VERILOG HDL- Tutorial, Ppt Format

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What is HDL?y hardware

description language describes the hardware of digital systems in textual form. y One can design any hardware at any level y Simulation of designs before fabrication y With the advent of VLSI, it is not possible to verify a complex design with millions of gates on a breadboard, HDLs came into existence to verify the functionality of these circuits.

Most Commonly used HDLsy Verilogy Verilog HDL is commonly used in the US industry.

Major digital design companies in Pakistan use Verilog HDL as their primary choice. y most commonly used in the design, verification, and implementation of digital logic chipsy VHDL (VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated Circuits) hardwaredescription language)

y VHDL is more popular in Europe. y commonly used as a design-entry language for fieldfield-

programmable gate arrays. Field-Programmable Gate arrays. Array is a type of logic chip that can be programmed.

Verilog SimulatorThere are many logic simulators used for Verilog HDL. Most common are: yXilinx yVeriwell yModel Sim For Beginners Veriwell is good choice and is very user friendly. Xilinx and ModelSim are widely used.

Levels of AbstractionThere are four different levels of abstraction in verilog:yBehavioral /Algorithmic yData flow yGate level ySwitch level.

We will cover Gate level, Data flow and Behavioral Level modeling

Getting startedA verilog program for a particular application consists of two blocksyDesign Block (Module) yTesting Block (Stimulus)

Design BlockDesign Methodologies: Two types of design methodologies y Top Down Design y Bottom Up Design

inputs

Design Block

outputs

Top Down DesignIn Top Down design methodology, we define the top level block and identify the sub-blocks necessary to build the top level block. We further divide the sub-block until we come to the leaf cells, which are the cells which cannot be divided.

Bottom Up DesignIn a Bottom Up design methodology, we first identify the building blocks , we build bigger blocks using these building blocks. These cells are then used for high level block until we build the top level block in the design

EXAMPLEFOUR BIT ADDER (Ripple carry adder)

Module RepresentationVerilog provides the concept of module A module is a y Basic Building block in Verilog y Basic Building block in Verilog y It can be a single element or collection of lower design blocks A verilog code starts with module Syntax: module (inputs, outputs); //Define inputs and outputs Every verilog program starts with thekeyword module and ends with the keyword endmodule

endmodule

Input Output Definitiony Once the module is defined at the start the inputs and

outputs are to be defined explicitly. e.g.y input a , b

//means there are 2 inputs of one bit each

y If input or output is more than 1 bit i.e. two or more bits,

then the definition will be: input [3:0] A, B; output [3:0] C; //4 bit inputs A3-A0 and B3-B0

Levels of Abstraction

Gate Level ModelingIn gate level modeling a circuit can be defined by use of logic gates. These gates predefined in verilog library. The basic gates and their syntax is as follows: and gate_name(output, inputs); or gate_name(output, inputs); not gate_name (output, inputs); xor gate_name(output, inputs); nor gate_name(output, inputs); nand gate_name(output, inputs); xnor gate_name(output, inputs);

Data Flow ModelingContinuous assignment statement is used. Keyword assign is used followed by = Most common operator types areOperator Types Operator Symbol Arithmetic * / + ~ & | ^ ^~ or ~^ >> > 1; 6. assign y = {b, c};

// y=x // y= ab //y= a b //shift right x by 1 //concatenate b with c

e.g. b = 3 b101, c =3 b 111 y = 101111 assign {cout , sum} = a + b + cin; //concatenate sum and cout 7. assign y = s ? b : a // 21 multiplexer when s = 1 , y = b when s = 0 , y = a assign y = s1 ? ( s0 ? d : c ) : ( s0 ? b : a ); // 41 MUX

Module Instantiationy Module instantiation is a process of connecting one

module to another.y For example in a test bench or stimulus the top level

design has to be instantiated

Testing Block (Stimulus)y In order to test your circuit a test bench code is

to be written which is commonly called Stimulus.

y The design block has to be instantiated/called y It displays the output of the design based on the

inputs.

Example2- Input AND Gate

The Design and Stimulus blocks will be as follows:

Design Block1)Gate Level Modelingmodule practice (y, a, b); //module definition input a, b; // inputs(by default it takes 1 bit input output y; // one bit output and gate_1(y, a, b) ; endmodule

2) Data Flow Modelingmodule practice (y, a, b); input a, b; output y; assign y = a & b; endmodule //module definition // by default it takes 1 bit input // one bit output

Stimulus Blockmodule stimulus; reg a, b; wire y; //Instantiate the practice module practice p0(y, a, b); initial begin a=0; b=0; #5 a=1; b=1; #5 a=0; b=1; #5 a=1; b=0; #5 a=1; b=1; // stop the simulation #5 $stop; #5 $finish; // terminate the simulation end initial begin $display("|%b| and |%b| = ", a, b); $monitor ($time, "|%b |" , y); end //initial //$vw_dumpvars; // display thesimulation in the form of timing diagram

endmodule

Example #2:

4 bit ripple carry adder

Full Adder

Bottom Level module//Define a full adder module fulladder (sum, c_out, a, b, c_in); //I/O Port declaration output sum, c_out; input a, b, c_in; //Internal nets wire s1, c1, c2; //full adder logic configuration xor ( s1,a,b); and (c1,a,b); xor (sum,s1,c_in); and (c2,s1,c_in); or (c_out,c2,c1); endmodule

TOP LEVEL MODULE//Define a 4 bit 4 adder module toplevel_fa(sum,c_out,a,b,c_in); //I/O port declaration output [3:0] sum; output c_out; input [3:0] a, b; input c_in; //internal nets wire c1,c2,c3; //Instantiate four 1-bit full adder fulladder fa0(sum[0],c1,a[0],b[0],c_in); fulladder fa1(sum[1],c2,a[1],b[1],c1); fulladder fa2(sum[2],c3,a[2],b[2],c2); fulladder fa3(sum[3],c_out,a[3],b[3],c3); endmodule

Test Bench (stimulus)//define stimulus toplevel module module stimulus; reg [3:0]a,b; //set up variables reg c_in; wire [3:0] sum; wire c_out; //Instantiate the toplevelmodule(ripple carry adder) call it tl toplevel_fa tl(sum,c_out,a,b,c_in);

//stimulate inputs initial begin a = 4'b0000; b = 4'b0010; c_in = 1'b0; #1 $display ( a = %b, b = %b, c_in = %b, sum = %b", a, b, c_in, sum); a = 4'd1; b = 4'd2; c_in = 1'b1; #2$display ( a = %b, b = %b, c_in = %b, sum = %b", a, b, c_in, sum); a = 4'hf; b = 4'ha; c_in = 1'b0; #2$display ( a = %b, b = %b, c_in = %b, sum = %b", a, b, c_in, sum); end endmodule

Verilog Keywordsy Verilog uses about 100 predefined keywords. All the keywords are represented in colored font (either green, blue or red). if it is not shown in a colored font it means there must be some typing error. y All the verilog statements are terminated with a semicolon(;) except for the statements (keywords) like initial, begin, always, if, for, while etc y Verilog is case sensitive i.e. the keywords are written in lower case.

Continuedy Most common keywords are

module, endmodule input, output wire, reg $display, $print, $monitor always, for, while, if initial, begin and, or, not, xor, xnor, nard, nor posedge , negedge, clock, reset, case $vw_dumpvars, $stop, $finish y Single line comment is given by // ( two consecutive slash) and multi-line comment is given by /* */ for e.g // This is the first session of verilog /* this is the first session of verilog*/