Text of US/ AZ BELLWORK 1.What is the United Nations? 2.Why would powerful countries want to control weaker...
US/ AZ BELLWORK 1.What is the United Nations? 2.Why would powerful countries want to control weaker nations? (imperialism) 3.What is a totalitarian government? 4.If citizens are unhappy with their totalitarian government, what could they do to change it? 5.THINKER: If the dictator of one country is implementing harsh laws, do you think the U.S. should step in and help? Explain!
World BELLWORK 1.What is the United Nations? 2.Why would powerful countries want to control weaker nations? (imperialism) 3.What is a dictatorship? 4.If citizens are unhappy with their dictator, what could they do to change it? 5.THINKER: If the dictator of one country is implementing harsh laws, do you think the U.S. should step in and help? Explain!
Gaddafi comes to power Gaddafi joined the Libyan military in 1961 September 1, 1969 a small group of junior military officers led by Gaddafi staged a bloodless coup against King Idris of Libya Next, they abolished the monarchy and created the new Libyan Arab Republic This republic was immediately deemed a rogue state by the U.S. President Gamal Abdal Nasser of Egypt (right) with the Leader of the Libyan Revolution, Muammar al- Gaddafi, 1969
Rogue State Rogue State a country whose conduct is considered to be out of line with international norms of behavior threatening to world peace This means meeting certain criteria, such as being ruled by a dictator, restricting human rights, sponsoring terrorism, and increasing weapons of mass destruction Usually, rogue states are not supported by democratic powers or the UN. What countries do you think the U.S. considers rogue states?
Libya under Gaddafi control Gaddafi arrested members of the government and named himself leader, prime minister, and defense minister. Libya was now ruled as a single party police state Gaddafi soon expelled minority groups (Italians, Jews) from the country and confiscated their property He practiced Pan-Arabism, a belief in Arab nationalism which said all Arabic countries should join together and form political, economic & military alliances. Pan-Arabism strongly opposes Western involvement in the Arab world
Territories of the Arab League
Libya under Gaddafi control In 1975, Gaddafi published The Green Book required reading for all Libyans Rejected democracy, free press, and capitalism Dissent is illegal - surveillance takes place in government, factories, and education. Political conversations with foreigners is a crime punishable by three years of prison. Gaddafi removed foreign languages from school curriculum. Prisons are run with little or no documentation of the inmate population or basic data as prisoner's crime and sentence. The regime has often executed dissenters publicly and the executions are repeated in state television channels. According to the Freedom of the Press Index, Libya is the most censored country in the Middle East and North Africa.
Libya under Gaddafi control Gaddafi's used revolutionary committees to repress any political opposition or dissent 10 to 20 percent of Libyans work in surveillance for these committees By 1979, the committees assumed control of all elections. 95% of Libyas economy is from oil production. Gaddafi passed laws for government control of all oil fields (no private ownership), businesses, and banks. By 1982, 100,000 Libyans had fled the country.
Gaddafis intervention in Africa In 1972, Gaddafi created the Islamic Legion to unify the region under Arab control (priorities were Chad and Sudan) 1973-1994: Libya invades Chad for control of Aozou Strip. 1977: Libyan-Egyptian War In 1972, Libya tried to buy a nuclear bomb from China Inspectors from the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) verified in 2004 that Libya owned a stockpile of 23 metric tons of mustard gas and more than 1,300 metric tons of chemical weapons
Gaddafis intervention in Africa 1978 war with Tanzania Gaddafi supported the inhumane Sierra Leone diamond trade In 2001, Gaddafi invaded the Central African Republic
Libya and International Terrorism 1971 Gaddafi threatens France with military intervention 1973 Irish Navy confiscated ships carrying Libyan weapons 1976 supported Irish bombing of England 1981 conflicts between Gaddafi and Reagan (U.S. prohibited travel to Libya, cut off oil shipments) 1986 Gaddafi started training Libyan suicide squads to attack the U.S. and Europe 1986 bombing of Berlin (starts U.S. bombing of Libya) 1987 broke off relations with Australia 1988 Gaddafi ordered the bombing of London Pan Am flight 103, killing 250 people In the late 1980s Gaddafi supported Islamic terrorist groups in Philippines, Austria, Indonesia, and New Zealand
UN Sanctions After the bombing of the Pan Am flight, the United Nations implemented sanctions, or penalties, on Libya. These sanctions basically cut Libya off from the rest of the world until 2003 The sanctions included: cut airline connections with the outer world reduced diplomatic representation prohibited the sale of military equipment. froze Libya's foreign assets banned the sale to Libya of refinery or pipeline equipment $2.7 billion to the families effected by the flight
2011 Libyan Uprising On February 15, 2011 protests spread across the country calling for new leadership and elections. Gaddafi responded with military force, censorship and blocking of communications The uprising escalated into armed conflict, with rebels establishing a coalition named the Transitional National Council based in Benghazi. The International Criminal Court warned Gaddafi that he and members of his government may have committed crimes against humanity In early March, Gaddafi's forces rallied, push eastwards and re-took several coastal cities before attacking Benghazi
UN Involvement On March 17, The United Nations Security council declared the following: no-fly zone over Libya, to prevent the use of military aircraft against civilians freeze the assets of Gaddafi and ten members of his inner circle and restrict their travel referred the actions of the regime to the International Criminal Court for investigation UN Security Council is made up of 15 members with 5 holding the power of veto (China, France, Russia, Britain, U.S.) The Gaddafi government then announced a ceasefire, but failed to uphold it On March 19, France, U.S., and England sent planes to control the area and prevent attacks
Cities controlled by pro-Gaddafi forces Cities controlled by anti-Gaddafi forces (supported by coalition forces) Ongoing fighting/unclear situation