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  • American Journal of Climate Change, 2017, 6, 22-39 http://www.scirp.org/journal/ajcc

    ISSN Online: 2167-9509 ISSN Print: 2167-9495

    DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2017.61002 February 7, 2017

    Urban Heat Island Mitigation and Urban Planning: The Case of the Mexicali, B. C. Mexico

    Jorge Villanueva-Solis

    School of Architecture, Autonomous University of Coahuila, Coahuila, Mexico

    Abstract The derivations of climate change on cities and their activities depend on their capacity for adaptation and mitigation. In this sense, it has long recognized the influence of cities on their own climate, which is typically warmer than the surrounding. This phenomenon called urban heat island (UHI) has a number of impacts on air quality, water demand and energy. Since the fourth IPCC assessment report indicates the need for urban centers devoting efforts to adaptation to reduce the risks of direct and indirect impacts of climate change. The same organization recognizes the urban planning as a tool to seek such order. However, it also recognizes that the current scale of climate models cannot provide a representation of urban areas. This paper explores the inten- sification of the UHI, its relationship with urban expansion and its impact on housing in the city of Mexicali, B.C. Its aim is to determine its impact and mi- tigation potential through analysis and modeling of urban structure, expressed in use and land cover, as well as the implementation of mitigation strategies. The results show on the one hand, the convenience of using dynamic model- ing as a tool applied to urban planning with a focus on mitigation and adapta- tion to climate change. Furthermore, regarding the implementation of strate- gies, the results show that most efficiency is obtained when applied generally, this is, considering green and cool roofs, cool pavements and afforestation as part of urbanization process, otherwise, only partial results are achieved. Over- all, housing land use has significant potential to mitigate the UHI in the city. Keywords Urban Heat Island, Mitigation, Adaptation, Dynamic Modelling, Urban Planning

    1. Introduction

    The urban expansion experienced by cities, is associated with numerous envi-

    How to cite this paper: Villanueva-Solis, J. (2017) Urban Heat Island Mitigation and Urban Planning: The Case of the Mexicali, B. C. Mexico. American Journal of Climate Change, 6, 22-39. https://doi.org/10.4236/ajcc.2017.61002 Received: October 10, 2016 Accepted: February 4, 2017 Published: February 7, 2017 Copyright © 2017 by author and Scientific Research Publishing Inc. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY 4.0). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

    Open Access

    http://www.scirp.org/journal/ajcc https://doi.org/10.4236/ajcc.2017.61002 http://www.scirp.org https://doi.org/10.4236/ajcc.2017.61002 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

  • J. Villanueva-Solis


    ronmental problems, one of these is the Urban Heat Island (UHI). Defined as the temperature difference between the urban area and its surroundings, it is the result of two different but related processes; the first and most important, changes in land cover as a result of the urbanization process that transforms materials with impervious surfaces such as asphalt and concrete. The second re- fers to activities in the city mainly transport and industry due to thermal emis- sions that contribute to urban heating [1]. The issue is increasingly important because of the global trend towards urbanization and sprawl of cities, also be- cause the UHI has direct implications for air quality, public health, energy man- agement and urban planning. Reasons why this issue has become one of the ma- jor environmental challenges related to the urbanization process, since the tem- perature rise associated with UHI tends to exacerbate the problems are men- tioned above [2]. Besides, it is on the core issues identified when the issue of mi- tigation and adaptation to climate change is approached from an urban focus.

    Currently, most studies on UHI have taken place in densely populated cities, located in temperate and subtropical climates [3]. In contrast, cities located in desert ecosystems have been studied very little [4]. Such studies are even scarcer for the deserts of North America having extreme aridity, with the exception of cities like Las Vegas, Phoenix and Tucson in the United States [5]-[10] and more recently in the city of Mexicali in Baja California, Mexico [11] [12] [13]. Overall, the researches on the subject have mainly focused on the identification and analysis of the ther- mal behavior within urban areas, and the establishment of mitigation strategies. In this regard, Akbari establishes the principal strategies to mitigate the effects of the UHI, increasing the Albedo roofs and floors, and urban reforestation [14].

    However, addressing the issue of ICU mitigation and adaptation in the urban planning process is limited only to the definition of strategies, which demon- strates the relevance of integrating strategies into the planning process. In this sense, this research determines the potential of the current urban structure of the city to implement those strategies. The proposed method was developed in a si- mulation context, considering the current and future spatial organization of the city, also land cover and type of buildings.

    The Valley of Mexicali, in Baja California (Mexico), located at 32˚38' north and 115˚20' west, has the distinction of being a border region contiguous with the State of California in the United States. The whole region belongs to the Physiographic Province of the Sub Colorado River Delta in the Sonoran Desert. As a result, the region has a very arid climate, only 75 mm of annual rainfall and extreme temperature conditions: maximum temperatures exceeded 50˚C in summer and minimum temperatures below 0˚C in the winter.

    Mexicali founded in the early twentieth century on a floodplain, which con- tributes to heat transfer, is very uniform. The census of 2010 states the city cov- ers an area of 14,890 hectares and has a population of 689.775 inhabitants, re- sulting in a density of 46 inhabitants per hectare, showing a city expansion hori- zontal. The urban fabric is organized into six zones; this characterizes the spaces of the city from the functional point of view and land use. The distribution of

  • J. Villanueva-Solis


    land use is predominantly residential with 56%, industrial use accounts for 7% and the commercial and services 6%, meanwhile the use intended for urban fa- cilities (that includes public parks, schools and other public buildings) corres- ponds to 8% of the urban area, in terms of conservation only 1%; another im- portant use is for streets and infrastructure that covers 15% of the city, and the remaining seven percent is for mixed use (commerce-services-industry).

    In the last three decades, the city underwent a demographic and economic boom due to growth in manufacturing currently has eleven industrial parks with a total of 1164 manufacturing firms, using 825 hectares of urban land; most of these industrial parks were built in the 1980s in what used to be farmland on the outside of the city. However, the expansion of the city in the following decades caused the industry will be immersed in the city; situation that caused that in- dustrial buildings contribute to increased temperature by their construction characteristics and their emissions [15] [16] [17].

    In contrast, the city has about 140 hectares of public green areas, surface representing an allocation of 2.1 m2 per inhabitant, while the national legislation provides 10 m2 per inhabitant and the World Health Organization sets 9 m2 per inhabitant; therefore, there is a significant deficit [18]. Accordingly, it can be seen that the effects of urban areas with high thermal emission are spread throughout the city. In contrast, areas of low thermal emission or thermal sinks represent a minimum area compared to other land-use.

    1.1. Study on the Urban Heat Island

    The first approach to the UHI of the city took place in 1996 through a study us- ing satellite images (NOAA AVHRR), the results of this study show a series of islets high thermal emission matching the industrial, commerce and service, which are areas of high degree of urbanization in the city [19]. Later García-Cue- tousing NOAA AVHRR and Landsat ETM+ images and air temperature meas- ures, analyzed atmospheric and surface UHI and its relation to land use. The re- sults confirm the existence of a surface UHI by comparing the city with its sur- roundings, as well as identifying important thermal contrasts within the city and the development of a night UHI [13]. The largest temperature contrasts are ob- served in this study with greater than 40˚C between the urban area and the sur- rounding agricultural area values, that in the months of July and August. Two years later, the same author using a database from 1950 to 2000, in temporary and spatial analysis of the air temperature in the urban canopy of the city and its surroundings; in this study, it was demonstrated the presence of a mass of warm night air in urban air, where the maximum difference between the city and its surroundings occurs in winter with a value of 5.7˚C [12].

    1.2. Mitigation of Urban Heat Island

    The main mitigation strategies are: reforestation, green and cool roofs and cool pavements. Its application reduce the effect of the UHI, also saves energy and greenhouse gas emissions are reduced, contribute to reducing risks to public health, with