620526X

    , - . ( ), -, . , , , . . - . - , - . . , - , . , . -, -, - . - , ( ) -. .

    - [2]. , - , (.8).

    (N Nucleuses), . . (LN Local Networks) (PN Projective Networks), - . - , - , - (ca cognitive agent), ,

    80 004.032.26 (06)

  • ..

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    004.032.26 (06) 81

  • ISBN 572620526X

    , , - . - (CN Cross Networks). - (- , ).

    -, [3]. , ATLANTIS[16], . - -. . - [17] SOAR [18]. . , . - , , .

    , . - . , , -. , , , -, . - BDI (Belief-Desire-Intention) [19]. , , , BDI .

    - . - . , - , .

    82 004.032.26 (06)

  • ..

    : -, - (RoboCup), -, - [20]. - (, ). - : - , BDI - , BDI , .

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    (.9), , - (CF), - . - : , -.

    , , - (G) , , . (WS) - (IS), (WM) (IM). -, , -. .

    004.032.26 (06) 83

  • ISBN 572620526X

    WM

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    84 004.032.26 (06)

  • ..

    , . , , , , , .

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    004.032.26 (06) 85

  • ISBN 572620526X

    , .

    , , - . - (.2), . - , - . .

    -, - - (.10). - (InOut) - n X , m Y (Look). (Process Unit) - (fuz), , , - (Inference), (Memory), (dfuz). (LearningUnit) (fuz), (Current Weight), (wupdate), (Reg) (Pattern). :

    fuz(xi, q(xi)) , - xi q ;

    inference(ln, wi, qxi; i = 1, . . . , I; q = 1, . . . , K) -, yj q xi, wi ; I, K - ; ln , ;

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    86 004.032.26 (06)

  • ..

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    fuz, inference, dfuz, w-update x1, x2 y. - . (q = 1, 2, 3

    004.032.26 (06) 87

  • ISBN 572620526X

    ):

    fuz : qx = ((x lq)c1ql lq < x < mq) ((rq x)c1qr mq < x < rq)(0 else); cql = mq lq; cqr = rq mq,

    (14)

    inference : qy = i=9i=1(wqi q,r=3q,r=1 (qx1, rx2)), (15)dfuz : yq = 0.5(yqn + y

    qr) = 0.5(

    qy/cqn +

    qy/cqr);

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    q/Kq=1qy,

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    w-update : wp+1 = wp(p/p + 1) + wp(y/y)/(p + 1);p = 1, . . . , np.

    (17)

    : lq , mq, rq - , - ; (min), q ; (max), 9 - .

    - , . - - [5]. , .

    - - , - . , - , .

    88 004.032.26 (06)

  • ..

    , -, ( -, --, -). . - , - 19661972 [4]. , . , , -. . , -3, , - , [7]. , , - .

    - - . -, ( , , .), - . , (, , , , .), - . (softrobots) , -, . -, , (RoboCup).

    - (), -, - [6]. . , -, . , XXI , , -

    004.032.26 (06) 89

  • ISBN 572620526X

    , , . - [5, 6]. - , , , -.

    - , , - ., , . - - . , .

    - , , 5 : -, , , . - [7]. , . -. , - . . . -. . -

    90 004.032.26 (06)

  • ..

    - .

    , -, , - . , , , - , . , , - .

    ,

    ,

    . 11.

    , - , - (.11). , -

    004.032.26 (06) 91

  • ISBN 572620526X

    , , , ., - () () -. ( -). ( , -, .) . - ( , , , ) . - , , .

    - -. - , . . - ( -). -, , . , .

    - , , - . , - 1997 , 100 - . , -

    92 004.032.26 (06)

  • ..

    .

    - . , - - , , -, .

    - . () :Honda P3, Asimo; Sony SDR-3 4; Fujtsu HOAP-1; JSC Laboratory H-7. - . , Honda , 1983 . 3 Asimo 3 . 10 , (P3 180 ., Asimo 120 .). Sony (SDR-4 53 .). (HRI) Waseda - . SDR-4, , - , - . , , .

    : -, , , - . , - , , . . 1997 RoboCup, - , 2050 , - -.

    004.032.26 (06) 93

  • ISBN 572620526X

    . - - .

    - ( 28) , - . . (.11), , , -, , ., ( ) . - - ( ) . - (, , ) (, ). ( , , , , ) - . ( ), - , . . , .

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    94 004.032.26 (06)

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    . 12.

    , (.12). , . - - -. , . - , , . , . , . - , -. , , - - .

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    004.032.26 (06) 95

  • ISBN 572620526X

    . - -, , ., , ,, - . -, , , , . , . - , . -. , .

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    96 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 97

  • ISBN 572620526X

    . -, .

    , , - , - - ( ,, .). , , -, (. 13).

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    98 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 99

  • ISBN 572620526X

    ;

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    100 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 101

  • ISBN 572620526X

    () - ;

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    102 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 103

  • ISBN 572620526X

    -, ;

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    , - , . .:

    CA = {ca1, . . . , caM}; R = {r1, . . . , rM}, (ri 6= rj), (18)

    cai i , ri i . , R, . .:

    F = {R, (U1, . . . , UK)}; Ui R : U = {ri1, . . . , riK} (rq 6= rl), (19)

    F , Ui i , .

    CA R , - . , ( ).

    : (CNP Contract Net Protocol), (NS Negotiation Strategy) . . - ,

    104 004.032.26 (06)

  • ..

    (DSK Dynamical Social Knowledge), CNP NS [3]. : ContractFrame (CF ) DSKbase. CF :

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    (20)

    goal(di) ();CA , ; alphacut , CF ;deadline(dli) CF ; contractset(c1, . . . , cm) ; winners , CF .

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    004.032.26 (06) 105

  • ISBN 572620526X

    (1) (7)

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    106 004.032.26 (06)

  • ..

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    004.032.26 (06) 107

  • ISBN 572620526X

    . , .

    - , , - . , , - . , - , , 22 . , , , - . - , , , .

    - . , - , , , , (- , , .). - RoboCup Soccer, 1997 , - . - , RoboCup. , - .

    - ( RoboCup Rescue), -

    108 004.032.26 (06)

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    ( - ).

    1. .. // -

    ( XII , --, 1999), --, 1999.

    2. .. - // IV ,2000 (, 1618 2000), ., 2000.

    3. Weiss G. (Ed.). Multiagent Systems. A Modern Approach to Distributed ArticialIntelligence. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, London, UK, 1999.

    4. . , // . .. . , , 1973.

    5. URL: http://androidworld.com6. Tevatia G. and Schaal S. Inverse Kinematics for Humanoid Robots // In Proceedings

    of IEEE Int. Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2000), 2000.7. .. . .: , 1985.8. .., ..

    // 13- (1618 2002 .), - , , 2002.

    9. .. // - (--, 2528 2002), --, 2002.

    10. . , 21 2003, 40(515).11. Albus D. Brain Behavior and Robotics. BYTE Books, 1987.12. Zadeh L. Towards a Theory of Fuzzy Information Granulations its Centrally to

    Human Reasoning and Fuzzy Logic // Fuzzy Set and Systems, vol. 90, 1997.13. Barto A. and Sutton R. Reinforcemenr Learning: An Introduction. The MIT Press,

    1998.14. . . .: , 1967.15. . . 1. .: , 1987.16. Hayes-Roth B. An Architecture for Adaptive Intelligent Systems // Articial

    Intelligence, vol.72, 1995, pp. 325365.

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    17. Anderson J. The Architecture of Cognition. Harvard University Press, Cambridge,MA, 1983.

    18. Laird J. et al. Soar: An Architecturefor general intelligence // Articial Intelligence,33(1): 164, 1987.

    19. Bratman M. Intention, Plans, and Practical Reasoning. Harvard University Press:Cambridge, MA, 1987.

    20. . ., . . // , 3 (57), 2003.

    , , - - , - - . , - , , -, , . 100 , 4 1 . - (RoboCup) . .

  • . . ALIFE,

    , .E-mail: [email protected]

    -

    - . - - -, . - . - .

    S. A. TEREKHOFFArticial Neural Network Laboratory (ALIFE),

    Troitsk, the Moscow RegionE-mail: [email protected]

    NEURO-DYNAMICAL PROGRAMMING FOR AUTONOMOUSAGENTS

    AbstractThis lecture is devoted to multistage optimization methods in the control of com-plex dynamical systems. Statements of typical control tasks are discussed. Thekey technology neuro-dynamical programming method is based on the ap-proximation of cost-to-go function by articial neural networks. Examples showrelations between reinforced adaptation of autonomous agents and predictivecontrol problems.

    004.032.26 (06) 111

  • ISBN 572620526X

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    112 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 113

  • ISBN 572620526X

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    1 . . ., [35].

    114 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 115

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    116 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 117

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    118 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 119

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    120 004.032.26 (06)

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    , , fN1() - (N 1) , x (cx) .

    f1(c) = g1(c).

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    004.032.26 (06) 121

  • ISBN 572620526X

    - . , - , - . - , . - , , . , . - , .

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    122 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 123

  • ISBN 572620526X

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    124 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 125

  • ISBN 572620526X

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    126 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 127

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    128 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 129

  • ISBN 572620526X

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    130 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 131

  • ISBN 572620526X

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    132 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 133

  • ISBN 572620526X

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    134 004.032.26 (06)

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    :

    Ft = F[t;F1;

    {zt, zt1, . . . ; yt, yt1, . . .

    }].

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    PT =T

    t=1

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    004.032.26 (06) 135

  • ISBN 572620526X

    ( ). - [17] .

    S&P 500. 80 ( , ). - - 19501969 . 25- - 1970 1994 . 0.83 . 0.34 , (US Treasure Bills).

    , , - , 1974 , 80- , 1984 1987.

    - . .

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    136 004.032.26 (06)

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    . [15].

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    [15] - 50 70- , . TD( = 0) - , , .

    16 !

    004.032.26 (06) 137

  • ISBN 572620526X

    . - 10 . , - . , , - .

    - - , -, .

    . . . . - .

    1. Sutton R., Barto A. Reinforcement learning: An introduction. MIT Press, 1998.2. Wolpert D. H., Tumer K. An introduction to collective intelligence. NASA Ames

    Research Center, 2000.URL: http://ic.arc.nasa.gov/ic/projects/coin_pubs.html

    3. ., . - . .: , 1988. 440 .

    4. ., ., . . .: , 1985.5. . . . : -

    , 2001. 368 .6. . ., . ., . . -

    . : - . . . , 2001.7. ., . . : -

    , 2002.8. . .

    // , 1998.

    138 004.032.26 (06)

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    9. Piche S., Keeler J., Martin G., Boe G., Johnson D., Gerules M. Neural networkbased model predictive control // NIPS'1999. Vol. 12, Paper No. 1029.URL: http://nips.djvuzone.org/djvu/nips12/1029.djvu

    10. . . .: , 1960.11. . . -

    // - . 2, , , 2527 2002 . .:- , 2002.

    12. . . // - - . 1, , , 2931 2003 . .: - , 2003.

    13. Tsitsiklis J.N., Van Roy B. Feature-based methods for large scale dynamicprogramming // Machine Learning, 22:5994, 1996.

    14. Sutton R. S. Open Theoretical Questions in Reinforcement Learning. AT&T.URL: www.cs.umass.edu/rich

    15. Bertsekas D. P., Tsitsiklis J. N. Neuro-dynamic programming. Athena Scientic,Belmont, MA, 1996.

    16. Kaelbling L. P., Littman M.L., Moore A. W. Reinforcement learning: A Survey //Journal of AI Research (JAIR), Vol. 4, 1996.URL: http://www.cs.brown.edu/people/lpk/rl-survey/rl-survey.html

    17. Moody J., Saffell M. Reinforcement learning for trading // Advances in NeuralInformation Processing Systems, 11, M. S. Kearns, S. A. Solla and D. A. Cohn, Eds. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1999.

    18. . -. . , 2002. 567 .

    C , - -, ALIFE(. , .). , , , , , . 1 50 .

  • . . , ,

    E-mail: [email protected]

    ?

    , , - , - . - , - .

    N. MAKARENKOInstitute of Mathematics, Kazakhstan, AlmaAta

    E-mail: [email protected]

    HOW ARE TIME SERIES OBTAINED FROM GEOMETRY ANDTOPOLOGY OF SPACE PATTERNS?

    Mathematical aspects of the analysis of extended dynamical systems

    AbstractThe approaches applying computational, integral and stochastic geometry as wellas computational topology give possibility to transform a geometrical and topo-logical complexity of images into scalar time series appropriate for up-to-datenonlinear analysis. This lecture is a comprehensible introduction to contem-porary methods of analysis of spatiotemporal patterns, which are typical forextended dynamical systems.

    140 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 141

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    142 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 143

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    144 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 145

  • ISBN 572620526X

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    146 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 147

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    148 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 149

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    150 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 151

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    152 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 153

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    154 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 155

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    004.032.26 (06) 157

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    158 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 159

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    160 004.032.26 (06)

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    004.032.26 (06) 161

  • ISBN 572620526X

    1733 -, 1777 .

    2. = 2l/P a, P = N1/N - P , N1 N -. [33]. , - , 355/113 3.1415929, N = 3408 , . . [29] -, , , - -, .

    3. (18221900), , (1896) .

    . - [29], - . [30] [31]. , , -[32].

    : C R2

    .

    .

    , , - . , , , -.

    162 004.032.26 (06)

  • . .

    m. , . . - . , , . A1, A2, . . . , An, . . . : , . . m(

    Ai) =

    m(Ai).

    , . - , A1 A2, . , , - 9., , - . , ,

    m(X) =

    X

    f(x, y)dxdy.

    X . - , .

    x, y P R2. G

    x = a + x cos y sin,y = b + x sin + y cos.

    }

    f(x, y) , m(X) G. G (1), - , .

    X

    f(x, y)dxdy =

    Xf(x, y)dxdy.

    9 (. 11b) .

    004.032.26 (06) 163

  • ISBN 572620526X

    , ,

    X

    f(x, y)dxdy =

    Xf(x, y)dxdy,

    (x,y)(x,y) = 1. ,

    Xf(x, y)dxdy =

    Xf(x, y)dxdy.

    X, -,

    f(x, y) = f(x, y).

    , -, f(x, y) , . .:

    f(x, y) = const.

    10, -:

    G X P (x, y) X

    m(X) =

    X

    dxdy

    X

    dP

    , . (3) dP = dxdy .= dx dy -

    11. (3).dx dy -

    f(x)dx f(x(u))x(u)du. -

    ,

    x = x(u, v), y = y(u, v),

    10 .11 , ,

    .

    164 004.032.26 (06)

  • . .

    dP = dxdy =

    (x, y)(u, v)

    dudv.

    , dx =xudu + xvdv, dy = yudu + yvdv 12 (-) : dx dx = dy dy = 0; dx dy = dy dx, dxdy = (xuyvxvyu)dudv, .

    - [34, 35]. -, . , , . .

    G - G (0 6 6 2) p ( O (p > 0)). p, , - O . G (. 12)

    x cos + y sin p = 0. (p, )

    m(X) =

    X

    f(p, )dp d.

    , dP , , :dG = dp d.

    , -. D R2 F , G , D G

    D . dp -

    D, (0 6 6 ) :

    GT

    D

    dG = F.

    12 : xu = x/u.

    004.032.26 (06) 165

  • ISBN 572620526X

    . 12. G C

    C - L,

    x = x(s); y = y(s),

    s . G , C - M(x, y). G C (.12). dG s, , - G. . 12

    = + /2,

    C x. M(x, y) G,

    166 004.032.26 (06)

  • . .

    p = x cos + y sin .

    dp = cos dx + sin dy + (x sin + y cos )d.

    dx = cos ds, dy = sin ds,

    dp = cos( )ds + (x sin + y cos)d.

    d dG = dp d =cos( )ds d.

    d = d + ds, 13

    dG = | sin |ds d.

    , C.

    L0

    ds

    0

    | sin |d = 2L.

    G n 14, - C. G, C, n = 0. C , ;

    ndG = L.

    . , C , , .

    - (5). , - , .

    , C , , - C, - .

    13 | sin | . . .14, n !

    004.032.26 (06) 167

  • ISBN 572620526X

    , - . , C , C. , - , . , . [34, 35].

    1. , , . , - , . , , -, , . . , G () -: , , .

    2. - (u) =

    ai(u)dxi. -

    ( 2 ) (u) =aij(u)dxi dxj ,

    .

    3. , R a, b, c, . . .. L n- R , , , . . .. p = 0, 1, 2 p pL - : 0L = R, 1L = L, 2L ,

    ai(i i) ,

    (a11 + a22) a1(1 ) a2(2 ) = 0, (b11 + b22) b1( 1) b2( 2) = 0,

    = 0, + = 0.

    168 004.032.26 (06)

  • . .

    , -. ei L. =

    iei, =

    jej

    =

    i,j

    aibj(ei ej) =

    i

  • ISBN 572620526X

    . - . [34, 35]. - , - , [36]. - . [31] ., - [37].

    :

    , , : , . . . .

    .

    {xi| i = 1, 2, . . . , N} Rd . , - , , . , , . xi Br(xi) = {x Rd| ||x xi|| 6 r} r. - (1): B(r) =

    Ni=1 Br(xi).

    . , , . , , . - .

    K R3 c 15 - K C2. K K . ,

    15. . .

    170 004.032.26 (06)

  • . .

    K , - :

    K =

    xKB(x).

    . 13.

    ( F V) . , A a (. 13), :

    F(A) = a2 + 4a + 4(/4)2.

    , Q, , :

    V(Q) = a3 + 6a2 + 12a(/4)2 + 8(4/24)3.

    V d (2):

    V(K) =d

    i=0

    (d

    i

    )Wi(K)i,

    Wi(K) . d = 3 Wi [39]:W0(K) = V (K) K,3W1(K) = F (K) K,3W2(K) = H(K) K,

    004.032.26 (06) 171

  • ISBN 572620526X

    3W3(K) = G(K) = 4(K) K, K, .

    d = 2 , - :

    W0 = F , ,W1 = U/2 ,W2 = / . Wi :

    : Wi(A

    B) = Wi(A) + Wi(B)Wi(A

    B).

    . G gA(g G) A . : Wi(gA) =Wi(A).

    . (3) An A, n : Wi(An) Wi(A).

    . -. , . B Bi R2, Ai, . .

    Bi B, Bi =N

    i=1

    Ai; B.

    16 B, A, B B:

    (A

    B) = (A) + (B) (A

    B)

    A

    (A) =

    {1, A 6= ,0, A = .

    16 .

    172 004.032.26 (06)

  • . .

    , , , -, . - ( ) . (3). , .

    -: ( )( )+( )= 1, - . . - , [38], (. 14).

    . 14.

    , , , , .

    , - . . , X R1 n . B, , = n. R2 (. 15).

    (x) x. - X h(x).

    004.032.26 (06) 173

  • ISBN 572620526X

    (x), :

    h(x) = lim0

    {[X

    (x)

    ] [X

    (x + )]}

    .

    , h(x) 6= 0 xi, (x) X X . -

    (X) =

    i

    h(xi).

    h(x) X1, X2, X3 - . 15. , 1 - h(1) = 0. X1 : h(2) = 1 , ,(X1) = 1. X2 , h(2) = 1, h(3) = +1, h(4) = +1; (X2) = 1. , X3 h(2) = 1, h(3) = 0, h(4) = +1, (X3) = 0. , h(x) = +1, X (x) , . . , h(x) = 1, x. - ; , R3 , . X3 : (), .

    . 15. R2

    174 004.032.26 (06)

  • . .

    . C, - s. . , (4). - : kg = d/ds.

    2 =

    C

    kgds.

    M () - M . - [42, 60] ,

    n

    i=1

    ( i) +

    M

    kgds +

    M

    KdA = 2(M)

    1, 2, . . . , n M ; kg M ; K M ; ds dA . , () () ., , - [38, 41].

    . . [43] , . . , , , . . (X) X , (1) (0) X . , (X) = 1, X (X) = 0 . k- , k , , - . , , X , p, q, r. - (p) = (q) = (r) = 1, X . , - , X .

    004.032.26 (06) 175

  • ISBN 572620526X

    , (X) , = 1. , , . . , X - , . . -, (X), [43], - . , X . , , , , . -, , , . . (X) = ( (X)) ( (X)) - .

    1. (18641909) , . , , -. (Geometrie derZahlen; Diophantische Approzimationen .). - . . : Raumund Zeit (1909) .

    2. (17961863) . - (). . . - (1834) , . , (1833), (1842).

    3. - , . -

    176 004.032.26 (06)

  • . .

    [40]:

    h(A, B) = inf{ : A B and B A

    }.

    , B, B - , A. 1. A 2. .

    4. M0 s = M0M , M M0: k = limMM0 /s. k1 k2. () K = k1k2. , , k1 =k2 = 1/R, K = 1/R2

    KdA =

    1/R24R2 = 4.

    . - [38], . [39, 40], -. [41]. - [10]; [42]. [43] - .

    :

    , .

    ,

    - , , , - . ,

    004.032.26 (06) 177

  • ISBN 572620526X

    , -. , , - . , - . . 16 . -

    . 16.

    , . , , , - 17, . , , - . , , , . , (1).

    , 18. ,

    17 .18 . 1953 .

    178 004.032.26 (06)

  • . .

    . , - . , -. . , , N3. - , . - . , -. , , . - N2. . , . , . - , N1. , , . - . Ni, i = 1, 2, 3 , - . - . - [47, 49].

    - , - X(t) Rn, t Rk. X(t) , , (n = 1) - (n = 3), (k = 2). - , sup X(t), , - u : Prob(supX(t) > u). , 19 , , . , . , , -

    19 .

    004.032.26 (06) 179

  • ISBN 572620526X

    E() [47]:

    Prob(sup X(t) > u) E() = 3

    (2)2(u2 1) exp(u2/2)+

    +(1/2)2

    (2)3/2u exp(u2/2) + 2

    2exp(u2/2)+

    +

    (2)1/2

    0

    exp(z2/2)dz.

    R3 . - N2 . R1, . [45]. (t), t [a, b], - = h (. 17). - () h , (t) h, . . A(h) = {t| (t) > h}. A(h) .

    t - : (t) < h; (t + dt) > h, dt . dt :

    h (t)dt < (t) < h; (t) > 0, (t) .

    Prob[h (t)dt < (t) < h] - (t) . 20, - , . . t, (t) h. . 1944 .

    X(t) [0, T ], - h , X(0) 6= X(T ) 6= h. ,

    20 , , .

    180 004.032.26 (06)

  • . .

    . 17.

    X(t) h t0, > 0, X(t) 6 0 (t0 ), t0 X(t) > 0 t0, (t0 + ). t0 [0, T ] h Nh(X, T ). Nh(X, T ) Ah = Ah(X(t)) = {t [0, T ] : X(t) > h} . X(0) < h, Ah ; X(0) h,Ah = Nh + 1.

    :

    {t S : X(t) = h} = Ah(X, S), t RN , N > 1,

    Ah Ah. R2, , Ah - . , . , , - . . [47, 48]. ,

    004.032.26 (06) 181

  • ISBN 572620526X

    . . - (), .

    . 19491989 - 470 (90 -, 25 354 ). , , - . - : 14C ( 5730 ), 60Co (5.26 ),90Sr (28.5 ), 137Cs (30 ), 239Pu (24113 ), 241Am (14.5 ). , - , , . 21. , , - -. . . , 1 2, . . - . , : - 16000 . .

    - - . - 1:1000000 - 10 . - -. , . . , -

    21 1% .

    182 004.032.26 (06)

  • . .

    22 , - . , - , . - , . . - -. , : - k ? - . . 18 Cs . 20 50 . ; (2). K, Th, U .

    0. 0 0. 1 0. 2 0. 3 0. 4 0. 5 0. 6 0. 7 0. 8 0. 9 1. 00. 0

    0. 1

    0. 2

    0. 3

    880

    1080

    1280

    1480

    . 18. Cs

    -. . 19 - (3) IG - . , IG Cs

    22 .

    004.032.26 (06) 183

  • ISBN 572620526X

    . - . [52, 53].

    -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6-50

    -40

    -30

    -20

    -10

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50 Cs K Th U gauss

    . 19.

    . , -