VIRTUAL WATER AND WATER ISSUES IN CHINA TANG QIUHONG
Virtual Water and Water Issues in ChinaWater issues in China.Virtual Water and water resources management.Some problems in WR assessment.
1. Water issues in ChinaWater resource per capita (population of 1997)Unit: m3/capita4832m3/capita500m3/capita2369m3/capita
1. Water issues in ChinaWater resource per capita (1997)Unit: m3/capita
1.1 Inland river areaWater resource: 4832m3/capita Reclamation increases. (Especially, in Xinjiang)Water use at upstream increases. It causes water scarcity downstream (For example, Tarimu River)
1.2 Yellow River area(Huaihe, Haihe)Water resource: 656/389/225m3/capita Rapid increases in water use though cultivated land area decreases. (Maybe it is because of increases in irrigated area at downstream: Map)Decreases in discharge in to 1990s though precipitations change little. (In Hebei province, precipitation 2.7%, but discharge 25%, water resource 14%, data set 1956-1997 )
1.3 Yangtse River areaWater resource: 2369m3/capita Commonly, Yangtse river has no water scarcity problem (flood control, fight waterlogging).Cultivated land area decreases because of the economic growth.
1. Review main water issues in ChinaFlood, waterloggingCultivated land area decreasesReclamationWater use in upstream Rapid increases in water useDecreases in dischargeWithout water quality problems!4832m3/capita500m3/capita2369m3/capita
2. Virtual Water and WR managementImport VW will not change the WR. Import / Export VW will hurt /enhance local agriculture.Import VW != enhance industry (depend on industry demand, vi )
2.1 WR management in inland river caseWhy have water scarcity problem:ReclamationWater use in upstream WR =(Wa - v)+ (Wi + vi)+(We + ve)v= vi + ve(Virtual water export: 65.7*108m3 )Industry demand, vi , is not very much in Northwest China.Export v hurt the environment ve (a seize the water for e)Reduce export v will hurt agriculture, but will not get benefit from industry viImprove water use efficiency. Reduce the water use but keep VW export (protect agriculture, farmer).Improve industry, industrial urbanization, vi , reduce VW export.Water right. (upstream should not use all the water) ACTIONS:
2.2 WR management in Yellow river caseWhy have water scarcity problem:Rapid increases in water useDecreases in dischargeWR=(Wa-v)+(Wi+vi)+(We+ve)v= vi + veWater in short supply (population increase, economy increase).a ,i and e are hurt.Improve water use efficiency. Use same water, do more things.Give up. (Import VW [repress agriculture] or encourage people to move out)Change WR. (Import real water!) ACTIONS:(Water resource: about 500m3/capita )WR+t=(Wa+ta)+(Wi+ ti)+(We+te)t= ta + ti + te
2.3 WR management in Yangtse river caseWater issues:Flood, waterloggingCultivated land area decreasesAgriculture is hurt by industry, not because of WATER, but land.Much water run to waste (flow to the sea).Export VW. (Increase irrigated area, 48.2%, data 1998)Export real water. ACTIONS:WR=(Wa-v)+(Wi+vi)+(We+ve)v= vi + veWR+t=(Wa+ta)+(Wi+ ti)+(We+te)t= ta + ti + te
2. Review VR and WR management Red: existing circumstance Blue: management VW flow real water flowland increase, export VWland decrease, move more water to i,reduce VW exporta,i,e are short of waterrepress a, import VW and real waterwater waste (to the sea)Export VW and real water
3. Some problems in WR assessment3.1 Limitation of renewable WR definition4800m3/capita?500m3/capita2300m3/capitaprecipitation50-100mm/a400-600mm/aAbout 1000mm/aaie4800m3/capita
3.2 VW Trade can save WATER Res? The assumption is:WR in NA is same as WR in SA.Deny the WR distribution problem.
Underlying assumption is:If we can transport Real Water form SA to NA, we can get more food (benefit).From the eyes of management, VW trade can not save WR, (it can only save virtual water?)
3.3 VW Strategy WR =(Wa-v)+ (Wi+ vi)+(We+ve)v= vi + veImport / Export Virtual Water v:Benefit(i): How much water does industry demand? If we know it, we can calculate Benefit(i).Benefit(e): How to calculate the value of environment? Mr. Jiang has do some research on it  .Benefit!Scientists tell us an object, engineers tell us to reach the object with maximize profit.A good engineer should be a good sociologist first.
InvestmentProfit/ BenefitValue(v)Benefit(i) + Benefit(e) -Loss(a)
Please move your eyes to China!Thank you for your attention!
Reference United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) (1997): Study on Assessment of Water Resources of Member Countries and Demand by User Sectors: China - Water Resources and Their Use. New York, p. 9,,, 20007. (Chinese) Water resources situation in Yellow River, He Weicheng, Report of water issues in China, 2000 (7). , , . (Chinese) Virtual Water: A new water resources management way in arid area in China, Chen Guodong, Special report of water issues. , , ,, 20001234. (Chinese) Improve the irrigation works in south China, strengthen food self-support, He Weicheng, Report of water issues in China, 2000.12 (34). Rockstrm, J., L. Gordon, C. Folke, M. Falkenmark, and M. Engwall. 1999. Linkages among water vapor flows, food production, and terrestrial ecosystem services. Conservation Ecology 3(2): 5. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol3/iss2/art5  T. OKI, M Sato, et al. Virtual water trade to Japan and in the world . , , : , 1999. (Chinese) Review of value of water resource, Jiang Wenlai, Beijing: Science press, 1999., , , 1999(1). (Chinese) A study on water resource value model, Jiang Wenlai, Resourcesscience: 1999(1).AcknowledgeMost of the data come from - (Chinese, Sustainable Development in China- Shared data in water resource and water environment, URL: http://sdinfo.chinawater.net.cn/ ) and Can China Feed Itself? Homepage (author: Gerhand K. Heilig URL: http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/LUC/ChinaFood/index_m.htm ).