Vegetable IPM Jon Traunfeld- jont@umd.edu. College of Agriculture and Natural Resources

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Vegetable IPM Jon Traunfeld- jont@umd.edu </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> College of Agriculture and Natural Resources </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> PART 1 An overview of Integrated Pest Management Principles and Practices </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Vegetable IPM Gardeners want to reduce dependence on pesticides that pose risks to people, non- human animals, and natural resources. The way you garden and manage pests can affect my garden. We need an ecosystem approach that emphasizes non-chemical strategies for pest management. </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> IPM philosophy IPM is a knowledge-based, wholistic approach to managing pests at an acceptable level. Gardens, and landscapes are complex ecosystems; IPM seeks balance between pests and beneficials. Emphasizes biological, cultural, and physical methods to prevent and manage problems. Least toxic pesticides may be warranted as a last resort. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> IPM: simple steps and common sense Study right plant in the right place; give them what they need. know the important pest problems and how to prevent them. learn the habits, life-cycle, and weaknesses of key pests. Spy monitor plants closely for signs and symptoms of problems. Are symptoms getting worse? strive for correct diagnosis of problem. Squish take least toxic action. did the action work? Continue to monitor. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Cultural and Environmental Problems Abiotic = without life Less than of plant problems are caused by insects, disease, and other critters Blossom-end rot (nutritional disorder) </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Catfacing- caused by planting too early. </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> 2,4-D herbicide injury Plants burned with pyrethrum and soap insecticide </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Knowledge: hornworm lifecycle </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Mexican Bean Beetle- Skeletonizer </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Emerging Pests: squash beetle </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Biological control Give mother nature a chance! Predators eat pests Parasitoids lay their eggs on or in pests </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Biological Control Attracting natural, native predators and parasites. Plant beds of flowering annuals and perennials in these families: Mint (anise hyssop, thyme Carrot (dill, yarrow) Aster (tansy, marigold, zinnia) Brassica (alyssum, dames rocket, Asian greens) Buying and releasing predators and parasites not generally recommended because they tend to disperse; effectiveness varies ok for severe spider mites infestations </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Food for our garden buddies Many predators and parasites require nectar and pollen at some point in their life cycle. Plant mountain mint, anise hyssop, thyme, oregano, basil, dill, yarrow, aster, zinnia, alyssum, phlox, bee balm, milkweeds, butterfly weed, borage, lambs ear </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Natural predators </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Hornworm parasitized by tiny Braconid wasps </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Wasps- 220; hornworm- 1 Photo: Rosemary Noble </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Bio-control of aphids </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Physical control strategies Hand-pick pest insects and their egg masses. Remove badly diseased leaves or plants. Exclude insects and other pests with a floating row cover, fence, etc. Apply a barrier dust or spray- wood ash, lime, kaolin clay to prevent insect feeding. </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Your mission: locate and destroy egg masses Colorado potato beetle Squash bug </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Floating row cover Spun-bonded polyester; gauzy material. Draped over crop and secured to ground; leave slack to allow crop growth. Excludes pests, and increases crop growth in spring and fall by raising temp. and humidity. Can be re-used; must be removed before flowering of cross-pollinated crops (cukes, squash, etc.) </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Row cover flea beetles = healthy eggplant </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Flea Beetles </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Eggplant Leaves Coated with Surround </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Surround- kaolin clay 2006 research shows flea beetle supression- may be effective with other pests About $1 per lb. Rate: 1 cup/1 qt. water Spray when leaves are dry. Apply thoroughly to all leaf surfaces. Maintain white film coating on leaves; may take 2-3 applications. Re-apply if rainfall washes off white coating. Can be used up to the date of harvest. </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Cultural control strategies Grow resistant varieties Clean up and compost plant debris at end of season Time your crops to avoid expected pests Prune out injury; bag up badly infested plants Plant lots of flowering plants to attract beneficial insects </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Some effective organic pesticides Pyrethrins- controls or suppresses a wide range of insects (Pyganic- 1.4%) Neem extract suppresses beetles and caterpillars Neem oil- insecticide and preventative fungicide Spinosad- controls beetles, caterpillars, flies, thrips Bacillus thuringiensis- controls young caterpillars; suppresses large caterpillars </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Other good organic pesticides Hort oil- controls aphids, mites, soft-bodied immatures Insecticidal soap- suppresses aphids, mites, soft-bodied immatures Copper- fungicide </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Spinosad Derived from Saccharopolyspora spinosa, a soil bacterium. Causes rapid excitation of nervous system. Must be ingested; kills within 2 days Effective against caterpillars, beetles, sawflies, leafhoppers, spider mites; BUT NOT true bugs Most beneficials not harmed Monterey, Ferti-Lome, and Bonide have home garden products </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> PART 2 Some of the Common Insect Pests and Diseases of Concern </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Spider mites love it hot and dry </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Spider mites </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Spider Mites 8 legged, non-insect; active on leaf undersides. Two-spotted and European red are primary pest species. Sucking mouthparts produce stipples; tiny bleached areas on leaf surface; leaves yellow and die Webbing is a sign of severe infestation Wide host range; many vegetable plants Thrive in hot, dry weather Many quick generations each year </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Organic Management Mites like it hot, dry, and dusty. Hose off plants to dislodge and repel mites. Horticulural oil and insecticidal soap is most effective on eggs. May be used if leaves are not too damaged or hot to tolerate it. Excessive nitrogen fertilization increases mites Mites will migrate from neighboring weeds, so keep weeds supressed. Clean up garden residues. </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Squash bug </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Eggs and immatures </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Organic management Remove plant debris to eliminate overwintering sites. Hand-pick adults and eggs; trap with wooden boards. Cover plants with floating row cover from transplant to bloom. Plant late (mid-June); plant successive crops. </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Squash bug parasitoid </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Wilted squash- what could be wrong? </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Squash vine borer </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Very common lethal pest; attacks squashes and pumpkin. Pupae over-winter below soil; moths emerge in spring and inconspicuous eggs are laid singly on stems. Cream colored larva with brown head; 1 inch long when mature. 1-2 generations/year. </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Organic management: before signs of injury Set out 3-4 week old transplants after danger of frost to get a jump on this pest. Cover plants with floating row cover until flowering to prevent egg-laying. Dust lower stems with rotenone or pyrethrum or wrap them with aluminum foil. Till soil at seasons end to kill/expose svb cocoons. Butternut and cushaw are resistant; yellow crookneck less susceptible than zucchini. </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Organic management: after signs of injury Locate active borers by slitting the vine vertically where frass is kicked out. Kill borer. Mound soil over the wound or wrap with duct tape. Seal up infested vines in plastic bag before larvae pupate (break life cycle.) </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Imported cabbageworm </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Pupa overwinter in chrysalis; emerge as butterflies in spring; strong fliers Eggs are rarely noticed 2-3 generations; early control is essential Host plants are all in cabbage family </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> Cotesia glomerata- parasitoid </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> Organic management Remove all cabbage family crop residues when crops are finished Floating row cover for planting to harvest Hand-pick larvae Spray with Bt or Spinosad </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> Spotted cucumber beetle Striped cucumber beetle </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> Bacterial Wilt Disease bacterial ooze </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> Organic Management Difficult to hand-pick; must be controlled early in season. Exclude with floating row cover. Protect plants prior to flowering with organic insecticides (apply to both sides of leaves). Seal up badly infested plants in plastic bag. Plant late; plant multiple crops. </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> Harlequin bug </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> Harlequin bug nymphs hatching from eggs </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> Organic management Once or twice a week- search out and crush eggs, nymphs, and adults. Floating row cover from transplant to harvest. Spray nymphs with an pyrethrum + oil/soap or neem + oil/soap (spray must contact bugs). Mustard greens and Chinese cabbage are most vulnerable crops. Remove all crop residues when crops are finished (if composting- make sure piles reach 140 degrees F. to kill bugs). This can become a major pest if you continually grow cabbage family crops. </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> Brown stink bug nymph Green stink bug nymph Southern green stink bug nymph Native stink bugs </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> Brown and Green Stink Bug and Fruit Injury </li> <li> Slide 58 </li> <li> BMSB feeds on many fruits &amp; vegetables http://www.agnr.umd.edu/news/article.cfm?id=fd26661f0a5a5a8f00985fc62735924d </li> <li> Slide 59 </li> <li> Brown marmorated stink bug meats Godzilla! </li> <li> Slide 60 </li> <li> Each instar is one week 2nd instar looks like tiny spiders or ticks Photo by Gary Bernon, USDA_APHIS Egg mass with 1st and 2nd instar nymphs </li> <li> Slide 61 </li> <li> 2 nd to 5 th instar USDA ARS </li> <li> Slide 62 </li> <li> Common fungal diseases of tomato leaves Septoria leaf spotEarly blight </li> <li> Slide 63 </li> <li> Advanced symptoms of early blight </li> <li> Slide 64 </li> <li> Early blight and Septoria leaf spot Principal foliar diseases of tomato. Splashes up to lower leaves and progresses up plant. First symptom of early blight is irregular brown lesions with bulls-eye pattern and yellow halo. Septoria spots are small and light in color with dark margins. Can spread rapidly with warm, humid weather and defoliate plants. Over-winters in crop debris, wooden stakes, and in soil. </li> <li> Slide 65 </li> <li> Organic management Cultivars vary somewhat in susceptibility; but none with good resistance. Thick organic mulch can slow upward splashing of fungal spores. Give plants more space; improved air circulation. Remove badly infected lower leaves. Spray with fixed copper fungicide; other organic sprays have not proven effective. </li> <li> Slide 66 </li> <li> Key points to remember Its easier to prevent a problem than cure one. Look under leaves for pest problems. Insect pests are more vulnerable to pesticides in their larval stage. Never spray insecticides during bloom period. </li> <li> Slide 67 </li> <li> Resources Grow It! Eat It! http://www.extension.umd.edu/growit We have all types of practical food gardening tips and information. Check out our popular blog! Home and Garden Information Center http://www.extension.umd.edu/hgic Here you will find factsheets, photos, and videos. You can also subscribe to the free monthly e-newsletter. We answer gardening questions 24/7just click Ask Marylands Garden Experts Maryland Master Gardener Program http://www.extension.umd.edu/mg Consider becoming a trained MG volunteer! </li> <li> Slide 68 </li> <li> This program was brought to you by the Maryland Master Gardener Program Howard County University of Maryland Extension </li> </ul>