U.S. Presidents 1952-2007. Living Presidents Cold War Presidents 1952-1980

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Text of U.S. Presidents 1952-2007. Living Presidents Cold War Presidents 1952-1980

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  • U.S. Presidents 1952-2007
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  • Living Presidents
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  • Cold War Presidents 1952-1980
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  • President Eisenhower 1952-1960 Republican Commander of the Allied forces in World War II
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  • Domestic Policies Eisenhower attempts to cut back on Federal government size and spending Eisenhower prosperity and consumer spending
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  • Baby Boom Baby Boom - Population explosion occurred after the war - 1946-1964 25 million children born (1945 1960) Boom leads to an increase in housing and the growth of suburbs
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  • Transportation The Highway Act 1956 provides funding for a 44,000 mile network of interstate highways
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  • Television Television became the leading form of popular entertainment
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  • Renewed struggle for Civil Rights Brown v. Bd. Of Education ends segregation Little Rock sends in the National Guard to enforce integration
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  • Eisenhowers Foreign Policy Continues the policy of Containment
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  • Foreign Policy in the Middle East Eisenhower Doctrine- the U.S. pledged to help Middle Eastern countries resist communism
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  • Eisenhower s Foreign Policy Massive Retaliation U.S. would consider nuclear weapons to halt aggression Arms Race begins
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  • Policies of Eisenhower Brinkmanship The U.S. must be ready to go to the brink of war in order to preserve the peace
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  • Sputnik Soviet Union successfully launces Sputnik which starts a space race.
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  • Changing relations with the U.S.S.R. Peaceful Coexistence Change of leadership in the Soviet Union marks an easing of tensions between the superpowers Eisenhower and Khrushchev
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  • The U-2 incident U-2 Incident Soviets shoot down an American Spy plane Soviets demand an apology; U.S. refuses
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  • John F. Kennedy 1960-63 Democratic Senator from MA Youngest elected president First Catholic President Assassinated Nov.22, 1963
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  • Domestic Policies New Frontier Aid to education, federal support of health care, urban renewal and civil rights Spending for defense & space exploration (committed to a moon landing)!! Began the Peace Corps
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  • Foreign Policy Containment: Alliance for Progress (economic development in Latin America) Berlin Wall is built after Kennedy refused to pull US troops out of West Berlin Involvement in Vietnam
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  • Cuba Bay of Pigs Failed revolution to overthrow Castro & his communist regime (failed) Cuban Missile Crisis Soviet missiles in Cuba threaten U.S. U.S. blockade works to stop threat of attack by the Soviets Soviet Medium Range Missile Launch sites in Cuba taken from a US spy plane Castro
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  • Lyndon Johnson 1963-1968 Democratic senator from Texas
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  • Domestic policy War on Poverty - $ for head start, literacy training, vocational ed.), EOE Act Great Society Reforms - $ for Medicare, Medicaid, to poor school districts, arts, higher education, public housing, crime prevention, environment & automobile regulation.
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  • Domestic Policy Civil Rights Act of 1964 & 1965 -made segregation illegal Enforced desegregation in schools EOE Act 24th Amend. - abolish poll tax Voting Rights Act - ends literacy tests
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  • Foreign Policy Escalation of the War in Vietnam GULF OF TONKIN RESOLUTION - gave the Pres. Power to attack an enemy & prevent future aggression Tet Offensive - Vietcong launch all-out surprise attack on South Vietnam
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  • Richard M. Nixon Republican 1968 - 1974
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  • Nixons Domestic Policies New Federalism (revenue sharing) - shift social programs from federal to state levels (ex. welfare) Stagflation - slow economic growth & inflation 90 day wage & price freeze, 10% tax on imports (tariff) Increase Social Security benefits Voting Age lowered to 18 (26th Amendment)
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  • Domestic Policies Roe v. Wade (pro-abortion ruling) Watergate Scandal leads to Nixons resignation War Powers Act - Congress had to approve any military action lasting more than 60 days. (reverses Gulf of Tonkin) I am not a crook - President Nixon
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  • Nixons Foreign Policy Vietnamization - gradually withdrawal troops from Vietnam 543,000 troops in 1969 300,000 troops in 1972
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  • Foreign Policy Nixon Doctrine - Asian allies receive $ but not ground support Paris Peace Accords - armistice & cease-fire in Vietnam Dtente - reduction of Cold War tensions SALT I - strategic arms limitations talks (reduce arms buildup in US & Soviet Union)
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  • Gerald Ford Republican from Michigan 1974 - 1976 Only President to never be elected to the Presidency or Vice- Presidency Granted a full pardon to Nixon in his first month of office President Ford & First Lady Betty Ford
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  • Fords Domestic Policies Fiscally conservative Lower Inflation (WIN) Economy marked by stagflation High Unemployment 9% Pardoned Nixon & offered amnesty to men who avoided military service during Vietnam
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  • Fords Foreign Policies Saigon Falls, Rest of Vietnam falls to Communism (1975) Continue dtente w/ Soviets Withdrew last troops from Vietnam
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  • James Carter Democrat from Georgia 1976 - 1981 Vice President: Walter Mondale
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  • Carters Domestic Policies Stop Inflation (up 13%) Began EPA (environmental protection agency) Oil Shortages 3 Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant accident (Carter supported nuclear energy as an alternative to oil and coal). Tried to pass the Equal Rights Amendment (failed when it went to the states for approval)
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  • Carters Foreign Policies Human Rights (stop apartheid) Panama Canal Treaty - give canal to Panamanians Camp David Accords - peace settlement between Egypt & Israel Iran Hostage Crisis Soviet invasion of Afghanistan to control Persian Gulf SALT II Helinski Accords - Carter would withhold aid from nations who violated human rights. Hostage Crisis
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  • Modern Presidents 1980-2016
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  • President Ronald Reagan Republican 1980 - 1988 Vice President - George Bush
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  • Reagans Domestic Policies Reaganomics / Trickle Down or Supply Side Economics Tax cuts for big business & wealthy would benefit everyone. Control Inflation Control illegal immigration Balanced Budget (made deep cuts in federal spending)
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  • Reagans Foreign Policy Increase military spending Star Wars (intercept soviet missiles) Containment in Central America (El Salvador, Nicaragua, Grenada) Iran-Contra Affair Questioned dtente??
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  • George Bush Republican 1988 - 1992 Only served one term
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  • Bushs Domestic Policy Increased Taxes Rising Unemployment Recession Urban Violence (LA Riots)
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  • Bushs Foreign Policies Invasion of Panama to capture famous drug lord Manuel Noriega Persian Gulf War (Operation Desert Storm) - Iraq invades oil rich Kuwait. US sends in troops
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  • Bill Clinton Democrat 1992 - 2000 Vice President - Albert Gore
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  • Clintons Domestic Policies Gays in the military Health Care Reform Revising Social Security (the graying of America) Impeachment Economic growth and prosperity
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  • Clintons Foreign Policies North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) War in Bosnia (US tries to stop the ethnic cleansing) Involvement in Kosovo (Serbs were massacring Albanians) NATO expansion (Poland, Czech Republic & Hungary become members).
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  • George W. Bush Republican 2000 - present Vice - President - Dick Cheney
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  • Bushs Domestic Policies Education Reform - No Child Left Behind Act Tax Cuts (to jump start the economy) Social Security Reform Revision of Health Care Dept. of Homeland Security High gas prices Hurricane Katrina
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  • Bushs Foreign Policies War on Terror War in Iraq Capture of Saddam Hussein Nuclear weapons in North Korea and Iran
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  • Barack Obama 2008 Present First African- American President Vice President Joe Biden
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  • Domestic Policy Health Care Obama Care Bailouts GM Economic Stimulus package
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  • Foreign Policy End to military presence in Iraq and Afganistan Capture/Death of Osama bin Laden