Methods of Communication
Verbal Communication (Oral)Speech comes naturally and spontaneously. more flexible than writing. builds up human relationships.
Common situations in a business organization Telephonic communication Face-to-face communication Personal interviews Performance counselling Giving/ receiving Instructions Giving/ receiving Information
Small Group Discussions Meetings/ Conferences Seminars/ Workshops Training Programmes Presentations Conflict Resolutions Negotiations
Essentials of Effective Oral Communication It should be brief and clear. It should be courteous. The words and language should be proper. Excessive clichs should be avoided. Jargon and verbosity should be avoided.
Proper, logical sequence of thoughts and expressions. Appropriate volume and tone of the voice. Supported by appropriate body language. Should be receiver oriented. Should be well timed.
Advantages of Oral Communication Saves time , more efficient. Provides for a good scope for interaction/ participation. Provides for an immediate feedback/ response. Helps faster decision making Helps to satisfy the psychological needs. Scope for an appropriate body language.
Disadvantages of Oral Communication Effectiveness depends upon many external conditions. Cannot be stored in the human memory for a long time and can be lost. Cannot be available for future reference and does not have a legal validity.
In case of any omissions/ deletions, assignment of responsibility becomes difficult. It lacks secrecy/ confidentiality of the message. Phonetics plays an important role.
Verbal Communication (Written) Requires efforts, careful organization of thoughts and continuous practice. There is a long history of evolution of writing as a way of communication. Not flexible as speech. Its a creative and time consuming activity.
Common situations in a business organization Applications Notes/ Memos Notices/ Office Circulars Organization Manuals/ Handbooks House Magazines Appointment Letters Agreements/ Contracts
Complaints/ suggestions Proposals/ Reports Performance Appraisal Reports Case Studies Pamphlets/ Catalogues/ Booklets User Manuals/ Service Manuals/ Brochures Advertisements Business Correspondence
Essentials of Effective Written Communication It should be brief and clear. It should be courteous. It should be accurate in its contents. It should be prompt in response. It should be tactful.
It should be persuasive in disposition. It should maintain decorum. It should evoke cooperation. It should be receiver oriented. It should be properly timed.
Advantages of Written Communication Permanent record and reference for the future. Documentary evidence in cases of legal matters. Helps promotion of uniform policies and procedures as guidelines.
It can cover a large number of people in case of mass communication. It provides for proper division of work/ allocation of duties/ assignment of responsibilities. It helps uniformity in decision-making.
Disadvantages of Written Communication Lot of paper work , requires proper filing and storage. It does not evoke an immediate feedback/ response. Time consuming process. Impersonal, lacking the personal touch. Semantics plays an important role.
Non-Verbal Communication Defined as a process of all messages other than those expressed in oral or written communication. Involves : body- language, physical and psychological environment, space and time.
Types of Non-Verbal Communication 1. Silence 2. Audio Signals : music, sounds,alarms,sirens, bells, whistles, tunes 3. Visual Signals: colours, posters, graphs, maps, signs & signals,symbols
Advantages of Audio-Visual Signals Quick in communicating the message. Effective. Economical on verbal communication.
Make the communication more interesting and motivating. Reflect the intelligence level and cultural background of the sender. Have an educational value. Effective means of advertising.
Limitations of Audio-Visual signals Communicate only simple ideas. Signals require great skills to convey the exact message. More effective in combination with verbal communication.
Easily misunderstood/misinterpreted while decoding the communication. Corrected immediately like verbal communication.
Paralanguage Every verbal communication is accompanied by Paralanguage. The basic element is the Voice. It tells about the speakers sex, background, education, training and temperament, etc. Important elements : pitch, tone, volume, speed, pauses, breaks, power, emphasis, rhythm, softness, etc.
Advantages of Paralanguage Accompanies the oral communication and impacts its effectiveness. Fair indication of the speakers position in the organizational hierarchy. Helps the receiver in decoding and interpretation. Gives useful clues regarding the speakers mental condition.
Limitations of Paralanguage Its like a language, but not a language. Part of non-verbal communication, cannot be relied upon completely. Lack of thorough knowledge of Paralanguage can result into wrong interpretations. Lack of uniformity may result into poor effectiveness of Paralanguage.
Body Language (Kinesics) Defined as a language of signals, gestures, movements, attitudes and is also called as Kinesics.
Facial Expressions Your face is the index of your heart! In the face-to-face communication , we convey a lotconsciously or unconsciously , without speaking a single word. Emotions and feelings
Eyes Common interpretations of the eyes are as follows: Normally open eyes: Receive all images without any critical distinction. Wide Open eyes: Devour the surroundings as a reaction to an overall feeling of joy, fright, surprise, and amazement. Veiled eyes: boredom, disinterest, sluggishness
Slit eyes: extreme concentration, focused attention, overcritical, petty, jealous Closed eyes: protective, no outer impressions wanted, need for isolation, reflection, contemplation, enjoying sensual stimuli like music or food Screwed eyes: response to unwanted irritations, imagination of unpleasant feelings Blinking eyes: embarrassment insecurity, tension
Those who look away while speaking are not sure about their opinion. Those who look at the receiver while speaking appear more confident. Those who look at the floor while speaking are overcautious and try to avoid new ideas, experiences or risks. Open look comes from an open person.
Direct look: eyes wide open, looking into the eyes of the other person, undivided attention, sympathetic, genuine interest, respect for others Vacant look: eyes fixed on an imaginary point, talks around the subject, may result in monologues The look from below: subordination, humility The look from above: expression of superiority, self esteem, pride, arrogance
Laughter Laughter is supposed to be a natural and spontaneous expression of goodwill. Laughter can be of different types (e.g.: simple, natural, free, happy, jolly, roaring, secretive, bitter, mischievous, weird, artificial, boasting, provocative, etc.
HA-HA Laughter: free, open, hearty HE-HE Laughter: mocking, teasing HEE-HEE Laughter: secret, giggle, irony HO-HO Laughter: surprise, loud, showoff, critical, astonishment, protest, challenge SMIRK Laughter with lips closed, mischief holding back, agreement/approval, affection
Hands Open hands: mutual trust, respect opinions Covered hands: concealing feeling of insecurity Clinging hands: confused, insecure Twisted hands: complex emotions/ personalities Clinched fists: strong, capable of verbal fight
Upward thumb: sign of authority, victory Downward thumb: sign of failure, depression Upward index finger: self opinionated, strict Lowered index finger: dominate, emphatic Pointed index finger: demands special attention, severe tension, aggression, no ignorance
Index finger on lips: asking other senses for help, conceal/overcome, insecurity/helplessness Index finger across mouth: unintended shout, spontaneous outcry, restraint Rubbing index finger on lips: very big lie Index finger in mouth: simplicity, ignorance Index fingertips meeting: self confidence
Pressing the fingertips together: compromise, balance, attention, concentration Rubbing fingertips: nervousness, fear of confrontation, lack of action Clasped hands: defense, aggression
Standing Posture Legs slightly spread apart: self-confidence Legs wide apart: eagerness to impress Legs very close together: fear and tension Feet parallel: attentiveness Feet turned inwards: insecurity Feet turned outwards: self-confidence
Body balance on the inner sole: great tension Body balance on the outer sole: nervousness Balanced: firm on both feet, relaxed with self-confidence, level headed Stiff: extreme tension, lack of flexibility, desire to prove oneself Jiggling: shifting weight from side to side, very aggressive Closed legs: contradictory feelings, defensive attitude
Sitting Posture Closed legs: anxiety, tense, defensive, lack of self-confidence Open legs sitting on half chair: open, free, active, positive, committed Open legs sitting on full chair: open, neutral, understanding, tranquility
Open legs sitting on full chair with torso leaning backwards: sprawling, inflated selfconfidence, lack of discipline, lack of decorum, misplaced over familiarity, insensitivity to other people Wrapping legs around chair: inflexibility, inner tension, uncomfortable, helpless, insecure
Crossed legs with full occupation of the chair (men): comf