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UTJECAJ GLOBALIZACIJE NA NOVINARSTVO

UTJECAJ GLOBALIZACIJE NA NOVINARSTVO · 2011-12-29 · 2 UTJECAJ GLOBALIZACIJE NA NOVINARSTVO Izdavač ICEJ Izvršni izdavač Sveučilišna knjižara Izvršni urednik Igor Kanižaj

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  • PREDGOVOR UREDNIKA 1

    UTJECAJ GLOBALIZACIJENA NOVINARSTVO

  • UTJECAJ GLOBALIZACIJE NA NOVINARSTVO2

    IzdavačICEJ

    Izvršni izdavačSveučilišna knjižara

    Izvršni urednikIgor Kanižaj

    Lektura i redakturaIvo Žanić

    Priprema za tisakStanislav Vidmar

    CIP – Nacionalna i sveučilišna knjižnica, Zagreb

    ISBN 953-7015-30-0

    Zagreb, 2006.

    Ova knjiga je izašla kao izdanje Tempus programa JETiC(Journalists Education and Training in Croatia)

  • PREDGOVOR UREDNIKA 3

    UrednikStjepan Malović

    Autori:Th omas A. Bauer, Mato Brautović, Viktorija Car, Ante Gavranović, Julije Katančević, Stjepan Malović, Đorđe Obradović, Lejla Panjeta,

    Tena Perišin, Derviš Selhanović, Majda Tafra-Vlahović, Gordana Vilović

    UTJECAJGLOBALIZACIJE

    NA NOVINARSTVO

  • UTJECAJ GLOBALIZACIJE NA NOVINARSTVO4

  • PREDGOVOR UREDNIKA 5

    SADRŽAJ

    Predgovor urednika . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

    PRVI DIO – Procesi i trendoviThomas A. Bauer: Media Competence as a Cultural Dimension of Social

    Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Ante Gavranovi: Globalizacija i odgovornost novinara. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33Stjepan Malovi: Javno novinarstvo: anakronizam ili potreba . . . . . . . . . . . . .49Viktorija Car: Televizija i globalizacija: uloga javnog servisa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59Gordana Vilovi: Medijska etika: preduvjet kvalitetnijem

    hrvatskom novinarstvu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73Majda Tafra-Vlahovi: Modeli obrazovanja za odnose s javnostima . . . . . . 83Lejla Panjeta: Javno i privatno oglašavanje u igranom dugometražnom

    sadržaju globalnih medija . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95Derviš Selhanovi: Budućnost odnosa s javnošću (PR) u svjetlu

    savremene globalne komunikacije . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109

    DRUGI DIO – Kako to radimoMato Brautovi: Content Analysis of Croatian Mainstream Online Media:

    Comercial Model of Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117Đore Obradovi: Novinska anketa kao mogućnost

    manipuliranja javnostima. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131Julije Katanevi: Analiza izvora informacija u lokalnom novinarstvu . . . . 143Tena Perišin: Euromagazin na HTV-u: Europa na javnoj televiziji . . . . . . . . . 153

    Kazalo & Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

  • UTJECAJ GLOBALIZACIJE NA NOVINARSTVO6

  • PREDGOVOR UREDNIKA 7

    PREDGOVOR UREDNIKA

    Mediji su nezaobilazni u suvremenom svijetu. Kažu, ništa se nije dogodilo ako to mediji nisu zabilježili. No, bilježe li mediji sve? Baš sve? Dakako, to je nemoguće. Pa kakva je onda slika svijeta koju nam prezentiraju? Je li to prava slika? A što je prava slika svijeta? Jesu li mediji poput zrcala koji samo prenose odraz stvarnosti, jesu li urednici gate keeperi koji puštaju samo ono što misle da je zanimljivo njihovoj publici? Ili, mediji su samo produžena ruka nekih centara moći koji oblikuju javno mnijenje prema svojim potrebama?

    A kako se u to sve uklapa globalizacija. Ako je išta u ovom svijetu globalizirano, onda su to mediji. Mamutske globalne medijske korporacije umrežile su svijet i sa-žele informativne kanale. Medijske su tvrtke tako postale jedan od ključnih aktera u kreiranju današnjeg svijeta.

    Kako se to sve odražava na novinarstvo, na odnose s javnostima i – najvažnije – kako običan čovjek doživljava današnjost? Jesu li mediji zadovoljili potrebe suvre-menog čovječanstva ili su pak ugrozili pluralizam mišljenja, unifi cirali javno mnije-nje i snažno utjecali na pojednostavljeno razumijevanje svjetskih zbivanja?

    Sve su to pitanja koja su raspravljali istaknuti medijski stručnjaci, profesori novi-narstva, masovnog komuniciranja i odnosa s javnostima te novinari i javni djelatnici na međunarodnoj konferenciji “Kako globalizacija utječe na novinarstvo” održanoj u Opatiji od 16. do 18. lipnja 2006. godine.

    Organizator skupa bio je Međunarodni centar za obrazovanje novinara (ICEJ), kao nositelj značajnog međunarodnog Tempus projekta “Journalism Education and Training in Croatia” (JETiC). Projekt je odobrila Europska Unija 2004. godine, a u konzorcijumu su, uz ICEJ, Sveučilište u Beču, kao ugovaratelj projekta, Visoka škola novinarstva iz Lille-a u Francuskoj, Fakultet političkih znanosti Sveučilišta u Zagre-bu, te Kaltenbrunner Institut iz Beča.

    U projektu su, uz ostale djelatnosti, predviđene i dvije međunarodne konferenci-ja na temu medija. Prva je bila na temu globalizacije. Uspjeh skupa potakao je orga-nizatore da od sudionika naruče tekstove kojima bi detaljnije i analitičnije osvijetlili utjecaj globalizacije na novinarstvo.

  • UTJECAJ GLOBALIZACIJE NA NOVINARSTVO8

    I, eto, pred vama je knjiga u kojoj su sabrani tekstovi koji su s raznih strana ra-zmotrili aspekte globalizacije.

    Tekstovi su podijeljeni u dva dijela: teorijski i praktični. U teorijskom dijelu, pod naslovom “Procesi i trendovi” analiziraju se pojave u medijima, te kako mediji re-agiraju na utjecaje iz društva, pogotovo kako vlasnici i razni centri moći utječu na novinarstvo. Obuhvaćena je globalizacija kao opći trend (Gavranović), ali i odgo-vornost i uloga medija (Bauer), javni mediji (Malović, Car), uloga odnosa s javno-stima (Tafra-Vlahović, Selhanović), fi lm kao izuzetno utjecajan medij kojeg u nas obično razvrstamo u umjetnost, zanemarujući njegov utjecaj na stvaranje javnog mnijenja (Panjeta). Dakako, etičnost novinarstva, pa time i medija nije bila zane-marena (Vilović).

    U drugom dijelu koji je naslovljen “Kako to radimo” objavljujemo nekoliko izu-zetno vrijednih i aktualnih istraživanja medijske prakse. Teorijski aspekti se najbrže i najtočnije provjeravaju na onome što i kako mediji objavljuju. Bez takvih stručnih analiza vrlo je teško razumjeti medije i novinarstvo. Prikazan je jedan nagrađivan TV projekt (Perišin), kako izvori vijesti utječu na izvještavanje (Katančević), kako novine koriste ankete u predizbornom izvještavanju te koliko to utječe na kreiranje stavova birača (Obradović) te analiza sadržaja hrvatskih online izdanja (Brautović).

    Tekstovi su objavljeni na jezicima na kojima pišu autori. Nismo se upuštali u prevođenje, želeći da čitatelji steknu pravi dojam o tekstovima.

    Vrijednost tekstova i njihov utjecaj na novinarstvo te medijske trendove pokazat će vrijeme. Namjera nakladnika je da se knjiga distribuira na većinu studija novi-narstva u Hrvatskoj, ali i u susjednim zemljama gdje je slika medija i novinarstva slična našoj.

    No, očekujemo da će i medijski stručnjaci, a pogotovo novinari, također uzeti knjigu u ruke te napisati svoje kritičke primjedbe te time obogatiti vrijednost ovog izdanja.

    Inače, Tempus projekt JETiC ima i razvijenu nakladničku djelatnost. Predviđeno je izdavanje 6 knjiga, od koji su prve dvije već objavljene: Medijska obratnica Ante Gavranovića te Manjine – između javnosti i stvarnosti Igora Kanižaja. U pripremi su knjige dva istaknuta svjetska znanstvenika, Claude-Jeann Bertranda i Th omasa Bauera, te domaćih autora Gordane Vilović i Stjepana Malovića.

    Sva ova izdanja obogatit će suvremenu medijsku literaturu i utjecati na promi-šljanja o novinarstvu danas, te kakvo bi ono moglo i moralo biti u budućnosti.

    Stjepan Malović

  • PREDGOVOR UREDNIKA 9

    I. DIO

    PROCESI I TRENDOVI

  • UTJECAJ GLOBALIZACIJE NA NOVINARSTVO10

  • BAUER 11

    ME IA COMPETENCE AS A CULTURAL DIMENSION OF SOCIAL COMMUNICATION

    (In Search for a Theoretical Frame-Work)

    Thomas A. Bauer

  • UTJECAJ GLOBALIZACIJE NA NOVINARSTVO12

    Th omas A. Bauer rođen je 1945. u Diessenu/Ammersee, Njemačka. Diplomirao je fi lozofi ju 1971. a doktorirao 1973. na području komunikologije. Profesor je na Sveučilištu u Beču, Katedra za medije i komunikacijsku znanost, kao i medijsku pedagogiju i medijsku kulturu. Stalan je gost pro-fesor na PUC-Univisersidade São Paulo u Brazilu, na City University New York u SAD-u i na Univerza v Maribor u Sloveniji. Također radi kao gost lektor na Sveučilištu u Du-

    brovniku (Hrvatska), te na Donau-Universität Krems (Austrija). Drži i vodeće pozicije u brojnim europskim kooperacijskim projektima (SO-

    CRATES) sa raznim tematskim područjima, uključujući: Future Studies (ECN), novinarstvo (TEMPUS-JETiC), obrazovni mediji i medijska izobrazba (GRUND-TVIG-EduMedia), Blended Learning (GRUNDTVIG-Qualimedia) i Euro-kul-turna izobrazba (GRUNDTVIG-EuroMedia). Međunarodno relevantne funkcije: predsjednik Austrijsko-američke fi lmske udruge, predsjednik Europske udruge za izobrazbu i komunikaciju (ESEC), predsjednik Austrijskog društva za izobrazbu i komunikaciju (Oe:BK), glavni i odgovorni urednik deScripto magazina za medije u jugoistočnoj Europi, predsjedatelj Izdavačkog društva Okto – otvoreni Community TV (Beč), znanstveni savjetnik pri više akademskih programa na području medijske i komunikacijske znanosti.

    Težište rada: medijska kultura, interkulturna komunikacija, pedagogija medijske sposobnosti, znanstveno-komunikacijski teoretski diskursi, međunarodni studijski programi: urbana komunikacija, zdravstvena komunikacija, Future Studies, organi-zacijska komunikacija, međunarodne i interkulturne PR studije.Nedavne publikacije: Th omas A. Bauer/Gerhard E. Ortner (Izdavač): Werte für Eu-ropa –(Vrijednosti za Europu – Medijska kultura i etička izobrazba u i za Europu). Düsseldorf 2006.

  • BAUER 13

    The Overall Socio-Theoretical Context

    What we experience as society in general, we defi ne as a connective structure of mutual awareness, of relations, of communications, and of interactions, culturally memorised in symbolic programmes and relationally structured in social orders, thus distributing and ranking the competence of distinction and decision in a multi-optional environment. Since the world we live in always demands from us to make smaller or bigger decisions, there has to be some measure of reference that is taken by everyone as a last (and by that as a fi rst) sense focus. Since human being is willing to give some signifi cation to personal and social life, it remains a life long question of sense that is only available in a social and cultural context. Th at context is built in the way of an auto-generative programme by sharing the meanings of everyday experience in stories and discourses (Schmidt: 2003) – thus constructing a narrative knowledge of sense. Th at cultural knowledge is never a closed system, but an open source model of competence of a meaningful life.

    Competence in that context of course is a normative term. It is the key term of the normative theory, which assumes that there is a status of achievement where

    Ono što generalno doživljavamo kao društvo, u principu defi niramo kao povezivu strukturu međusobne svjesnosti, veza, komunikacija i interakcija, koje su kulturno memorizirane u programima simbola i relacionalno strukturirane u socijalnim poredcima, te na taj način distribuiramo i rangiramo kompetentnost razlikovanja i odlučivanja u multiopcionalnom okruženju. Ovaj tekst bavi se medijskom sposobnošću i pokušava je objasniti iz različitih perspektiva, te pritom koristi razne interpretacije, kao što su antropološka, psihološka, profesionalna, obrazovna, te kulturna interpretacija. Medijska kompe-tentnost nije samo osobno ili individualno dobro, već kulturno dobro unutar korespondencije medijske produkcije i medijske konzumacije, koje pojedinca orijentira prema racionalnom korištenju medija. Na toj osnovi je izgrađen i JETiC projekt u Hrvatskoj, s ciljem da ljudima iz medija, ali i široj javnosti pobliže prikaže te pojmove u teoriji i praksi.

  • UTJECAJ GLOBALIZACIJE NA NOVINARSTVO14

    (and when) mankind has become independent from destiny, has arrived to the po-int of extinguishing uncertainty, and has come to an autonomous power of (self-)re-sponsibility and rational(ised) decision. Th e philosophical challenge to the theory is to name the conditions of generating, developing and preserving that concept of power, as also to clarify the cognitive, social and cultural – even transcendental - costs and to defi ne the borders in case that competence comes to its end or turns into ideology, or crosses the borderline from where the concept of competence chnages into a syndrome of overestimation.

    A theoretical communication concept of competence may protect us from such an overestimation, the same as communication itself theoretically represents the principle of observation, because of that communication theory - in scientifi c con-text - has to be done as a refl ective observation of (extemporised everyday-) obser-vation, and has to be a system of refl ection and counter-refl ection (Schmidt 2203: 98). Because it disconnects the everyday observation and because it setts it as a con-scious break, theory is able to balance the refl ection between reasonability and the borders of constructability. In another way, theory is, as everyday communication is in itself, a construction of reality. Th e theoretical architecture of competence is that of a multi-level building, since there are many disciplinary levels of constructing the notion of competence, which in itself holds the balance between two sources of energy; order and/or chaos, knowledge and/or assumption, information and/or fantasy. Th e resource of that source is communication as a means for construction of sense and reality. Decision can only be made within the context of communica-tion. Communication makes the diff erence, while decision makes the distinction. Th e concept of competence, referring to the principles of communication, says that awareness, perception, and attention are habitual measures of an active mind and not unavoidable reactions by chance or coincidence due to an extraordinariness of an object. Th e extraordinariness of an object is not a feature of an object itself, but one of the perception – the same as the order of an object is also (just) one given to the object while perceiving it. Th is principle of active construction of meaning and sense through communication is the fundamental concept of any theory of com-petence. It pretends that competence is a construct qualifi ed by communication and communication is a construct qualifi ed by competence. One suff ers from the other’s insuffi ciency (Bauer: 2006/a) .

    All that remarks concerning the notion of competence had to be done in order to argue the communicative construction of society and the societal construction of communication. Th e fact that society is constructed by its (non-media- and/or me-dia-mediated) communication makes it worth to take a look at the quality of com-munication. Th e fact that communication (non-media- and/or media-mediated)

  • BAUER 15

    in its cultural construction is preconditioned by societal structures makes it worth to take a look at the (civil and political) quality of society. Th e theoretical decision for society conceptualisation in a sense of an event of social communication and communication as a question of its societal conditions is to be taken as a precondi-tion for refl ection of the relationship between society and media, or better said, the relationship between the quality of society and that one of its media. In that sense, the normative understanding of society, by which communication and/or media competence becomes arguable, should be kept in mind as a specifi cation of societal and social competence and as a cultural resource of society building.

    Social Change – Media Change – Competence Change

    Anyhow, media competence as a theoretical construct is a normative notion of coming along with and within a media-mediated public knowledge environment. Th at includes the necessity of getting educated and trained in soft skills, so to say, in individually diff erent and diff erentiable qualifi cations. Th e content and the claim of soft skills changes with the structural change of media. Th e net-media open the system for so much more possibilities for realisation personal skills, needs, and inte-rests, but set also so much more demands for coming along with multi-optionality, polysemy, uncertainty and open horizons. Particularly the net-media in their stru-cture and in the social character of its usage represent the fact that an economically organised and globalised world stakes its interest - according to what is meant by an open society - on an expressive individualism (Taylor 2002:79). Obviously, there is a transactional circular process between media usage and media competence that would need much more media-educational awareness as it does in reality: Th e civi-lised usage of media sets upon media competence, as it also opens and develops the cultural level of competence of life styling. Th e cultural good of media competence opens the civil use of the media and by that way interprets an advancing view of the contemporary changes in moral order of the society – what again forces (develops) the change of cultural usage of media.

    Th e social reality in the sum is the universe of discourses by which we try to give sense to our inner and outer experiences. In order to state the meaning of thoughts and experiences, we need an agreeable format of symbolic interaction, which is in almost all cultures that of a story. Telling stories turns a possibly open and casu-al agglomeration of news (information) into a rationally coherent connection. Th e events themselves are not dependant on time and do not have a time structure. It is the distinctive consideration that uses the measure of time as a model of knowledge in order to connect the one with the other, as well as to separate the one from the

  • UTJECAJ GLOBALIZACIJE NA NOVINARSTVO16

    other, in the way in that our view of things gets confi rmed. Giving a chronological connectivity to what ever we become aware of is an intellectual (cultural-cognitive) intervention and thus – though it is a cultural enrichment - is the fi rst step in re-ducing complexity from the state of contingence and non-directivity to the one of relational certainty and certain relationality (Bauer: 2006/ c).

    Recalling the notion of media being a cultural agency of social practice makes clear that media is also a (in a media society: the) place of social change, where all the cultural alterations not just happen by coincidence, but as a refl ective image of communicative relations diff erently delivered and built through symbolic interacti-on, both by interpersonal and by mediated communication. Social changes happen in a way of social and cultural practice that – how system theory explains - controls, steers and rebuilds itself through social practice. In that sense, media have to be taken into responsibility of social change. And social change has to be taken as the frame for development of societal competence in using and understanding media, not only as a means, but also as a content of societal communication. Th at interfe-ring relationship between change and media challenges the educational discourse (pedagogy).

    Competence always has been a goal of education and pedagogy, since educati-onal and learning programmes aim to bring young people to the state of ability, ca-pacity and responsibility in all socially relevant fi elds of behaviour (Wagner 2004). Education works theoretically and practically in the direction of an ideal typical as-sumption of an individual and tries to challenge the learning capacity of individuals according to a system of socialisation. Within the educational (practical) context, the term of competence includes:

    • Ability (to know which operations and how to use them in case of some-thing)

    • Capacity (to have the cognitive, aff ective and active means and prepare-dness - skills)

    • Responsibility (to be conscious of what something means for oneself and/or for others - consequences and possible eff ects)

    • Morality (to be aware of the implicated values when making personal decisions).

    Contextual Media and Communication Competence

    Since media communication is a process between media production and media consumption within the societal context and under the conditions of sociability,

  • BAUER 17

    media competence has to be structured as a contextual concept. Producers and con-sumers, journalist and the public, the media company and the market, the internal and external stake holders (Karmasin: 1998) need each other mutually as partners for developing or maintaining competence. Th is contextual view of competence is not just a pragmatic solution, it can also be argued at a theoretical level.

    Th ere are theoretical concepts of media and communication competence, espe-cially psychologically-oriented ones that rely very much on the notion of individual and personal assertion. Th ey also operate with the notion that communication is a talent by which one could compensate personal weakness or disadvantage. Un-derstanding communication as a tool for success and assertion logically leads to a technical notion of competence. No wonder then that educational programmes of competence development get caught in conditional programmes. As long as educa-tors and teachers think their task was to complete an undeveloped individual (inste-ad of completing the development as a resource of individuality), so long they will follow the dream image of a perfect individual and so long they will conceptualise learning as a technology of perfection. As soon as educators and teachers under-stand socialisation as a process of individuality development, which is again a per-sonal answer against the social, cultural and symbolic environment, that soon they can count on communication as a resource of competence and on competence as a source of culture (education). Within the industrial societies, the pedagogical idea always was (is) to industrialise the personal resources of life-styling. If the educati-onal organisations empower the learners with knowledge (on media and communi-cation) by training their personal constitution, then they not only become immune against auto-immune diseases, but also become strong in a culturally homogeneous environment.

    But, as we said already, the intrinsic reasonability of communication is not to homogenise, but to diversify the meaning of world (Bauer: 2006/b). Following this option, competence of communication is not to get reduced just to promising stra-tegies of success, but is the habit of interest in complexity, both: in complexity of content and in complexity of signifi cation. So, if we consequently conceptualise communication as a social practice in developing a cultural and symbolic ambient of multi-meaningful life, the cultural meaning of communication cannot be reduced just to an instrument for asserting domination. If culture is an open and self-genera-ting system of meanings and values, then communication is the cultural practice of society, as at the same time it is the social practice of (and for) culture. In that wide context culture and communication are not absolute, but heuristic measures in se-arch for sense and meaning of life. Th at makes communication to be a social model between trial and error. As in that sense culture in principle is a fallible system,

  • UTJECAJ GLOBALIZACIJE NA NOVINARSTVO18

    communication as well as a model of fallibility. Th e principle of fallible quality of communication is the only guarantee for the quality of freedom of communication as a construction of sense. Only the rationality is, so to say, the search for the most rational compromise among various defi nable options makes it reasonable to fi gure out communication as the best way to come so far. Following that argumentation, it is just a question of consequence to conceptualise competence - especially within the context of society - as a cultural reference measure for the social quality of in-dividual life. Th e psychology-oriented interpretation, by which competence should be thought as a persoanl good of assertion or even domination and power, must be critically valued as an ideological theorem within the tradition of social-technolo-gical concepts of personality.

    Consequently, following the cultural theory of communication, which under-stands communication as a social practice of development and sharing of cultural meaning by the way of mediating information, experience and knowledge - thus constructing mutually committing and meaningful views of reality - competence is not just a socio-technological concept, it is a cultural model (or a normative option) of social agreement for reason and a reasonable model for a cultural programming of society. Such a re-defi nition implicates a theoretical turn from a technological paradigm to a culturological one. Th e technological interpretation of communica-tion competence follows the ideal of success: communication is a means of personal success that is easier (and free of error) to be achieved knowing and practicing a technical system. In that tradition, communication competence is something that can be realised by personal cultural techniques.

    Th e culturological interpretation of communication admits communication to be a model of social agreement facing the fallibility of construction of sense.

    The Structural Concept of Media Competence

    It does make sense to structure the notion of media competence according to a theoretical system, since that opens aspects of what to do, how to do, and where to place educational instruments in order to establish environmental conditions for competence development. Th e concept of media competence (media literacy) focuses on the relation between individual and media, but means more than just an instrumental capacity in the media usage; it refers also to the cognitive, esthetical, and ethical dimensions of media communication (media use). Th rough the enlar-gement of the horizon of awareness, through the rising of potential of processing complexity und due to ever changing relations of values in taking responsibility for one self and for others, the societal culture of communication is changing. Th e

  • BAUER 19

    change of communication culture, caused by the severe infl uence of media on the communication attitudes of people, demands a change on the cultures of learning, from accumulation of information to a critical selection of knowledge.

    Media is an important agency in that process of selective search of knowledge, as it is an agency of social and cultural practice. It is the reference system for anyone in order to get connected to societal discourses and to what people think or fear they must know about it. Exactly that makes media an ever-changing environment of organising ones everyday life. Being able to live with this is what is conceptualised with the term of media competence. Th e media environment is a complex environ-ment: technical, cultural, political, social, behavioural and economic structures are mixed and organised into a system because of its own quality. Living with and in media environment challenges skills of distinction, diff erentiation and decision of individuals, the same as the media system represents and mediates other environ-ments: public spheres, politics, education, art, religion and church life, scenes of diverse communities, fi ction, faction, entertainment, conversation, discourse and discussion, advertisement, and models of personal life style.

    Th e theoretical concept assumes a graduation of competence developed in re-ference to the mode of personal or media communication, always in relation to the technical or functional dimensions (Baacke: 1973):

    • Linguistic competence: Th e use of language (syntactic and semantic use of language and symbols) in order to understand others and/or to make oneself understandable to others. Th at concept of competence refers to Bernstein’s defi cit hypothesis and takes competence development in a compensation programme in order to balance socio-linguistic discrimina-tion (restricted code) (Basil Bernstein: 1971).

    • Rhetorical competence refers to the pragmatic use of word-language and behavioural language in order to persuade with believes and to convince with arguments.

    • Communicative competence (be aware of creating a symmetry of mutual participation exchanging meanings). It is the ability (skills), preparedness (motivation) and the responsibility of attracting and giving that amount of attention one needs in order to understand or to give the chance to others to be understood. Habermas, as we know, links communicative competen-ce with an ethical interest in truth (Habermas 1981 and 1983).

    • Media competence (be aware of – and refl ect your own standards of ability, capacity, responsibility and morality using media as means of participation in public life). Reasonability is the cultural reference of media literacy.

  • UTJECAJ GLOBALIZACIJE NA NOVINARSTVO20

    Societal Conditions of Competence Development

    In order to verify educational implications of the concept of competence and in or-der to realise what makes competence a cultural measure of handling the challenge of change, the socio-ambient environment has to be conceptually specifi ed. Th e most relevant factors are:

    • New areas of cultural and civil knowledge (Wissenswelten) have emer-ged. Th at is the reason why general social intelligence and also speciali-sed practical behavioural skills are needed. Th e traditional disciplines are in dire need of a selective evaluation and a new educational positioning within the architectures of knowledge and science in order to bridge the gaps between the state of the art in sciences and in educational knowledge. Meanwhile, the universe of knowledge has grown more complex. Th e or-ganisational structures of educational knowledge management lay behind. Researches must develop a structural and cultural enrichment of educati-onal systems.

    • Cultures and national communication as well as media systems have been pulled into the eff ect of globalisation. Th e society has become a worldwide communicating self-organiszing system, which is increasingly deliminated in territorial and normative dimensions (Willke: 1995). Th e economical glo-balisation also aff ects the educational system. It is challenged to widen its spectrum, to diff erentiate its content and to link it with other (national) sy-stems of education. Th is cries out for the development of intercultural com-petence. Intercultural competence provides a framework for confl ict mana-gement in the personal, social, and cultural realms. Th ere are enough crises-driven spheres of public life (including social development, health, culture, environment and natural resources, religion and spiritual orientation, labo-ur market, migration, education), which need educational and professional consultancy. Th is is precisely the challenge for new educational jobs.

    • Communication has become the most important resource of developing, establishing and organising any kind of enterprise in any area. Commu-nication competence in a complexly organised and mediated society is a qualifi cation to be learned and intellectually understood. Personal intu-ition needs to be complemented by rationalorganisational skills of com-munication. It must become a principle and an integral part of learning and teaching in all areas of education. All production processes, including the intellectual, have both a material body and a performative signifi cance. Communication is the process, which provides signifi cance and meaning

  • BAUER 21

    to the goods of knowledge. For example, mathematics is not only a scienti-fi c body to be intellectually added to other items of knowledge, but is also a knowledge bearing signifi cance for the organisation of life. Educators, who communicate math, do a much more purposefull and effi cient job, than those who just teach it. Th e same is even more true in respect to cultural techniques of media use.

    • Science and education are the agencies, which construct the understan-ding of reality and orientation, that is to say, how one approaches problems and fi nds solutions to ones personal/social existence by applying models of knowledge (math, language, history, geography etc. – but alsocommunica-tion). Since the problems and solutions of life organisation depend upon and, at the same time, drive social change, knowledge-communication is the new challenging factor for raising or upgrading the quality standards of learning and teaching. Th is factor has to be fi gured out in the interest of a meaningful education for the upcoming confi gurations of society, which are:

    • Knowledge society - the term “knowledge society” designates the fact that on the one hand there is an abundance of information and on the other hand, the society is increasingly organising itself through knowledge. Th e sole authority, which enables proper selection, is communication.

    • Communication society - communication is the driving factor in social change, it is also the stuff the organisation of life is made of. Th is concerns personal life as well as social and organisational culture.

    • Civil society - in many fi elds the society is becoming autonomous of state controlled organisation. In this formulation, the State is seen as loosing in-fl uence and power, while the citizen learns to take care of his needs on his own, by establishing temporary communities. In this context, the sustaina-bility of societal agglomerations depends more than ever on the quality of a participatory model of communication (sharing of responsibility).

    Understanding Media in the Perspective of Making Use of it

    A concept of competence is necessary in order to measure the process of transition of a society in relation to critical categories of a reasonable model of communica-tion society. According to that, a critical concept of media is necessary in order to measure the societal conversation in relation to reasonable concepts of human and social communication. Th at critical orientation demands re-thinking of the media concepts in relation to what is communication in media and what is media in com-

  • UTJECAJ GLOBALIZACIJE NA NOVINARSTVO22

    munication. Th e fi rst step of diff erentiation has to be done in setting a distinction between socialised and social use of media:

    Socialised use of media: Media is a source of experience more or less comparable to instances of ex-

    perience as parents, family, peers, friends, or institutional groups. Th e use of those sources is culturally mediated and culturally learned, insofar in every process of accaptence of roles or patterns there is mixed in a learning pro-cess (socialization) of dealing with trust, credibility, closeness or distance. An issue of the socialised use of media also is to learn the use of media within and in connection to the general societal role – usually as a recipient. Th e role of recipient can be composed by a set of learned competences (attitu-des, skills), but also by one of general conditions of apathy, psychologically theorised as “learned helplessness” (Seligmann: 1975). Insofar (especially) media recipients (but also producers within an organisational framework), while faced with an mighty organisation, with specifi ed and highly sophisti-cated technology and with special professional knowledge learn that they do not have any individual control over the organisation of programme, news and conversation. Taking that in account, they might decide unconsciously to behave passively and to forget about their active interests or needs for active participation. Obviously, within the system of mass media there is no space for interactivity, but –maybe - only for a climate of “interpassivity” in the sense that (at least) the consumers fi nd themselves united and equal in accepting the minor position. Hans Magnus Enzensberger: (1987) interpret that usage of media as a “repressive” one.

    Social use of media: Media in a critical-theoretical interpretation is a dispositiv of social and

    cultural practice, an agency of participation. Th ere is just a pragmatic and not a theoretical need for their usage,according to the tailoring of jobs and roles. All concepts of alternative media usage refer to that critical and emancipative potential, which understands media as means of dialogical and autonomous communication (Bert Brecht 1982, Enzensberger: 1987, Baudrillard: 1972) and not just as an apparatus for distribution. Doing that there is not only the technical obstacle, but also the technological one.

    Th ere are some diff erent approaches in theoretical interpretation of what the con-cept of media might mean. According to the question about competence, it does not make sense just to talk about media, because the subject to be dealt with is the use of media. Only the fact that it is being used makes media a relevant fi gure of

  • BAUER 23

    societal communication. Th e structural question (what is media) has to be replaced by the culturological question: what usage makes media being media of social and societal communication? In that sense the theoretical approach of analysing the use of media can be characterised diff erently:Normative-critical approach:

    Media are used as means and agency of cognitive, aff ective and active parti-cipation in public discourse and in societal conversation in order to get con-nected and synchronised with diff erent and professionally based interpreta-tions of events and decisions that are publicly supposed to be meaningful for personal and public management of life.

    Empirical approach: Media are used as a source of experience, of inspiration, of setting agenda

    and as a generalised frame of reference for public knowledge in order to get connected to the generalisation of behaviour.

    Pragmatic Approach: Media are used as a resource of information and what is publicly supposed

    to be news in order to gain a preferred position within the social structures of competition for (active or passive) public attention (market).

    Emancipative Approach: Media are used as an open source space of taking and giving contributions

    to the generalised interpretation of experience in order to multiply one own’s and others views of the world - thus becoming one’s own actor in construc-ting the reality.

    Cultural Approach: Media are used as refl ector of people’s endeavour in styling their life accor-

    ding to traditions, narrations, stories, and histories – in order to get conne-cted to trends, myths and conversational measures.

    Understanding Competence in the Perspective of Life Interest

    It might help to evaluate the implications of the concept of competence concerning communication and culture, if it gets re-linked to the logical platforms, where it has its seat in life. Th e general and radical meaning of the term of competence is obvio-us. It refers to power of life, but in a diff erent und distinguishable sense:

    • Competence is used as a normative term: it is directed towards social agree-ments of social and individual values,

  • UTJECAJ GLOBALIZACIJE NA NOVINARSTVO24

    • Competence is used as a critical term: it is directed at distinguishing bet-ween system demands and “Lebenswelt”-consciousness,

    • Competence is used as a pragmatic term: it is directed towards the possibi-lity of learning and of development.

    Life is challenging for change, and at the same time it is challenged by change. Th at makes life being a frame concept of evolution. In that framework, the notion of com-petence was born as a cultural measure of success. Competence is not a natural qua-lity, but is a category of the cultural interpretation of human attitude in relation to the natural, cultural, social, technical and symbolic environment. It says that mankind is able and capable of organising its position in relation to the environment in a cultural manner - thus forming personality and individuality in order to become an identifi a-ble part of it. Th at causes some diff erent interpretations of competence:

    Anthropological interpretation:Th e competence term represents an anthropological interpretation of risks and

    chances of surviving by means that are only given to the mankind: making decisions by free will and by refl ection - using means of intelligence, notion, cognition and consciousness. Within that tradition, competence is a dimension of human perfor-mance of life that has to be supposed to be anyone’s own. In that frame competence values above all others are: privileges (Cassirer: 1923-1929).

    Psychological interpretation:Competence of personal life depends to a certain extent on diff erent pre-con-

    ditions of socialisation: family structure, personality structure, and culture of rela-tionship. Media competence is not a special competence, but more the refl ection of understanding one’s personal life styling under socio-cultural frame conditions: the social climate. Values of competence within psychological interpretation are: authenticity, open mindedness, distinctiveness, refl exivity, critical distance against yourself and critical closeness to others (Asendorp: 2004).

    Development of competence needs a hygienic climate – in individual but also in societal dimensions. Non-hygienic climates lead to strategies of simulation and compensative staging of performing one’s own life or the life of the society/com-munity/organisation.

    Media Competence in Professional Perspective

    Th e professional use of media, which is interesting in our context of problematisation is the use of media in the interest of journalism or even in the interest of the societal

  • BAUER 25

    conversation through media. So far, I hope, I could make clear the normative conception of communication and/or media competence. Th at is the reason why it makes sense to conceptualise media competence in two levels of social acting, both from the media‘s side and the media user’s side. Let us fi rst concentrate on the side of productive users in the framework of journalism.

    Media competence is, as already defi ned, a normative concept that can be analysed as:

    • A systemic ability, capacity and culture of managing media companies or media institutions as cultural organisations, under the condition of econo-mical accountability,

    • On the other side as the ability, capacity and responsibility of reasonable use of media in a sense of critical awareness of media potentials and of commu-nicative and democratic needs of the public. Th at is the media literacy, which is yet to be developed as an implicit dimension of educational journalism.

    Journalism in advanced societies is more or less an organised system of relations between professionally distinguished competences within amedia system. Th e logic of acting of the actor follows the logic of the system, which is determined by tec-hnology, economy, and organisation of internal and externalrelations. A journalist concentrates all those interests in his/her personal understanding of the profession. Th at is the reason why it is so necessary to educate journalists in a way that they understand their education as a complementary component of their profession and that they understand their work as a complementary component of (their) educa-tion. Th e journalistic media literacy is the competence of using media as a means and as a content of democratic communication and negotiation. Especially the (so called) political communication is within a democratically organised society, where media-mediation is the normality, media communication in its structure, which means that it is political content in the setting of media and it is media content (media experience) within a political setting.

    Th at view of an auto-constitutional relationship between media and politics (within a media society) challenges the professional (journalistic) competence quite a lot. Seriously working as a journalist with media literacy education (Scholl/Weisc-henberg: 1998:167) is not only a challenge for personality (vanity, VIP affi nity) and not just a challenge for professional know-how or disciplinary knowledge, but also a challenge for knowledge literacy. Th e ability of managing knowledge (knowledge goals, defi nition of knowledge, selection, evaluation, interpretation, distribution, re-generating new goals of knowledge (Nonaka: 1995) – this ability always has to be

  • UTJECAJ GLOBALIZACIJE NA NOVINARSTVO26

    combined with intellectual capacity for distinction and with personal preparedness to stay responsible for media-journalism quality.

    Media Competence in Educational Perspectice: Media Education

    Media education is the educational programme of enhancing ability, capacity, re-sponsibility and morality of media use from the position of a consumer. Th e most important aim is to make habitual and familiarise young and growing-up people with an attitude of “media literacy”. Such literacy is not a technical and not a pro-fessional one, it means– from the consumer’s position - to be aware of media and to take care for an advanced standard of an authentic and reasonable use of media, because of the educated consciousness. Education as a habit in that sense also does not mean that we have just achieved a position of knowledge (for example about the way how media work or how producers work with media), but relates to the compe-tence of authentic and autonomous personal decision in a multi-optional context. In that socio-psychological perspective, education has to be defi ned according to the theorem of identity: Education is the process of endeavour for a relationship to oneself (I-identity concept) and one’s own environment (Me-identity concept) un-der the condition of (critical) refl ection how to come by one’s own (or supported by others) endeavour into relationship to one self and to one’s environment (cf. Swertz: 2002), based on ethical, esthetical and social reasons. According to this concept of education, media education (“Medienbildung”) then means: the endeavour of refl ection on how to be in or maintain a conscious relationship to oneself and to the mediated environment, under the conditions of a reasonable use of media.

    Exactly that conceptual orientation of media education, referring to reasonabili-ty or intelligibility, is the one, which provokes diff erent interpretations and has bro-ught up media-educational curricula containing pragmatic solutions and advices:

    • Th e conservative-normative interpretation therefore stands for a restricted use of media, for protection of traditions, narrations and societal agree-ments,

    • Th e critical interpretation stands for a selective use of media, for distinction of media reality and eventual/factual reality, realisation of the economical, strategic and/or ideological criteria (owner’s interests), selection of formats and duration of keeping in public attention,

    • Th e actional interpretation stands for a use of media by yourself, breaking the alienation of social communication and crossing the segregation of compe-tences in those of production and consumption (programmes of semi-pro-

  • BAUER 27

    fessional journalism, development of “contra” or “alternative” public spheres – video movement),

    • Th e politological interpretation stands for a use media as means of (active) participation with public opinion building. Media education as a dimension of political education, media literacy as a dimension of political competence, political interest and political participation.

    Behind all those educational-pragmatic solutions, I am afraid, a naïve and more or less technically conceptualised notion of media is situated. Th ey still construct media as means of communication and not (yet) also as a content of communication, what media after all, when it comes to that point, also is - just remember the M. McLuhan’s dictum: Th e media is the message. Insofar in any communication the media (as a me-ans of) is an intrinsic setting of communication, it mediates itself as a presetting mat-ter (content forming intervention) of construction of reality (media-made reality). As long as media are understood just as means of social communication, that long will media education content itself as a training programme for skills and habits of media usage in order to avoid (media-made) eff ects and in order to deliberate them for a, so to say, non-alienated communication. Understanding media as (the forming compo-nent of the) content of social and/or public communication brings media education to the state of being an educational agency for a critical observation (refl ection) of the general message, what media, as a content in societal (political and conversational) symbolic interaction, actually is.

    Reading the media (being literate) is not a one-dimensional work done by a person against an object, which by that eff ects the reader. Th ese notions of a linear media ef-fectiveness on consumers is really too naïve. Reading media news is always somehow a process of re-reading (interpreting, repeating, changing) one own’s cultural framing in relation (comparison) to so far unknown interpretations (framings) of life. Stuart Hall’s encoding – decoding model (Hall: 1973), Jean Piaget’s concept of the adapti-ve (psychic/social) equilibration between assimilation and accommodation (Piaget: 1963) and the Cultural Studies’ concept of media as a space of social practice (Hepp/Winter: 1997, Rössler/Krotz: 2005, Faßler: 2005) should be taken as approvals of such an approach.

    Th ere is still a point that has to be mentioned in that context of media education, since it is linked mostly to educational institutions such as schools. Th ere is a structu-ral dilemma of institution-driven education, which is: the educational circulation of schools does not reach (any more) the sphere of personal decision, schools have beco-me a part and a factor of the market system (competition, money as means of valuati-on – lack of intrinsic motivation), they do not (any more, not yet?) concentrate on the

  • UTJECAJ GLOBALIZACIJE NA NOVINARSTVO28

    potential of guiding personal socialisation or social personalisation. As a subsystem in an overall system, these institutions fulfi l system-logical interests on the shoulders of growing up people who also replace their intrinsic needs with interests combined with the roles of pupils and students. In that situation, it is simply a pragmatic positi-on to have the hope that now and then, here and there the educational message will overcome the fi lter of institutional distance, and reach the emotional and personal intelligence of learning people in order to provide them with social competence.

    Media competence is not just a personal or individual good, it is a cultural good within the correspondence of media production and media consumption, orienting the individual in a reasonable use of it. Th e competence development system in socie-ty usually is organised in and through a societal institution called education. It itself is an eminent factor in social and cultural change. Education is a corresponding system and also one of the social interaction, which can be considered a strategic discourse system that remains when faced with permanent social change, as a reference system of quality norms – thus balancing the social change between tradition and fantasy. At the same time, education itself is an object of social change, always challenged by change.

    JETiC – a Programme for Competence Development

    So far, I hope, it also becomes clear that theoretically and practically it makes sense just to analyse the status of the media landscape in Croatia, as in any other country, as a mutual challenge of quality of media communication on both sides - producers and consumers. Because of that mutual expectations of reasonable quality of social practice, media competence in overall is a cultural good and has to be taken as a cultural good, both in professional training and in media education. Th at should also make it clear that media competence should not be taken as a privilege of one against the other or one before the other, but should be taken as a common and reasonable sense of using media as a platform of social practice, where mutual trust in competence (interest, ability, responsibility) makes communication a cultural event.

    Since the TEMPUS project “Journalism Education and Training in Croatia” (JE-TiC) is a programme of:

    • Development of professional quality of media professions,• Establishing sustainable structures and professional relations in order to de-

    epen function and eff ort of media for democracy building,

  • BAUER 29

    • Within the framework of democratisation and re-discovering the social identity,

    • In context with European perspective and experience of a democratic sy-stem (highly economised).

    Th is project fi rstly focuses on training of journalists and on the enrichment of the public debate on journalism and media quality among key-personnel in all relevant sectors: politics, economy, civil society, education and science. Th e contemporary transformation going on in the media landscape in Croatia and in all new democra-cies in South East Europe (with its main problem issues: foreign involvement, high tabloidisation) (Gavranović: 2006, Malović/Vilović: 2004) clearly shows that it cannot just be the professional side, which takes over the obligation to establish sustainable conditions for media quality. Th ere is another partner, which is the audience, linked to its societal environment that has to come clear with its obligation for societal com-munication competence (media literacy). Th ere is no sense in compensating the di-lemma of the society on shoulders of individuals or the one of role carriers of only one side. Competence. Th at is the reason why we hope that the project will be continued as a work in progress and as a programme in media education

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  • BAUER 31

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  • GAVRANOVIĆ 33

    GLOBALIZACIJA I ODGOVORNOST NOVINARA

    Ante Gavranovi

  • UTJECAJ GLOBALIZACIJE NA NOVINARSTVO34

    Ante Gavranović (1933) studirao je na Pravnom fakultetu Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. Radni vijek započeo je i završio u Privrednom vjesniku od 1954. do rujna 1991. Bio je novinar, urednik, glavni urednik i direktor novinsko izdavačke kuće. Od 15. studenog 1991 do kraja 1994. član Upravnog odbora KONČAR- ELEKTROINDUSTRIJA d.d. – zadužen za Public Relations, marketing i sajmove; kasnije do kraja 1998. savjetnik predsjednika Uprave; još uvijek glavni urednik

    časopisa KONČAREVAC. Od 1992. predsjednik Uprave HORIZONT PRESS-a, izdavača priručnika HRVATSKA – HANDBOOK CROATIA. Od 1. siječnja 2006., nakon preuzimanja Privrednog vjesnika sa strane Hrvatske gospodarske komore, direktor Binoza Pressa. Predsjednik Hrvatskog novinarskog društva - od 10. siječnja 1991. do 20. listopada 1995. godine; potpredsjednik HND do 1997; prvi predsjednik Udruge novinskih izdavača u HUP-u (od 2002. do 2006.); predsjedavajući Udruge novinara srednje Europe u okviru Europske udruge novinara (2001/2002); dugogodišnji član Središnjeg odbora i potpredsjednik Skupštine Hrvatskog pokreta za Europu . Odlikovan je Križem za zasluge I. reda SR Njemačke (1988), Ordenom rada sa zlatnim vijencem (1990), Velikim križem za zasluge Vlade Pokrajine Štajerska (2003), Redom Danice Hrvatske s likom Blaža Lorkovića (2004), Križem za zasluge Republike Austrije (2005). Nosilac je najvišeg hrvatskog priznanja za novinarski rad – nagrade Otokar Keršovani (1984) i CROMA – nagrada za životno djelo (2003). Autorska djela: Reformama do napretka, 1976, Jugoslavija u suvremenom svijetu, 1977, Vademekuum za menedžere, 1991, Medijska obratnica, 2006.

  • GAVRANOVIĆ 35

    The author in the text talks about the infl uence of globalization on journalists’ responsibility. Globalization brings major changes regarding how society measures values, and sets new relations and standards. The factors which have crucial infl uence on these processes are: technical improvements, competition, consumer mentality, loss of sense of living, changes in sexual behaviour, search for universal solidarity, dignity of individuals and of all people, human rights fi ght, crimes against humanity, environmental responsibility, sustainibility of development and future of mankind. Along with the globalization of the media market and information- communication systems, the responsibility of every journalist keeps increasing and expanding, because now the whole planet is becoming his or her potential reader, listener or viewer. With regards to that fact and all the characteristics of globalization, the entire system of future informing should in fact be about giving citizents the knowledge of events and processes and providing them with enough arguments and facts so they could think about those events, make decisions, control the current administration, and eventually, through their function of voters, vote for the best programmes.

    Uvod

    Razdoblje globalizacije obilježeno je razantnim promjenama. Dovoljno je pogledati pokazatelje svjetske trgovine ili ulaganja stranoga kapitala širom svijeta, razvoj pro-metnih i komunikacijskih kretanja ili brojke međunarodnih koncerna koji danas pre-rastaju u tzv. global players, globalne igrače.

    Te promjene prate, međutim, i nepovoljne tendencije: jaz između siromašnih i bo-gatih stalno se produbljuje, a biosfera uništava. Globalizacija donosi i važne promjene u pogledu društvenih mjerila vrijednosti i uspostavlja nove odnose i standarde. Tako u području medija raste utjecaj medijskih giganata, posebno američkih, što bitno utječe na sadržaje, programe i stil ponašanja medija i novinara. Upravo gospodarski tržišni odnosi u transnacionalnim kompanijama nameću bespoštednu konkurentsku borbu za nacionalne i internacionalne medijske prostore, što - pokazalo se - pogubno utječe na karakter i značenje, a posebno na strukturu medijskih usmjerenja i programa.

  • UTJECAJ GLOBALIZACIJE NA NOVINARSTVO36

    Pet teza globalizacije

    Kada je riječ o globalizaciji i njenim širim aspektima, valja upozoriti na pet bitnih teza koje nam pomažu razumjeti te procese.

    1. Globalizacija označava jačanje međunarodne povezanosti i ovisnosti o svijetu, ali i dominaciju velikih nacija i novih ekonomskih i političkih elita. Svijet je suočen s nekoliko usporednih procesa: internacionalizacijom, liberalizacijom, univerzali-zacijom, vesternizacijom i deteritorijalizacijom.

    2. Dok su fi nancijska tržišta već postala globalna, tržište robe i rada, naročito poto-nje, još su selektivno transnacionalna; veliki dijelovi nacionalnih ekonomija nisu uključeni u transnacionalna tržišta, dok su s druge strane veliki dijelovi transna-cionalnih tržišta regionalizirani, a ne globalizirani. Na primjer, u EU se više od 80 posto transnacionalne trgovine država članica odvija unutar njih samih.

    3. Posljedice globalizacije postaju sudbonosne za sve veći broj ljudi i zemalja. Vodeći menadžment informacijskih korporacija u SAD tvrdi da će u 21. stoljeću za odr-žavanje pogona svjetske ekonomije biti dovoljno samo 20 posto radno sposobna stanovništva, no - što s preostale četiri petine? Golema vojska nezaposlenih očito će morati potražiti druge načine za preživljavanje.

    4. U državama izvan zapadnoga civilizacijskoga kruga – ali sve više i u onima unu-tar toga kruga – istodobno se javlja masovni osjećaj ugroženosti vlastite kulturne tradicije i gubitka identiteta, čemu se uzrok vidi u gospodarskoj, tehnološkoj, ali i institucionalnoj ekspanziji Zapada.

    5. Razdoblje nove ekonomije kao temeljne postavke procesa globalizacije ima četiri bitne značajke: prvo, brzinu promjena i te sve veće značenje znanja, inovacija i kreativnosti; drugo, jačanje spoznaje o tome kako razvoj treba da bude održiv; treće, smanjivanje geografskih (i drugih) udaljenosti, te, četvrto, sve veće značenje corporate social responsibility, korporacijske društvene odgovornosti.

    Promjene u pogledu društvenih mjerila vrijednosti

    Globalizacija donosi i važne promjene u pogledu društvenih mjerila vrijednosti, uspostavljajući nove odnose i standarde. Spomenut ću samo neke faktore koji utječu na promjene tih mjerila: tehnički napredak, konkurentska borba, potrošački mentali-tet, gubitak smisla življenja, obrat u seksualnom ponašanju, traženje etike univerzalne solidarnosti, dostojanstvo pojedinca i svih ljudi, borba za ljudska prava, zločini protiv čovječnosti, te odgovornost za okoliš, održivi razvoj i budućnost čovječanstva.

    Neosporno je da svi ti procesi, koji teku usporedo, djeluju interaktivno i bitno mije-njaju sliku svijeta. Isto se događa i na području medija, gdje 10 velikih koncerna drži glav-

  • GAVRANOVIĆ 37

    ninu ukupne svjetske medijske produkcije. Na djelu je proces komercijalizacije i globaliza-cije medijskog tržišta, pri čemu se uočava dominacija velikih država i moćnih transnacio-nalnih kompanija. Autori knjige Trendovska globalizacija medija i novo novinarstvo, ame-rički sveučilišni profesori Edward S. Herman i Robert W. McChesney1, govoreći o centra-lizaciji i komercijalizaciji medija, podsjećaju da globalni mediji već dugo čine nužnu kom-ponentu kapitalizma, te ih nazivaju “misionarima korporativnoga kapitalizma”.

    Profesor Reinhold Wagnleitner2 sa Sveučilišta u Salzburgu ide i dalje, pa kaže: “Po-jam globalizacije novijeg je datuma, te u biti odgovara karakteru ideološki slobodne estetike ‘visokog sjaja’ moderne public relations-strategije turbokapitalizma. Pomnija analiza strukturnih proturječja koje izaziva, a koja se odražavaju u škarama između siromašnih masa i bogatog vrha, pokazuje da se fenomen globalizacije u gospodar-stvu i kulturi javlja kao proces neokolonijalizma, odnosno neoimperijalizma. Pojam slobodnog tržišta, perjanica takva pristupa, još ni izdaleka ne označava stvarno stanje na tržištima. Baš onako kako sve prisutniji pojam deregulacije zapravo označava pri-krivenu, ali sve veću i legaliziranu socijalnu neodgovornost velikih koncerna”.

    Nesumnjivo, ti procesi na svjetskoj medijskoj pozornici utječu na opću komerci-jalizaciju medija i time, sasvim sigurno, na demokraciju – i kao ideju, i kao državni sustav. Činjenica je da danas svijetom medija – a time i šire - vlada tridesetak moćnih transnacionalnih kompanija koje ne kriju svoj temeljni cilj: preuzimanje ekonomske kontrole nad medijima. - Moć je u današnjoj Americi utjelovljena u kontroli nad sred-stvima komunikacije – ističe Th eodore White.3

    Ekonomske oligopole u tom smislu svesrdno pomažu političke strukture velikih zemalja, koje na taj način nadziru informativnu i ideološku orijentaciju unutar nacije, ali sve više i u regijama, odnosno na kontinentima. Globalni su igrači u tom pogle-du nesumnjivo kompanije poput Time Warnera, Disneyja, Bertelsmanna, Viacoma, News Corporationa...

    Infotainment – okosnica medijskih preusmjerenja

    Upravo gospodarski tržišni odnosi u transnacionalnim kompanijama nameću bes-poštednu konkurentsku borbu za nacionalne i internacionalne medijske prostore, što, 1 Herman je profesor emeritus za područje fi nancija na Wharton School, Sveučilište Pennsylva-

    nia, ekonomist i analitičar medija, a McChesney profesor na Sveučičištu Illinois, veliki borac za slobodu medija i utemeljitelj medijske mreže Free Press za uspostavu novih odnosa u medijima.

    2 Reinhold Wagnleitner je izvanredni profesor suvremene opće povijesti na Sveučilištu u Salzbur-gu, autor knjige Coca-Cola Colonisation und kalter Krieg. Verlag der Gesellschaftskritik, Beč 1991.

    3 Američki politički novinar i povjesničar, dobitnik Pulitzerove nagrade za 1962; navod je iz knjige America in Search of Itself – Making of the President 1956-1980, objavljene 1982.

  • UTJECAJ GLOBALIZACIJE NA NOVINARSTVO38

    kako se pokazalo, pogubno utječe na karakter i značenje, a posebno na strukturu me-dijskih usmjerenja i programa. Prevladava opći trend inzistiranja medija na zabavnim i lakšim sadržajima, koji je i okosnica njihove potpune komercijalizacije. Bitan je utje-caj na stvaranje elitističke potrošačke kulture u okviru širega društva, što se posebno nepovoljno odražava na siromašne i manje razvijene informacijsko-komunikacijske prostore; domaći kulturni prostor tih zemalja pod snažnim je djelovanjem političkog i medijskog sustava bogatih država, prije svega SAD.

    Praksa pokazuje da globalni mediji prelaze granice, sklapaju saveze s lokalnim tvrtkama, izgrađuju impresivnu političku snagu i uspostavljaju rastuće komercijalne sektore; širom globalnog sustava funkcionira čvrsta sprega u trokutu: marketing - me-diji - transnacionalne kompanije. U to se, misle spomenuti autori, sve više uključuje i Međunarodni monetarni fond (MMF) koji svojim programima olakšava medijski prodor velikih sila na prostore nerazvijenih ili nedovoljno razvijenih zemalja. Uloga je MMF-a u tome da potiče primjenu neoliberalnih pravila, utemeljenih na prodoru privatnih ulaganja i smanjenju socijalnih davanja.

    I što se onda događa? Standardizacija medija kroz strukturu i sadržaj programa svih vrsta medija bitno utječe na posebnost i održivost autentičnosti nacionalnih kultura, koje sve više podliježu potrošačkom duhu medijsko-industrijskog konglomerata.

    Za naša je razmatranja bitna još jedna pojava: navedeni procesi utječu na nestajanje istraživačkoga novinarstva i potrebne afi rmativne kritičnosti novinara. Prevladava tzv. neutralno novinarstvo: umjesto profesionalna pristupa novinarstvu, na pozornici je novi žurnalizam s proizvodima koji su roba, s novinarima koji balansiraju između neutralno-sti, zataškavanja i istine, s medijskim aparatom neosjetljivim za lokalno i originalno.

    Komunikacija je, međutim, danas ne samo temeljna pretpostavka međusobnog razumijevanja nego i nasušna potreba u uspostavljanju kvalitete življenja. Upravo zbog navedenih procesa danas je nastala gotovo paradoksalna situacija: još nikad nije bilo toliko javnih informacija, i još nikad se toliki ljudi nisu osjećali nedostatno ili loše informiranima.

    Otkud taj i toliki raskorak? Živimo zapravo u dobu u kojem informacije dominant-no utječu na način života, na proizvodne učinke. Informacija je, uz resurse poput rada i kapitala, postala važan proizvodni faktor, ali ona može biti uspješna i plodo-nosna kao temeljni resurs proizvodnje i društvenog razvoja samo ako je - i kada je - slobodna od raznih ograničenja i sputavanja, kada je slobodna od dirigiranja. Parole pod kojima su nastajali prvi mediji – sloboda izražavanja, sloboda pisanja, postulati istinitosti, točnosti, objektivnosti ili korektna i fair izvještavanja - dovedeni su, naža-lost, u pitanje. Komercijalizacija uzima sve više maha i pred njom padaju novinarski standardi, novinarska etika i novinarski profesionalizam.

  • GAVRANOVIĆ 39

    Narušena uloga medija

    Pravo je pitanje zašto mediji uglavnom ne obavještavaju širu javnost o nemilim poja-vama u svjetskim kretanjima kroz procese globalizacije i svih popratnih pojava koje sam naveo u uvodnim tezama? Odgovor, mada pojednostavnjen, leži u činjenici da su koncerni infotainmenta, dominantni na svjetskoj medijskoj pozornici, upravo glasno-govornici onih transnacionalnih kompanija koje najviše profi tiraju od globalizacije.

    Valja dakako spomenuti da su još potkraj osamdesetih godina 20. stoljeća komu-nikacije bile regulirane na nacionalnoj razini. Nije sporno da su najnovije tehnološke inovacije izazvale promjene na međunarodnoj medijskoj pozornici, ali ipak ulogu gla-vnog otponca stručnjaci pripisuju reganomici i tačerizmu, programskim rodonačel-nicima neoliberalne politike. Postupno razaranje nacionalnih medijskih prostora za-počelo je u devedesetima, kada je ranije uspostavljeni demokratski potencijal javnog radija i televizije ustupio prostor američkom modelu privatne televizije, dakle institu-cionalnim okvirima slobodnog tržišta. Reganomika i tačerizam imali su nevjerojatno velik utjecaj na dereguliranje tržišta, što je u međuvremenu preraslo u standarde trans-nacionalnoga multinacionalnoga gospodarskoga ponašanja koncernā.

    Svjedoci smo bespoštedne borbe i stalnog rata oko kontrole na područjima elek-tronskog, televizijskog i kablovskog tržišta, na području digitalnih i satelitskih tehno-logija... Rat se vodi na svim frontama, bilo da je riječ o video ili kino-tehnici, CD-Romu ili DVD-u, a u posljednje se vrijeme posebno zahuktava sukob zainteresiranih na području interneta. Koncerni nastoje preuzeti kontrolu nad svim mrežama po-dataka, a time i kontrolu nad protokom svih informacija u 21. stoljeću, bez obzira na to je li riječ o političkim informacijama, novčanim transakcijama, kretanju robe ili kulturnim dobrima.

    Totalna globalna erozija medijskog tržišta i javnoga medijskog prostora pogoduje vodećim medijskim gigantima. Sinergijski efekti nastaju kroz horizontalne i vertikal-ne integracije u kojima su umreženi svi zanimljivi dijelovi: od fi lmskih studija do glo-balnih televizijskih mreža; od internetskih poslužitelja do informacijskih satelita, od kontrole nad novinama, časopisima i izdavačkom djelatnošću do tvrtki koje se bave odnosima s javnošću, ustanova za ispitivanje javnosti i oglasnih agencija, od temat-skih okupljanja do organizatora velikih sportskih događanja, od proizvođača dječjih igračaka do onih koji proizvode predmet za darivanje. Ta je sinergija zaista globalna i ne predstavlja samo političku nego i dominaciju koja se širi na područje kulture, tehnologije i – što je za nas važno - medijske prisutnosti, od sadržaja do stila. To sa sobom nosi i sve jaču dominaciju engleskog jezika kao sredstva međunarodne ko-munikacije. Stručnjaci tvrde da se na taj način stvara Th e Empire of the Fun, Carstvo zabave u kojemu sunce zaista nikad ne zalazi.

  • UTJECAJ GLOBALIZACIJE NA NOVINARSTVO40

    Gotovo nema dana da se neki svjetski novinski izdavač ne oglasi ponekom inovaci-jom, bilo promjenom formata praćenom novim izgledom, bilo novom komercijalnom ili uređivačkom strategijom. Kako svjedoče i najnovija kretanja na hrvatskoj medijskoj pozornici, novine i ostali mediji prolaze i složen proces diversifi kacije, proširuju opseg usluga i proizvoda, sve u potrazi za približavanjem čitateljima i oglašivačima, vođeni idejom povećavanja profi ta. Prema analizama Svjetske udruge novinskih izdavača, u posljednja 24 mjeseca realizirano je više inovacijskih zahvata i projekata u novinama nego u prethodnih 30 godina. Stoga ne čudi što su središnja tema ovogodišnjega Kon-gresa novinskih izdavača bile upravo promjene u redakcijama, vezane prije svega za diversifi kaciju i proširenje na druge oblike komuniciranja s čitateljstvom.4

    Posebnu uznemirenost unosi djelovanje interneta koje se postupno oblikuje kao presudan medijski čimbenik na kojem gospodarska, kulturna, politička i vojna kon-kurencija dolazi potpuno do izražaja. Još je Bill Clinton internet označio kao “bojno polje svjetskoga gospodarskog rata”. U međuvremenu je snaga toga medija porasla do enormnih granica, no ona nije samo u dostupnosti informacija nego i u tome što je internet postao široko manipulativno područje za – dezinformacije. Tako kao da se postupno ostvaruje ideja Orwellovih antiutopijskih romana Životinjska farma i 19845, gdje svijet postaje totalno kontrolirano društvo, Big Brother u najširem smislu riječi.

    Ujedinjeni narodi upozorili su u srpnju 1999. svjetsku javnost na dalje ubrzano zaoštravanje neravnomjernosti u utrci za najvažnijim resursima 21. stoljeća - obrazo-vanjem i znanjem. Razvoj umjetne inteligencije i softvera, te razjašnjavanje genetskih kodova postupno su preuzimali mjesto ranijih smjerova utjecaja velikih i razvijenih na stvaranje svjetske gospodarske moći. Već je sada potpuno jasno da će se veliki eko-nomski konfl ikti 21. stoljeća koncentrirati upravo na tim područjima. Veliki koncer-ni infotainmenta očekuju upravo na tim tržištima - pod inačicom distance learning, učenje na daljinu, ili digital education, digitalno obrazovanje – već u sljedećih deset godina 30 do 40 posto povećanja dobiti.

    Razlike se produbljuju

    Obrazovanje i znanje tako postaju svjetske hit-teme, te u svjetskom gospodarstvu, osim izvoza oružja i prometa drogom, nema područja gdje su moguće veće zarade. U vezi s tim naglašeno raste uloga interneta, jer je posrijedi najbrže rastuće komuni-kacijsko sredstvo u ukupnoj povijesti čovječanstva. No, internet nije samo sredstvo 4 59th Congres of the World Association of Newspaper, Moskva 2006, uvodno izlaganje general-

    noga direktora Timothyja Baldinga.5 Eric Arthur Blair, poznatiji pod pseudonomimom George Orwell, autor antiutopijskih romana

    Životinjska farma (1949).

  • GAVRANOVIĆ 41

    spajanja - Th e World Wide Web još je nedostupna golemu dijelu čovječanstva, napose onima kojima su obrazovanje i znanje najpotrebniji. Razlika i jaz između razvijenih i nerazvijenih, bogatih i siromašnih, znatno se i trajno produbljuje. Dok je, na primjer, 1820. odnos siromašnih i bogatih bio 3:1, godine 1950. već je iznosio 35 prema jedan, do 1995. porastao je na golemih 82 prema jedan, a u posljednjih deset godina dodatno se pogoršao.

    Ili, čak 74,48 posto od ukupno 665,910 milijuna internetskih priključaka u 2002. godini bilo je u samo 15 zemalja: SAD su same imale udio od 24,13 posto, a u pet ze-malja – SAD, Japanu, Kini, Njemačkoj i Velikoj Britaniji - broj priključaka obuhvaća više od 52,5 posto njihova ukupnoga broja u svijetu.

    Ili, od 395 milijuna prodanih primjeraka dnevnih novina, u Europi ih se proda 97 milijuna, u SAD i Kanadi 61,3 milijuna, u Aziji - zahvaljujući prije svega Kini, Japanu, Indiji, Tajvanu i Tajlandu - 219,5 milijuna, dok se u Africi prodaje samo 2,3 milijuna primjeraka. Zašto u Aziji? Zato što među stotinu dnevnika s najvećom nakladom čak 71 izlazi u spomenutim zemljama.

    Ili, među 50 specijaliziranih časopisa na svijetu prvih 12 mjesta zauzimaju izdanja iz SAD, a njihovu dominaciju dodatno potvrđuje podatak da ih među prvih 20 na ljestvici ima čak 17. Na ljestvicama najvećih svjetskih ženskih časopisa prvih devet mjesta zauzi-maju američki, koji drže i prva tri mjesta među najvećim muškim magazinima. Jednako je i s fi nancijsko-poslovnim časopisima i news-magazinima, dok je apsolutnu svjetsku dominaciju američkih televizijskih kuća nepotrebno posebno isticati.

    Kakva je uloga novinara u svim tim kretanjima?

    S globalizacijom medijskog tržišta i informacijsko-komunikacijskih sredstava, stalno raste i proširuje se odgovornost svakog novinara, jer sada cijeli planet postaje njegov potencijalni čitatelj, slušatelj ili gledatelj. Postavlja se, međutim, pitanje što da (u)radi novinar, intelektualac, u uvjetima kada 35 milijardera ima veće prihode od zajedničkih prihoda gotovo polovice svjetskog pučanstva. Što učiniti kada, na primjer, u Mozambiku 25 posto djece umire uslijed zaraznih bolesti prije nego što navrši pet godina, a istodobno zemlja za kamate na inozemne dugove plaća dvaput više nego što troši za zdravstvo i obrazovanje? Što može novinar u uvjetima kada visoki predsta-vnik UN tvrdi da se “trend ekonomskih dispariteta između industrijskih i nerazvijenih zemalja ne samo nastavlja nego i razvija od neiskorjenjiva prema nehumanu”?

    Sada se u praksi ozbiljno suprotstavljaju dvije teze. Jedna ističe kako bez informa-cije nema javne odgovornosti. Informacije su moć i što više ljudi posjeduje informaci-je, to je i ta istinska moć bolje raspoređena, pa je slobodan pristup informacijama od strane javnosti osnova sustava društvenog integriteta. Naime, ako pristup informaci-

  • UTJECAJ GLOBALIZACIJE NA NOVINARSTVO42

    jama ne postoji ili ne funkcionira, organizacije demokratske vlasti neće djelovati kako treba, ljudi neće moći ostvariti svoja prava, a ponekad neće ni znati da su im narušena. Glavno sredstvo kojim se informacije prenose javnosti upravo su nezavisni i slobodni mediji. Pored nezavisnog sudstva, upravo su slobodni mediji jedna od dvije vlasti koje ne bi smjele biti pod kontrolom politike i političara i koje mogu služiti kao snažna protuteža korupciji, nepotizmu i drugim zlima suvremenih društava.

    Druga teza ne ide u prilog takvu poimanju novinarstva i uloge medija nego teži za dominacijom politike nad medijima. Suvremene tehnologije to i omogućavaju, a gospodarsko-politička dominacija jednostavno nameće takav odnos medija i politike, bez obzira na fl oskule o slobodi izražavanja i slobodnim medijima. Jednostavno, me-diji prodaju ono što traže i žele njihovi vlasnici.

    Odnos novinara i informacije prema procesu globalizacije velikim je dijelom odre-đen samom činjenicom da je najvažnija uloga medija biti budno oko javnosti, upozo-ravati na devijacije u društvenim i gospodarskim kretanjima, biti svojevrsna javna sa-vjest i kontrola svih društveno-gospodarskih zbivanja u korist te javnosti. Mediji svoju oštricu posebno moraju usmjeravati prema neželjenim ali prisutnim društvenim zli-ma: korupciji, centrima nekontrolirane moći, nedopuštenim povlasticama, poltron-stvu, kršenju prava i pravnih okvira, nepotizmu, da nabrojimo samo neke takve pojave kakvih ima u svakom društvu i koje uvijek nose klicu društvenoga karcinoma.

    Zauzimam se, dakle, za pravo na kritičan odnos prema pojavama i ljudima, ali i za potpunu odgovornost u korištenju te slobode. Odlučno sam protiv toga da se pod stijegom novinarske slobode koristi njena suprotnost: zloupotreba demokracije i slo-bode. Nažalost, globalna komercijalizacija medijskog prostora upravo na tom podru-čju donosi najviše promjena i ponajviše kršenja etičkih normi i pravila profesionalnog pristupa korištenju i rasprostiranju infomracija.

    Poremećeni odnosi teorije i prakse

    Želim samo upozoriti na neke okosnice, ključne za buduću raspravu.

    Prvo, dignitet profesije i profesionalaca, što nažalost ni u jednoj struci nije domi-nantna preokupacija iako upravo na tome počivaju etika i moral, pa time i profesio-nalni moral. U politici i novinarstvu to bi moralo biti posebno naglašeno.

    Drugo, Kodeks novinarske časti koji, što se premalo zna, obvezuje podjednako sve sudionike, a ne samo novinara.

    Treće, odnos etike i prakse, koje su počesto u veliku raskoraku.

    Zašto napominjem te okosnice? U svakom demokratskom društvu postoji neprije-porna potreba za istinitom, potpunom, razložnom i pravodobnom informacijom i

  • GAVRANOVIĆ 43

    komunikacijom bez obzira na to o kojem se dijelu ljudske aktivnosti radilo. Logično, to se podjednako odnosi na politiku, ali i na sva bitna društveno-gospodarska kre-tanja. To je, rekao bih, temeljna sloboda svakoga pojedinca, ali ta sloboda pripada i ukupnoj javnosti, jer sloboda misli, sloboda izražavanja i sloboda kritike pripadaju svakome i bitni su sastojci ukupne slobode čovjeka.

    Uloga novinara tu je potpuno jasna: on zaista ubrzava protok tih informacija, ali ih i dozira, odabire, može bitno utjecati na njihovu rasprostranjenost, pa je samim time i njegova uloga naglašenija i odgovornost izraženija. No, usko povezano s tom ulogom novinara, posebno se zaoštrava pitanje moralne i pravne odgovornosti, pa konačno i pravnih sankcija za ulogu novinara u informiranju.

    No, novinari imaju i još jednu vrlo delikatnu i nadasve osjetljivu zadaću: moraju voditi računa o kulturi dijaloga koja se uspostavlja u medijima i društvu u cijelosti. Sve ozbiljnije analize stanja u našim medijima, tiskanima i elektroničkima, pokazu-ju eroziju profesije i profesionalnosti, te zapostavljanje ili čak potpun gubitak etičke dimenzije. Tome uvelike pridonosi i orijentacija naših dnevnih listova kojima su na naslovnicama uglavnom senzacija, skandal, zamagljene činjenice ili izmišljeni doga-đaji. Sloboda izražavanja pretvorena je u zloupotrebu medija - otvorena je Pandorina kutija iz koje su izišli zli duhovi, bez realne mogućnosti da se uspostavi normalna kontrola. Zli duhovi izrodili su se u opaki senzacionalizam, žutilo najvećega dijela novinstva, koji se u konačnici obija o glavu začetnicima i pokretačima takva medij-skog pristupa. Međutim, novinarstvu i novinarima nanesene su velike štete koje ćemo teško popraviti.

    Nama su stoga danas, možda više no ikad, potrebni dijalog i angažiranje svih inte-lektualnih potencijala, a da bismo u tome donekle uspjeli, potrebno je njegovati kul-turu dijaloga. U našem društvu, koje prolazi stadij posvemašnje tranzicije, neki su sustavi vrijednosti razoreni, a nisu nadomješteni novima, te je u toj duhovnoj praznini dijalog nešto za čim društvo vapi na svim razinama. Međutim, traži se civiliziran di-jalog s defi niranim pretpostavkama i jasnim okvirima, što prije svega podrazumijeva uvažavanje sugovornika, dijalog bez uvreda, podmetanja, omalovažavanja ili netole-rancije. To mora biti govor protiv sijanja mržnje i ljudske, profesionalne i znanstvene netrpeljivosti, to mora biti dijalog u kojem prevladava snaga argumenta i činjenice, a ne argument snage i političkoga, ideološkoga, kulturnoga ili bilo kojega drugoga nasilja nad sugovornikom. Civiliziran pristup dijalogu pokazuje da zapravo i nema tako nasilna stanja koje se ne bi moglo riješiti – ili pokušati riješiti - dijalogom. U mul-tietničkoj i multikulturalnoj sredini – a to jest hrvatska zbilja – takav je odnos prema dijalogu i nužan i jedini održiv.

  • UTJECAJ GLOBALIZACIJE NA NOVINARSTVO44

    Uspostava standarda prava i odgovornosti

    Logički, na osnovi ovako postavljenih odnosa prema dijalogu, njegovoj kulturi i svrhovitosti, s osobitostima etosa samog novinarskog poziva, proizlazi da se zauzi-mam za visoke standarde prava i odgovornosti u poslu koji obavljamo. Praksa, među-tim, pokazuje da načela i život nisu jednoznačni i da se mediji, kada je riječ o kulturi dijaloga, kreću u različitim smjerovima.

    Novinar neosporno ima pravo - ali i obavezu - pomno pratiti i iščitavati sva društ-vena kretanja i pojave, ukazivati na teškoće i slabosti, afi rmirati prave vrijednosti, kritizirati i hvaliti, ali uvijek samo u mjeri koja je omeđena pravilima Novinarskoga kodeksa. Svaki iskorak iz tih okvira ponašanja poguban je za samu profesiju, ali i za uspostavu realne ravnoteže u informiranju.

    Budući da je naša središnja tema Globalizacija i odgovornost novinara, bitno je naglasiti i ulogu medija u tom procesu stvaranja novih sustava vrijednosti. Nova me-dijska strategija, i to ne samo u Hrvatskoj, trebala bi počivati na načelima uspostave informirane, budne i aktivne javnosti. U toj strategiji najveću važnost i odgovornu ulogu imaju nevladine organizacije koje promiču ljudska prava i dostojanstvo čovjeka, te slobodu medija i izražavanja kao bitan dio tih prava; civiliziran dijalog neizostavan je dio takvih nastojanja.

    Upozorio bih da je upravo zbog bitnih promjena, ali često i nesnalaženja novinara u uvjetima globalizacije nedavno priređen poseban priručnik Covering Globalization,6 namijenjen novinarima koji pokrivaju područje fi nancija i gospodarstva u zemljama u razvoju i tranzicijskim zemljama, najviše pogođenima medijskom ekspanzijom trans-nacionalnih kompanija. Autori priručnika predstavnici su Azijske razvojne banke i Me-đunarodnog monetarnog fonda, ali i novinari Dow Jonesa, Financial Timesa, New York Timesa, Fortunea i Reutersa, dok je uvodnik napisao nobelovac, veliki protivnik i kriti-čar globalizacije Joseph E. Stiglitz.7 Priručnik ukazuje kako se usmjeriti na glav ne teme sada�