Verbal-Non Verbal Communication

  • Published on
    28-Nov-2014

  • View
    996

  • Download
    1

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

<p>Methods of Communication</p> <p>Communication</p> <p>Verbal Communication</p> <p>Non-Verbal Communication</p> <p>Oral</p> <p>Written</p> <p>Silence</p> <p>Signals</p> <p>Audio Signals</p> <p>Visual Signals</p> <p>Verbal Communication (Oral)Speech comes naturally and spontaneously. more flexible than writing. builds up human relationships.</p> <p>Common situations in a business organization Telephonic communication Face-to-face communication Personal interviews Performance counselling Giving/ receiving Instructions Giving/ receiving Information</p> <p>Small Group Discussions Meetings/ Conferences Seminars/ Workshops Training Programmes Presentations Conflict Resolutions Negotiations</p> <p>Essentials of Effective Oral Communication It should be brief and clear. It should be courteous. The words and language should be proper. Excessive clichs should be avoided. Jargon and verbosity should be avoided.</p> <p> Proper, logical sequence of thoughts and expressions. Appropriate volume and tone of the voice. Supported by appropriate body language. Should be receiver oriented. Should be well timed.</p> <p>Advantages of Oral Communication Saves time , more efficient. Provides for a good scope for interaction/ participation. Provides for an immediate feedback/ response. Helps faster decision making Helps to satisfy the psychological needs. Scope for an appropriate body language.</p> <p>Disadvantages of Oral Communication Effectiveness depends upon many external conditions. Cannot be stored in the human memory for a long time and can be lost. Cannot be available for future reference and does not have a legal validity.</p> <p> In case of any omissions/ deletions, assignment of responsibility becomes difficult. It lacks secrecy/ confidentiality of the message. Phonetics plays an important role.</p> <p>Verbal Communication (Written) Requires efforts, careful organization of thoughts and continuous practice. There is a long history of evolution of writing as a way of communication. Not flexible as speech. Its a creative and time consuming activity.</p> <p>Common situations in a business organization Applications Notes/ Memos Notices/ Office Circulars Organization Manuals/ Handbooks House Magazines Appointment Letters Agreements/ Contracts</p> <p>Complaints/ suggestions Proposals/ Reports Performance Appraisal Reports Case Studies Pamphlets/ Catalogues/ Booklets User Manuals/ Service Manuals/ Brochures Advertisements Business Correspondence</p> <p>Essentials of Effective Written Communication It should be brief and clear. It should be courteous. It should be accurate in its contents. It should be prompt in response. It should be tactful.</p> <p>It should be persuasive in disposition. It should maintain decorum. It should evoke cooperation. It should be receiver oriented. It should be properly timed.</p> <p>Advantages of Written Communication Permanent record and reference for the future. Documentary evidence in cases of legal matters. Helps promotion of uniform policies and procedures as guidelines.</p> <p> It can cover a large number of people in case of mass communication. It provides for proper division of work/ allocation of duties/ assignment of responsibilities. It helps uniformity in decision-making.</p> <p>Disadvantages of Written Communication Lot of paper work , requires proper filing and storage. It does not evoke an immediate feedback/ response. Time consuming process. Impersonal, lacking the personal touch. Semantics plays an important role.</p> <p>Non-Verbal Communication Defined as a process of all messages other than those expressed in oral or written communication. Involves : body- language, physical and psychological environment, space and time.</p> <p>Types of Non-Verbal Communication 1. Silence 2. Audio Signals : music, sounds,alarms,sirens, bells, whistles, tunes 3. Visual Signals: colours, posters, graphs, maps, signs &amp; signals,symbols</p> <p>Advantages of Audio-Visual Signals Quick in communicating the message. Effective. Economical on verbal communication.</p> <p>Make the communication more interesting and motivating. Reflect the intelligence level and cultural background of the sender. Have an educational value. Effective means of advertising.</p> <p>Limitations of Audio-Visual signals Communicate only simple ideas. Signals require great skills to convey the exact message. More effective in combination with verbal communication.</p> <p> Easily misunderstood/misinterpreted while decoding the communication. Corrected immediately like verbal communication.</p> <p>Paralanguage Every verbal communication is accompanied by Paralanguage. The basic element is the Voice. It tells about the speakers sex, background, education, training and temperament, etc. Important elements : pitch, tone, volume, speed, pauses, breaks, power, emphasis, rhythm, softness, etc.</p> <p>Advantages of Paralanguage Accompanies the oral communication and impacts its effectiveness. Fair indication of the speakers position in the organizational hierarchy. Helps the receiver in decoding and interpretation. Gives useful clues regarding the speakers mental condition.</p> <p>Limitations of Paralanguage Its like a language, but not a language. Part of non-verbal communication, cannot be relied upon completely. Lack of thorough knowledge of Paralanguage can result into wrong interpretations. Lack of uniformity may result into poor effectiveness of Paralanguage.</p> <p>Body Language (Kinesics) Defined as a language of signals, gestures, movements, attitudes and is also called as Kinesics.</p> <p>Facial Expressions Your face is the index of your heart! In the face-to-face communication , we convey a lotconsciously or unconsciously , without speaking a single word. Emotions and feelings</p> <p>Eyes Common interpretations of the eyes are as follows: Normally open eyes: Receive all images without any critical distinction. Wide Open eyes: Devour the surroundings as a reaction to an overall feeling of joy, fright, surprise, and amazement. Veiled eyes: boredom, disinterest, sluggishness</p> <p> Slit eyes: extreme concentration, focused attention, overcritical, petty, jealous Closed eyes: protective, no outer impressions wanted, need for isolation, reflection, contemplation, enjoying sensual stimuli like music or food Screwed eyes: response to unwanted irritations, imagination of unpleasant feelings Blinking eyes: embarrassment insecurity, tension</p> <p> Those who look away while speaking are not sure about their opinion. Those who look at the receiver while speaking appear more confident. Those who look at the floor while speaking are overcautious and try to avoid new ideas, experiences or risks. Open look comes from an open person.</p> <p> Direct look: eyes wide open, looking into the eyes of the other person, undivided attention, sympathetic, genuine interest, respect for others Vacant look: eyes fixed on an imaginary point, talks around the subject, may result in monologues The look from below: subordination, humility The look from above: expression of superiority, self esteem, pride, arrogance</p> <p>Laughter Laughter is supposed to be a natural and spontaneous expression of goodwill. Laughter can be of different types (e.g.: simple, natural, free, happy, jolly, roaring, secretive, bitter, mischievous, weird, artificial, boasting, provocative, etc.</p> <p>HA-HA Laughter: free, open, hearty HE-HE Laughter: mocking, teasing HEE-HEE Laughter: secret, giggle, irony HO-HO Laughter: surprise, loud, showoff, critical, astonishment, protest, challenge SMIRK Laughter with lips closed, mischief holding back, agreement/approval, affection</p> <p>Hands Open hands: mutual trust, respect opinions Covered hands: concealing feeling of insecurity Clinging hands: confused, insecure Twisted hands: complex emotions/ personalities Clinched fists: strong, capable of verbal fight</p> <p>Upward thumb: sign of authority, victory Downward thumb: sign of failure, depression Upward index finger: self opinionated, strict Lowered index finger: dominate, emphatic Pointed index finger: demands special attention, severe tension, aggression, no ignorance</p> <p> Index finger on lips: asking other senses for help, conceal/overcome, insecurity/helplessness Index finger across mouth: unintended shout, spontaneous outcry, restraint Rubbing index finger on lips: very big lie Index finger in mouth: simplicity, ignorance Index fingertips meeting: self confidence</p> <p> Pressing the fingertips together: compromise, balance, attention, concentration Rubbing fingertips: nervousness, fear of confrontation, lack of action Clasped hands: defense, aggression</p> <p>Standing Posture Legs slightly spread apart: self-confidence Legs wide apart: eagerness to impress Legs very close together: fear and tension Feet parallel: attentiveness Feet turned inwards: insecurity Feet turned outwards: self-confidence</p> <p> Body balance on the inner sole: great tension Body balance on the outer sole: nervousness Balanced: firm on both feet, relaxed with self-confidence, level headed Stiff: extreme tension, lack of flexibility, desire to prove oneself Jiggling: shifting weight from side to side, very aggressive Closed legs: contradictory feelings, defensive attitude</p> <p>Sitting Posture Closed legs: anxiety, tense, defensive, lack of self-confidence Open legs sitting on half chair: open, free, active, positive, committed Open legs sitting on full chair: open, neutral, understanding, tranquility</p> <p> Open legs sitting on full chair with torso leaning backwards: sprawling, inflated selfconfidence, lack of discipline, lack of decorum, misplaced over familiarity, insensitivity to other people Wrapping legs around chair: inflexibility, inner tension, uncomfortable, helpless, insecure</p> <p> Crossed legs with full occupation of the chair (men): comfortable, self-confidence, equality, strong motivation, strict personality Crossed legs with full occupation of the chair (women): attractive, interest, shy, unobtrusive, relaxed, informal, willing to talk, inner security</p> <p>Walking The pace: temperament and power The size of steps: self-confidence, decisionmaking, ambition, initiative, broad mindedness The rhythm: relaxed or otherwise The position of the feet: firmness</p> <p> The other movements of the body--y swift movements: activity y quiet movements: calmness y lethargic movements: sluggishness y distracted movements: nervousness/insecurity</p> <p>Types of Walking A hesitant walk: small steps, stiff neck, cautious, lack of risk taking, lack of selfconfidence, safety first attitude A mincing walk: small quick steps, lack of rhythm, agitated, anxiety, fear</p> <p>A relaxed walk: casual, sign of immaturity, lack of commitment, indolence, fear of endeavour y A swinging walk: artificial, opinionated, selfish, provocative y A dragging walk: sluggish, inactive y A stiff walk: unnaturally tense, lack of rhythm, timid, strict self-imposed rules, inflexible, precautions to avoid any kind of risk</p> <p>Proximics The physical distance between two or more people in communication indicates the relationship between the parties (E.T. Hall). Based on his studies the distance can be classified as follows: The intimate distance: 15 inches to 2 feet The personal distance: 2 feet to 5 feet The social distance: 5 feet to 12 feet The public distance: 12 feet to 24 feet</p> <p>Tactile Tactile is non-verbal communication related to the reception of and the sense of touch of the people. It is observed that sometimes a personal touch between the superior and subordinate plays an important role in non-verbal communication expressing mutual trust, love, affection and confidence. Of course, tactile type of non-verbal communication requires fair length of association and working relationship between the superior and subordinate.</p> <p> A word of caution: adequate care should be taken to see that the interpersonal relationship between the superior and subordinate is good and long enough with no difference in perceptions, values, beliefs and interpretations, in order to avoid any misunderstandings in words and actions.</p> <p>Handshakes Equal Handshake: Equal in status and attitude Tight Grasp: Superiority complex Limp Handshake: Inferiority complex, depression, dejection Informal Handshake: Informal attitude and behaviour, friendship</p> <p>Advantages of Body Language The most easily visible aspect of communication that helps the receiver in decoding the message. Supplements face-to-face verbal communication with the help of the facial expressions and gestures to establish the rapport.</p> <p> Adds intensity and effectiveness to the verbal communication. In absence of it, the communication can look dry and blank. Relies heavily on audio-visual signals. In the long run, it helps to improve the quality of the verbal communication, overall atmosphere, and credibility of the communicators.</p> <p>Limitations of Body Language It is a part of non- verbal communication. Can be deceptive or misguiding for the results. Depends upon the family, educational and cultural background of the people that vary from place to place requiring people to be careful in their use and understanding.</p> <p> It can be ineffective if the listener is not attentive. It is comparatively more effective in face-toface communication or small groups than in large gatherings.</p>