UPDATED VERSION ... UPDATED VERSION Committee on Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: An Update Board

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  • UPDATED VERSION

    Committee on Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: An Update

    Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

    Division on Earth and Life Studies

    THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C.

    www.nap.edu

  • THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS • 500 Fifth Street, N.W. • Washington, DC 20001

    NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

    This study was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG02-08ER15932; the National Institutes of Health under contract number N01-OD-4-2139, TO #200; and the National Science Foundation under grant number CHE-0740356. Additional support was received from Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.; the American Chemical Society; E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company; Eastman Chemical Company; the Howard Hughes Medical Institute; and PPG Industries.

    Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Prudent practices in the laboratory : handling and management of chemical hazards / Committee on Prudent Practices in the Laboratory, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, Division on Earth and Life Studies. — Updated ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-309-13864-2 (hardback) ISBN-10: 0-309-13864-7 (hardback) ISBN-13: 978-0-309-13865-9 (pdf) ISBN-10: 0-309-13865-5 (pdf) 1. Hazardous substances. 2. Chemicals—Safety measures. 3. Hazardous wastes. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Prudent Practices in the Laboratory. T55.3.H3P78 2011 660’.2804—dc22 2010047731

    Additional copies of this report are available from The National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu.

    Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

    Printed in the United States of America

  • The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

    The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

    The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibil- ity given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine.

    The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council.

    www.national-academies.org

  • v

    COMMITTEE ON PRUDENT PRACTICES IN THE LABORATORY: AN UPDATE

    Co-Chairs

    William F. Carroll, Jr., Occidental Chemical Corporation, Dallas, Texas BarBara l. Foster, West Virginia University, Morgantown

    MeMbers

    W. emmett Barkley, Proven Practices, LLC, Bethesda, Maryland susan H. Cook, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri kennetH P. Fivizzani, Nalco Company, Naperville, Illinois roBin izzo, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey kennetH a. JaCoBson, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland karen mauPins, Eli Lilly & Company Drug Discovery, Indianapolis, Indiana kennetH moloy, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Delaware randall B. ogle, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee JoHn Palassis, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Cincinnati, Ohio russell W. PHiFer, WC Environmental, LLC, West Chester, Pennsylvania Peter a. reinHardt, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut levi t. tHomPson, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan leyte WinField, Spelman College, Atlanta, Georgia

    NatioNal researCh CouNCil staff

    dorotHy zolandz, Director andreW CroWtHer, Postdoctoral Fellow kevin kuHn, Mirzayan Fellow katHryn HugHes, Responsible Staff Officer tina m. masCiangioli, Senior Program Officer kela masters, Senior Program Assistant (through October 2008) JessiCa Pullen, Administrative Coordinator sHeena siddiqui, Research Associate sally stanField, Editor lynelle vidale, Program Assistant

  • vi

    BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY

    Co-chairs

    ryan r. dirkx, Arkema Inc., King of Prussia, Pennsylvania C. dale Poulter, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah

    Members

    zHenan Bao, Stanford University, Stanford, California roBert g. Bergman, University of California, Berkeley, California Henry e. Bryndza, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Delaware emily Carter, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey PaBlo deBenedetti, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey mary Jane Hagenson, Chevron Phillips Chemical Company LLC,

    The Woodlands, Texas Carol J. Henry, George Washington University School of Public Health and

    Health Services, Washington, District of Columbia Jill HruBy, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico CHarles e. kolB, Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts JoseF miCHl, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado mark a. ratner, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois roBert e. roBerts, Institute for Defense Analyses, Washington, District of

    Columbia darlene J. solomon, Agilent Laboratories, Santa Clara, California erik J. sorensen, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey Jean tom, Bristol-Myers Squibb, New York, New York William C. trogler, University of California, San Diego, California david Walt, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts

    National Research Council Staff

    dorotHy zolandz, Director katHryn HugHes, Program Officer tina m. masCiangioli, Senior Program Officer eriCka m. mCgoWan, Program Officer amanda Cline, Administrative Assistant sHeena siddiqui, Research Associate raCHel yanCey, Program Assistant

  • vii

    Preface

    In the early 1980s, the National Research Council (NRC) produced two major reports on laboratory safety and laboratory waste disposal: Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories (1981) and Prudent Practices for Disposal of Chemicals from Laboratories (1983). In 1995, the NRC’s Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology updated, combined, and revised the earlier studies in producing Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals. More than 10 years later, the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology initiated an update and revision of the 1995 edition of Prudent Practices.

    In 2007, the Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and the National Institutes of Health, with additional support from the American Chemi- cal Society, Eastman Kodak Company, E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., and PPG Industries, commissioned a study by NRC to “review and update the 1995 publi- cation, Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals.” The Committee on Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: An Update was charged to

    • review and update the 1995 publication, Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Disposal of Chemicals;

    • modify the existing content and add content as required to reflect new fields and developments that have occurred since the pre