UOP Hydroprocessing Innovations Supplement Tech

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  • 7/27/2019 UOP Hydroprocessing Innovations Supplement Tech


    Maximize Assets.Drive Results.Hydroprocessing technology innovations

    Special Supplement to

  • 7/27/2019 UOP Hydroprocessing Innovations Supplement Tech


    Maximize Assets. Drive Results.Hydroprocessing technology innovations

    Refining industry begins a slow recovery in 2010Alfred L. Luace Purvin & Gertz Inc.Pace of recovery in oil refining profitability will be driven byproduct demand growth and rationalization of weak capacity

    Driving optimization and profitabilitythrough technology innovationAdvance in hydroproce ing can help refiner to addrehifting market demand, tighter fuel pecification , and more

    Cutting-Edge CatalystsA generation of hydroproce ing cataly t to maximizedi tillate yield and improve refinery profitability

    Aligned to offer you more UOP and Albemarle are working togetherfor fully integrated hydroproce ing olution

    Prepare your short-termand long-term diesel strategiesLeverage cataly t and technology breakthroughto balance die el-ga oline production efficiently

    Tpra chooses UOP hydroprocessing

    to boost ULSD yields U ing an innovative approach, thi refiner achievedgreater than $20 million in incremental annual revenue

    Looking for new ways to addressgrowing energy demand Converting alternative feed tock to high-value product

    Photo credits: Cover and Rodeo Unicracker (page 13)photography courte y of ConocoPhillip .

    Table of Contents








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    Market Overview by Purvin & Gertz, Inc.

    After several years of strong marginsand robust global demand growth, therefining industry persevered through themarket lows of 2009. Significant new refinery capacity additions combined witha dramatic fall in demand for refined prod-ucts has created a significant near-termoversupply situation. The supply situationis being further eroded by the requirementto blend increasing volumes of ethanol andbiodiesel into products, thereby reducing crude oil processing requirements. Thisarticle highlights some of the key conclu-sions from the recent update of Purvin &GertzsGlobal Petroleum Market Outlook.

    Economic outlook. The recent globalrecession has had a significant medium-term impact on all countries, but over thenext 20 years, we expect world economicgrowth to average roughly 3.5%. Growth

    will be higher in the developing countriesthan in the mature, developed regions suchas Europe and North America. Strongly divergent economic growth patterns in thedeveloping vs. developed countries resultin equally strong divergence in petroleumdemand growth. Demand in the develop-ing countries will surpass Organizationfor Economic Co-operation and Devel-opment (OECD) demand by 2015, andvirtually all future growth will be outsideof the OECD countries (North Amer-ica, Europe, and Japan). China alone isexpected to account for over 40% of non-OECD demand growth through 2030.

    Refined product demand. Thechallenge to supply energy to a growing global population of expanding financialmeans is huge. Energy requirements willremain high in terms of consumption percapita even as major advances in energy efficiency are deployed. The large poten-tial for global demand growth underpinsour view of higher future petroleum

    prices. Energy efficiency gains will bedriven by higher prices and in part by implementation of greenhouse gas initia-tives in major economies.

    Petroleum will continue to supply over92% of the energy demand in the trans-portation sector through 2030. Diesel, jetfuel and residual fuel oil are expected to bethe fastest growing transportation fuels.Most of the gasoline demand growth willbe in developing countries. Use of naturalgas and electricity in the transportationsector will continue to expand in nicheapplications such as mass transit and localfleet vehicles, but will not become sig-nificant private transport fuel alternativesuntil after 2020.

    Petroleum will supply an increasing share of the energy demand in the othersectors of the world economy. Most of thisincrease will come from higher use of eth-ane, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) andnaphtha for petrochemicals manufacturing in the developing countries of Asia and theMiddle East. Another notable increase indemand will come from increased use of residual fuel oil for power generation inthe Middle East.

    Shortly after 2015, demand in thenon-OECD countries is expected to

    surpass demand in the OECD countries(Fig. 1). Refined product demand inOECD countries suffered a steep dropin 20082009 to 41.4 million (MMbpd)in 2009, and the forecast demand growthof only 0.2% per year through 2030 willkeep demand below the 2005 peak level.Demand in non-OECD countries willgrow rapidly from the current level of 36.0 MMbpd in 2009 to 56.8 MMbpdin 2030, a growth rate of 2.2%. Of theexpected 20.8 MMbpd increase, China alone will account for over 43% of thisincrease, or 9.1 MMbpd.

    Over the last few years, gasoline mar-kets in the Atlantic Basin have undergoneprofound changes both in terms of demandtrends and the introduction of biofuels. The

    widespread introduction of ethanol intothe US gasoline supply initially replacedmethyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), butmore recently, ethanol has added signifi-cantly to the domestic gasoline supply. Theincreased blending of ethanol as required by the Renewable Fuels Standard regulationsand decreased gasoline demand in responseto record high consumer prices resulted ina significant decrease in the consumptionof petroleum-based gasoline componentsin the US in 2008 and 2009.

    Refining indu try begin a

    low recovery in 2010Pace of recovery in oil refining profitability will be driven by produdemand growth and rationalization of weak capacity

    A. L. LuAces, Purvin & Gertz, Inc., Houston, Texas

    Latin AmericaMiddle EastIndiaChinaOther Countries








    1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030

    NON-OECD REFINED PRODUCT DEMAND(Million Barrels per Day)

    Fig. 1. Non-OECD refined product demand1990 to 2030.

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    Global demand for diesel is growing much faster than gasoline demand. Key factors are dieselization of the personalvehicle fleet in Europe, growing penetra-

    tion of ethanol into gasoline, improving vehicle efficiency and higher sustainedprices affecting personal vehicle use. Die-sel demand in the Atlantic Basin caughtup to gasoline demand in 2008, and ispoised to return to growth while gaso-line stagnates. Refiners will be pressed toincrease diesel output and reduce gasolineyield, and Europes structural surplus of gasoline will persist.

    Tighter diesel sulfur specifications arepropagating throughout the world afterhaving been implemented in Europe,

    Japan and North America. In order toimprove air quality, many of the worldsmegacities (i.e., Beijing, Shanghai, MexicoCity, So Paulo and Mumbai) now requireclean burning diesel and gasoline with sul-fur levels below 500 ppm. Over the next 5to 10 years, we expect that most countries

    will begin to adopt these requirementsand some will go even further to requireultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and gaso-line. Several states in the US are planning to tighten heating oil sulfur specificationsby the end of this decade. Combined,these actions will have the eventual effectof requiring additional hydroprocessing capacity in refineries.

    Bunker fuel is the only growth marketfor residual fuel oil, but annual growthvaries with the demand for petroleum,containerized cargo and minerals. Resid-ual fuel use for power generation andother stationary applications has beenin decline for many years as increasing supplies of natural gas have gained mar-ket share based on pricing and/or envi-ronmental benefits. One exception isthe Middle East where Purvin & Gertzexpects a significant increase in the useof residual fuel oil for water desalinationand electric power generation.

    New ship bunker fuel quality require-ments adopted by the International Mari-time Organization (IMO) will impact therefining industry as well as the shipping and bunker fuel supply industries. In thenear term, the most significant impact

    wil l be the fuel substi tution (diesel vs.residual fuel oil) requirements of theIMO regulations for the EnvironmentalControl Areas (ECAs) in North Europeand North America.

    The global bunker quality requirementof 0.5% sulfur fuel in 2020/2025 is a complicated inter-industry topic that wasaddressed by Purvin & Gertz in a separate

    comprehensive study titledResidual Fuel Market Outlook.How the shipping indus-tries respond to the changes in regionaland global bunker sulfur fuel requirementsand to what degree onboard scrubber tech-nology is adopted are key factors affect-ing the bunker fuel outlook. Increasedcarbon emissions from these new speci-fication requirements must also be con-sidered. Investment in large scale residuehydroprocessing would be a major shift inrefining strategy and the displacement of 4 MMbpd of residual bunker demand todistillate fuel would require major addi-tional refinery conversion investments. Atthe same time, the suitability, acceptanceand adoption of onboard scrubbers is nota foregone conclusion.

    Crude oil supply. Crude oil produc-tion from non-OPEC countries is notexpected to expand fast enough to keeppace with demand growth after the eco-nomic recovery is well underway. Strong growth in crude production from Brazil,Russia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Canada and a few other non-OPEC countries willbarely keep production levels rising for thisgroup of countries through most of thisdecade, but an eventual decline is forecastunless some unexpected large discover-ies are made and developed. Incrementalcrude oil production will come mostly from OPEC members beginning this year.Increasing OPEC market share will allow the cartel to maintain long-term price lev-els above $70/bbl.

    Growth in production of heavy crudeoils has slowed markedly over the last fiveyears. Significant declines were seen inMexico and Venezuela, but increasing production from other countries such as

    Angola, Brazil, Colombia and Sudan hasprovided a partial offset. Large invest-ments in refinery conversion capacity since 2000 allowed refiners to increasethe percentage of heavy crude runs from15% in 2000 to about 19% in 2005.Heavy crudes share has not increasedsince 2005 and is expected to remain nearcurrent levels until 2013 after which a gradual rise is expected due to increas-ing oil production from Canada and theMiddle East.

    Regional crude oil trade patterns willcontinue to evolve as long-term produc-tion trends continue. Pipeline capacity tosupply growing markets in Asia is increas-

    ing. Higher production from Africa andSouth America will also help satisfy thefuture demand for crude oil in Asia.Closer to home, the expanding pipelinenetwork in North America will increasesupply flexibility for the Canadian oilsands. These trends will have significantimpacts on refiners and their need for new conversion capacity.

    In addition, rapid development of natural gas reserves is causing conden-sate and LPG to increase strongly, thereby contributing to petroleum supply. New condensate production is contributing torefined product supply, especially naph-tha and distillate.

    Alternative fuels. A great dea l of discussion has been focused on the devel-opment of alternative fuels for use in thetransportation sector. The primary alterna-tive fuels currently commercially availableare biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel.However, other important alternative fuelsinclude methanol, compressed natural gas(CNG), LPG, gas to liquids (GTLs), coalto liquids (CTLs), electricity and hydrogen.Significant penetration of alternative fuelvehicles would have very important impli-cations for refiners as transportation fueldemand growth would moderate the needfor refining capacity. The rapid drop in gas-oline consumption in the US is causing thepercentage of ethanol blended to increase

    with negative effects on the refining indus-try. In Europe, biofuels mandates are alsoaffecting the industry. CTL developments,mostly in China, are gaining importance asa marginal supply source.

    We do not expect that biofuels supply will be able to rise to fully meet mandatedlevels as feedstock, land and food pricesrise. Political and financial pressures willcontinue to cause some countries to scaleback mandate policies as biofuels sup-ply becomes tighter and more expensiverelative to other alternatives. Third-gen-eration biofuels such as cellulosic ethanoland oils derived from algae will continueto develop technologically and commer-cially, but deployment of new productioncapacity will be slow and only limitedcontributions to global supply will beseen this decade.

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    Refining profitability. Significantnew refinery capacity additions combined

    with a dramatic fall in demand for refinedproducts has created a significant near-

    term oversupply. A few weaker refineries will likely shut down but the survivors willhave to operate at significantly lower ratesuntil after 2015 unless capacity rationaliza-tion corrects the balance. Purvin & Gertzanalyzed this topic in a study titled,Ratio-nalization of Refining Capacity (August2009). North America, Europe and Japanare where most of the refinery capacity shutdowns are expected to occur.

    High refinery margins over the past few years have encouraged refineries to expandand about 275 refinery projects have beenannounced. Based on our analysis of theseprojects, we believe that less than 100 will

    proceed, representing distillation capacity additions of about 8.4 MMbpd by 2017.More importantly, about 7.3 MMbpd of conversion capacity (FCC equivalents) will

    also start up over the same period. As thesenew suppliers compete for market share,refinery margins are projected to remainbelow mid-cycle levels and well below thehigh levels of the 2004 to 2007 period.

    Worldwide ref inery investments to2015 are expected to cost approximately $250 billion, which represents about 15%of 2008 replacement costs. Additionalinvestments in the range of $80 billionare expected through 2025. The increasein carbon dioxide emissions from theseprojects is estimated to be 230 millionmetric tpy assuming no carbon captureand storage.

    Purvin & Gertz, International Energy ConsultantsFounded in 1947, Purvin & Gertz is an independent con-

    sulting firm providing technical, commercial and strategic advi-sory services to a broad range of clients in the energy industry.Headquartered in Houston, Texas, the firm maintains an inter-national network of offices in the US, Canada, Europe, Russia, Asia and the Middle East. Purvin & Gertz specializes in serving entities involved in the production, processing, transportation,and marketing of crude oil, natural gas and gas liquids, as wellas petroleum products by offering a range of custom consulting services to assist clients in their decision making processes.

    Additionally, Purvin & Gertz offers a variety of interna-tional energy market studies that analyze market trends andprovide forecasts of supply, demand, pricing and productioneconomics of key energy commodities in the most relevantmarkets around the world.

    Our flagship service, theGlobal Petroleum Market Outlook (GPMO), presents an in-depth analysis of long-term trends and

    developments in the crude oil and refined products markets; itcontains a comprehensive examination of the refining industry and an outlook for prices and refining margins in the majorrefining centers of the world through 2030. The Crude Oil and Oil Sands Market Outlook provides an in-depth analysisof North American supply and demand for crude oil, refinery capacity requirements, and an annual special topic related tothe oil sands. Both of these services are updated annually withquarterly updates of price and margin forecasts. One of ourmost recent specialized studies is theResidual Fuel Market Out-look , a timely and comprehensive review focusing on the issuesof balances and economics of bunker fuel, stationary fuel oiland residual refinery feedstocks.

    Visit our website at www.purvingertz.com for more informa-tion. Purvin & Gertz is an employee-owned consulting firm,independent of any parent company, engineering firm, equip-ment manufacturer or process licensor.

    Alfred Luaces is vice president inthe Houston office of Purvin & Gertz,Inc. He collaborates on various energymarket studies of crude oil, refinedproducts, natural gas and LPG in

    international markets. Alfred co-manages the Global Petroleum Market Outlook , Purvin & Gertz ongoingmarket advisory service for long-term trends and issuesin the crude oil refining business. He has traveled exten-sively in Latin America, the Far East and Europe servingclients in the oil refining and natural gas industries. In1991, Mr. Luaces began his career with Exxon at its oilrefinery in Baytown, Texas, as a mechanical engineer. Heprogressed through various positions including processengineering, economics and planning, and managementof capital project construction. Before joining Purvin &Gertz, he was responsible for all aspects in the operationof two large crude oil distillation units. He graduatedfrom the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida, witha BS degree in mechanical engineering.

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    The refining industry continues to facea difficult and dynamic landscape in itsefforts toward optimization and profit-ability. The challenges include feedstock availability and quality, resource limita-tions, capital spending constraints, envi-ronmental regulations, engine require-ments, and energy security. While thedemand for transportation fuels is increas-ing, refiners are challenged to meet tighterfuel specifications while processing moredifficult feedstocks. In this evolving envi-ronment, refiners must not only keep up

    with changing market demand patterns,but must also drive down costs, grow mar-gins and improve product properties toenhance profitability.

    Hydroprocessing technology is a key component in efforts to reach optimalsolutions enabling refiners to use morechallenging feedstocks and still producedesirable quantities of fuels. These solu-tions must include improving the qual-ity of liquid transportation fuels to meetpool targets and achieving the maximumvalue product slate. Utilizing state of theart research facilities in combination with

    a large commercial experience base, UOPcontinues to develop hydroprocessing catalyst and process innovations that willallow refiners around the world to meetfuture challenges.

    Multiple configurations forimproved product quality and yield

    The UOP Unicracking process isnotable in its ability to handle a widerange of feedstocks and is a core process forincreasing the hydrogen content of refin-ery products for improved product quality and volume swell. Several different processflow schemes are offered to meet individualrefinery needs and processing objectives.There are two basic design categoriessingle-stage or two-stage configurations.

    The single-stage Unicracking processconfiguration can be designed for partialfeedstock conversion by hydrocracking the feedstock on a once-through basis.The once-through single-stage Unicrack-ing process produces high-quality hydroc-racked products as well as deeply hydroge-nated unconverted oil that makes excellentfeedstock to FCC or ethylene cracking units. Alternatively, the unconverted oilproduct can be readily upgraded to a high-quality lube base stock. In projects wherehigher conversion is required, the single-stage recycle flow scheme, in which uncon-verted reactor effluent is recycled, offers a simple cost-effective design for moderatecapacity hydrocracking units.

    Two-stage Unicracking process con-figurations offer several advantages inprocessing heavier, more contaminatedfeedstocks. In addition, a two-stage Uni-cracking process design is typically moreeconomical for high throughput applica-tions. In the two-stage configuration, thefirst stage provides partial feedstock con-version in addition to hydrotreating. Fol-lowing fractionation to remove products,the second stage provides the remaining conversion of recycle oil so that overallhigh conversion is achieved. The secondstage operates in a low ammonia, low hydrogen sulfide environment.

    Recent advances in the Unicracking process and catalyst technologies havefocused on increasing operating flexibility of hydrocracking complexes by more effi-cient use of hydrogen and by increasing feed throughput while, at the same time,improving yields and properties of desiredproducts. The combination of state-of-the-art Unicracking catalysts and innovativeprocess developments ensures that refin-ers can balance their fuels product slate inefficient and cost-effective ways. The Uni-cracking process covers the entire spectrumfrom full conversion to mild hydrocracking

    with novel flow schemes that offer refin-ers the option to reduce capital or achieveultimate flexibility.

    With refiners in terest in conver t-ing high-nitrogen, heavy feedstocks todistillate, UOP revisited the two-stageUnicracking technology for optimizeddistillate production. The result of thisoptimization is an enhanced two-stageprocess, which incorporates process andcatalyst innovations delivering an increaseof 2 to 3 wt% in distillate yield versus thenext best alternative while processing high-nitrogen, heavy feedstocks.

    In addition to the enhanced two-stageUnicracking technology, UOP has intro-duced several other hydroprocessing devel-opments in recent years to further assistrefiners' profitability.

    Achieve high yields in cost-

    effective, low-pressure operationThe UOP HyCycle Unicracking pro-

    cess is based on UOPs extensive under-standing of the interactions between thecatalyst functions and the reaction envi-ronment. The process flow scheme incor-porates engineering innovations such asthe Enhanced Hot Separator (EHS) topermit low conversion per pass, resulting in an economical and energy efficientdesign. This novel flow scheme resultsin an improved reaction environmentfor hydrocracking reactions. The con-figuration also includes a post treating stage that decouples the cracking and

    Driving optimization and profitability

    through technology innovationHow hydroprocessing technology enhancements will help you meet your goals

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    Process Technology Advancements

    hydrogenation reaction stages to allow the hydrocracked product to be hydroge-nated in an optimized environment andenables a co-processing option for other

    distillate streams.

    Optimize diesel and gasolineproduction across yourconversion units

    The UOP Advanced Partial Conver-sion Unicracking (APCU) process canhelp refiners with existing FCC units tobalance their diesel/gasoline productionin a cost-effective manner. This processallows production of ultra-low-sulfur die-sel (ULSD) at low conversion in a lowerpressure design while pretreating FCCfeedstock. The design concept allows therefiner to optimize hydrogen addition toFCC feed while maintaining the properlevel of hydrogenation for high-quality distillate. This innovation is importantbecause the unit pressure is often set by the need to produce low-aromatic, high-cetane diesel, and produces unconvertedoil with a higher than optimal hydrogencontent in the FCC feed, which can resultin higher overall hydrogen consumption.The APCU process can reduce hydrogenconsumption by 5% to 10% compared toa conventional mild hydrocracking unit.Integration of a separate hydrotreating reactor in the process enables post-treating of other refinery middle distillate streamsin a single unit.

    Integrating your hydroprocessing unit with other upgrading technologiescan reduce equipment count and utility requirements for compression, pumping,and process heating. In one case with a Mediterranean refiner, UOP, working closely with the customer, applied aninnovative integrated scheme to optimizea residue conversion complex. The sitealready included a delayed coker, distil-late hydrotreater, and a coker naphtha hydrotreater. The solution for optimi-zation was an innovative integration of Distillate Unionfining and Unicracking units, which is projected to deliver greaterthan $20 million in additional productrevenue. For this case, a low-pressurecoker naphtha hydrotreater/distillatehydrotreater reactor section and high-pressure hydrocracker reactor section wereprovided with integrated fractionationand compression. Overall distillate yieldsshould increase by six percent.

    Hydrotreating solutionsto meet environmental specs

    Hydrotreating technology is designedto remove contaminants like sulfur,

    nitrogen, condensed-ring aromatics, andmetals. The feedstocks processed rangefrom naphtha to vacuum resid, and the

    products in most applications are used asenvironmentally acceptable clean fuels.UOP has offered hydrotreating technol-ogy since the early 1950s, and in 1995

    UOP joined forces with Unocal to cre-ate the Unionfining technology, a high-performance hydrotreating option. In

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    more recent years, an alliance with Albe-marle, the Hydroprocessing Alliance,has expanded the capabilities to provideoptimal solutions using complimentary

    strengths from both companies.Recent regulatory requirements toproduce ULSD and low-sulfur gasolinehave created a very dynamic market asrefiners must build new units or revampexisting assets to produce green fuels.To meet this challenge, UOPs CleanFuel Technology Center was created andstaffed with experts from several engi-neering disciplines, working together

    with customers to address the refinersspecific configurations and provide opti-mized and economically attractive solu-tions. In recent years, demand for low-sulfur gasoline and ULSD has driven theadvance of these technologies to meet low contaminant specifications.

    UOP offers a number of ways to meetthese specifications, from simple catalystreplacement with the new generation of high-activity catalysts to the revamp of

    existing units. These revamps can includethe addition of reactors, makeup hydro-gen purification systems, recycle gasscrubbers, improved separation systems,

    or innovative integration schemes that will maximize product yields and quality in a cost-efficient manner.

    Low-sulfur gasoline productionBecause of feedstock and product

    requirements that refiners are facing, itis no longer sufficient to develop tech-nology based on manipulation of bulk properties. Technology developmenthas reached a level of sophistication thatrequires understanding the specific reac-tion chemistry and how to control it.One example of this sort of technology development is embodied in the UOPSelectFining Process. This process usesselective hydrodesulfurization of FCCnaphtha to meet low-sulfur gasolinespecifications while maximizing octaneretention. In order to remove sulfur whileretaining the chemical components that

    are necessary for octane quality, carefuldesign of the catalyst properties and pro-cessing conditions is critical.

    UOP can offer an optimized FCC and

    gasoline treating complex along with theSelectFining process and the SelectFining S-250 catalyst to enable minimal octaneloss while meeting stringent gasoline sul-fur targets. This same S-250 catalyst is a competitive drop-in solution for existing selective hydrodesulfurization units.

    The continuous emphasis that UOPhas placed on the hydroprocessing processand catalyst innovation, and the full suiteof applications that are offered, has resultedin licenses for over 195 hydrocracking units and over 500 hydrotreating units

    worldwide during the almost 60-year his-tory of these technologies.

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    Catalyst Innovations

    The current economic climate presents a complex set of challenges to refiners. To be effective in providing solutions,catalyst developers must be prepared to streamline their meth-odology to arrive at optimal solutions in a shorter time period.The successful catalyst provider must be on the cutting edge of new materials development, characterization, application andscale-up. The technological challenge for a catalyst provideris to minimize costs and maximize returns for our clients.UOP has developed a catalyst portfolio that includes a broadrange of catalysts designed with specific objectives to improverefinery profitability.

    Due to demands for products with more specific require-ments, refining technologies, like hydrocracking, are steadily moving from a characterization of feeds and products basedsolely on their bulk physical properties like distillation, grav-ity, sulfur and nitrogen content to molecular-level definitionsbased on classes of individual compounds. As a result of signifi-cant scientific and technical advances, we have the capabilitiesto enhance our understanding, and increase the precision of controlling conversion reaction chemistry. Hydrocarbon typescan be varied in their proportions depending on product objec-tives. To achieve outstanding yields and product propertiesfrom processing difficult feedstocks, features like selectivity,activity, stability, and hydrogenation activity are manipulatedby intelligent adjustment of the fundamental properties of the catalysts. The strength and distribution of the acid sitesin hydrocracking catalysts must be controlled to provide thecapability to achieve activity and selectivity targets. In balance

    with this acid function, the metal function must be optimizedto ensure product quality and activity are maintained over theentire cycle. In addition to providing optimized acid and metalfunctions, the porosity of the catalyst structures must be care-fully manipulated to allow optimal access and egress for feedand product molecules. This porosity control becomes particu-larly important when processing heavy feeds and producing maximum yields of distillate products. In the past, this type of adjustment required a time-consuming set of iterations throughmultiple formulation and testing steps, which could take yearsto arrive at improved performance. In recent years, driven by refiner needs for faster development, UOP has constructed a tool set, the Catalyst Design Engine, based on relationshipsdrawn from years of experience in hydrocracking. This toolallows for a first-iteration catalyst formulation, which comesquite close to meeting performance goals and greatly shortensthe overall development time for successful catalysts.

    Catalyst design engine response surfaceTraditionally, catalyst development has tended to focus

    on the relationship between activity and selectivity, withimproved generations of catalysts providing higher activity and selectivity, as shown in Fig. 1. With the current level of sophistication, it is no longer adequate to think in this two-dimensional manner. Our current development strategy is a multi-dimensional approach where catalysts are targeted not

    just for activity and selectivity goals, but also for the appro-priate levels of hydrogenation and product speciation. Thisallows a selective use of hydrogen resources and avoids adding an excessive amount of hydrogen into boiling ranges where itdoes not add value.

    In UOPs newest generation of hydrocracking catalysts,varying levels of hydrogenation capability can be foundthroughout the activity-selectivity range. Fig. 2 shows a twodimensional representation of catalysts with a broad rangeof activity and selectivity. The two colors represent differentcatalyst design strategies with respect to hydrogenation. Thecatalysts shown in red are designed for selective hydrogen

    Cutting-Edge Cataly t

    Fig. 1. Relationship of activity vs. yield vs. concentration of crackingcomponents in catalyst development.

    Fig. 2. Performance relationship for two Unicracking catalystsystems.

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    addition and improved cold flow properties, while the cata-lysts shown in blue are designed for maximum hydrogenationof products and high quality unconverted oil. As new zeolitestructures and improved metal functionalities are developed,

    the performance and value of UOP Unicracking catalysts torefiners will continue to increase.In order to properly optimize todays hydrocracking units,

    careful attention must be paid to providing the appropriatecatalyst and reaction environment for the molecules present atall points within the reaction system. The availability of a cata-lyst portfolio with a broad scope in capabilities allows strategicplacement of optimum catalysts so that maximum yields of desirable products can be achieved. In the high ammonia, highhydrogen sulfide first-stage environment, multiple catalysts canbe stacked to minimize over-cracking and reduce quench gasrequirements. Catalysts with acid-metal balances adjusted forlow ammonia environments can be used in the second stage formaximum high-quality distillate yields. These and other innova-tive applications of new-generation catalysts will be invaluablein meeting the needs of refiners as they face future challenges.

    While UOPs new catalysts are being developed with anincreased level of sophistication, the proof of their value comes

    with demonstrated performance.

    Increase diesel with improved cold flow propertiesUnicracking HC-215LT catalyst represents the highest die-

    sel selectivity in the catalysts designed for optimum hydrogenaddition and improved cold flow properties. A recent applica-tion of this catalyst was in a 90% conversion, once-throughUnicracking unit, which had previously used the UOP Uni-cracking DHC-8 catalyst. The decision to use HC-215LT wasbased on the successful performance of this catalyst in another

    of their refineries. The unit performance data following thecatalyst change shows an activity improvement of 10C relativeto the previous cycle with DHC-8. Fig. 3 highlights the HC-215LT liquid volume yield advantages compared to DHC-8.

    This refiner is enjoying both an increase in distillate yieldand an increase in total product volume with the HC-215LTcatalyst. The increase in middle distillate yield was significanteven with a more stringent back end diesel cut point (decreasedfrom 370 to 350C).

    Capture naphtha and diesel production flexibilityUnicracking HC-185LT catalyst is part of the high-activity

    high-selectivity catalyst family, developed to promote asym-metric cracking and isomerization of paraffins at the expenseof aromatic saturation. HC-185LT features include:

    Maximum flexibility to switch between naphtha and dieselproduction within a single catalyst cycle as market conditions

    warrant. Higher diesel yield than catalysts developed for maximum

    naphtha production at a nominal conversion of 3050 vol% todiesel and lighter products.

    Lower hydrogen consumption, 1020%, compared toanalogous catalysts, while improving cold flow properties inthe distillate range material, as shown in Table 1.

    As of 2Q 2010, HC-185LT catalyst is operating in four North American hydrocracking units and is demonstrating the excel-lent cold flow properties expected for this catalyst. Commercialdata, as shown in Fig. 4, demonstrates the cloud point responseof diesel with an initial cut point of 340F with changes to theend points, indicating the ability to make arctic diesel with anend point of 740F.

    Shift to higher diesel productionThe Unicracking HC-150LT catalyst is a flexible catalyst

    that is ideally suited for providing a shift from naphtha tohigher diesel production. Compared to Unicracking HC-43LTcatalyst, HC-150LT is 10F more active, consumes 1015%lower hydrogen with similar product selectivity.

    An early application of HC-150LT was in a European refinery to meet an increasing diesel market demand by shifting their

    Table 1. F ll-Rang Di tillat Analy i

    HC-24L HC-185LT

    Cloud Point, F 18 7

    Pour Point, F 16 11

    CFPP, F 19 5

    Fig. 3. Cycle average volumetric product yields for Unicrackingcatalysts. Fig. 4. Diesel cloud point vs. final boiling range for UnicrackingHC-185LT catalyst.

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    diesel to gasoline ratio. Changing to HC-150LT and a new-gen-eration pretreating catalyst enabled a significant improvementin the diesel yield. This combination of new catalysts enabledthe refiner to process tougher feed and increase the feed rate

    by 5,000 BPSD while maintaining cycle length. The increasedselectivity alone generates $6 million of product value over thecycle without valuing the greater feedrate and flexibility attained.The performance in this unit is summarized in Table 2.

    Increased distillate yield with a newsecond-stage catalyst

    HC-205LT is a Unicracking catalyst specifically optimizedfor producing very high distillate yields in a second-stageenvironment. Relative to the next best alternative catalyst inthe second-stage application, HC-205LT has been shown toincrease total distillate yield by 23 wt% and diesel yield by 35 wt%. In addition, HC-205LT has facilitated producing high-quality products while processing heavy, difficult feed-stocks. A recent customer study has shown that these improve-ments for a 50,000 BPSD two-stage Unicracking unit, shouldresult in a $3.8 million increase in annual revenue.

    Maximizing catalyst utilizationObtaining full advantage of the most advanced

    hydroprocessing catalysts requires that reactant streams effi-ciently mix and contact all of the available catalyst inside a fixed-bed reactor. High-performance reactor internals are criti-cal for ensuring good distribution over a range of operating conditions and from the start to finish of a catalyst cycle. In2006, Albemarle and UOP created the Hydroprocessing Alli-ance offering hydroprocessing technology featuring catalystand process improvements, including reactor internals based onthe complimentary strengths of both Albemarle and UOP.

    The D-Plex TM vapor/liquid distribution tray offered throughUOP is the latest improvement in this technology, and is a key technology enabler for flexible hydrocracker and hydrotreateroperation. These Hydroprocessing Alliance reactor internalsensure optimum performance across a wide range of operating conditions and vapor to liquid regimes, and are applicable to unitrevamps or the retrofit of existing internals. All elements of thealliance internals have commercial experience helping refinersachieve maximum benefit by utilizing the full catalyst volumeand enabling maximum allowable operating severity. Anothervery important aspect of the Hydroprocessing Alliance reactorinternals design is the ease of installation and maintenance.

    The advanced design of the hydroprocessing internalsensures improved liquid distribution uniformity is maintainedat liquid flow rates as low as 40 percent of design. In addi-tion, the pressure drop across the internals is low enough toaccommodate extra vapor flow up to the process hydraulicconstraints. The quench inlet distribution system has been

    significantly improved, resulting in effective and uniform gasand liquid mixing, as seen in Fig. 5.

    The trays are custom designed for each application to ensuremaximum performance. This is done to ensure that proper

    functioning/distribution is occurring across the trays in thevarious modes of operation being considered. This properdistribution is important to minimize the radial temperaturespread of effluents on top of the catalyst bed, and maintaineven distribution of liquid and vapor throughout an operating cycle. Poorly-designed reactor internals could allow channeling,mal-distribution, and by-passing, a phenomenon in which a certain portion of the feedstock passes through a unit withoutsignificant reaction. If allowed to occur, such a poor designeffectively leads to a higher space velocity, requiring higherreactor bed temperatures for the same conversion or productspecification. The subsequent outcomes include loss of catalystlife, poor product quality, and unscheduled unit shutdowns.

    UOP provides on-site support and supervision for reactorinternals installation. Over 440 Albemarle and UOP distribu-tion trays have been installed and operated worldwide since1991.

    Table 2. e rop an R fin r Op rating condition ,Hc-24L chang to Hc-150LT

    Original Design After Catalyst Change-out

    Feedrate, BPSD 30,000 35,000

    Feed HVGO, visbreaker HVGO HVGO, visbreaker HVGO,lube extracts

    HPS Pressure, psig 1440 1440

    Catalyst: Pre-treat Type I Type II (KF 848)Hydrocracking HC-24L HC-150LT

    Conversion, wt% 65 65

    Distillate yields, wt% 33 40

    Fig. 5. Pressure gradient over the vapor/liquid distribution tray.

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    In 2006, Albemarle and UOP createdthe Hydroprocessing Alliance to deliverintegrated refinery solutions and innovativehydroprocessing technologies and catalyststo the refining industry. Today, the allianceprovides economic benefits and greaterflexibility to customers with the most com-prehensive portfolio of processes, catalysts,equipment and services available.

    Traditionally, refiners have managed thecomplex task of combining the capabilitiesof various suppliers to achieve the improvedoutput and efficiency they need. TheHydroprocessing Alliance eliminates muchof this effort, combining the resources andexpertise of two industry leaders.

    The alliance provides the latesthydrocracking pretreat and cracking catalysts as well as an enhanced integra-tion of the two for both new and existing units. This combination allows refiners toexperience longer cycle lengths, greateroperational robustness, a wider choice forselectivity to desired products and loweroperational and capital costs.

    The alliance makes an incrediblebreadth of solutions available to refin-ers. This includes the recently introduced

    Albemarle Ketjenfine (KF) 860 STARSand KF 868 STARS catalysts. KF 860 wasdeveloped to minimize the effect of wors-ening feed quality. The product reducesthe impact of deactivation from coking and metals contamination. Its uniformpore-size distribution and large pore diam-eter has improved robustness in severalcommercial applications. KF 868 exhibitssimilar stability characteristics with con-siderably higher activity, and is designedto improve vacuum gas oil hydrocracking operations for processing lower-quality feedstocks, increasing unit throughput,or allowing the use of more selectivehydrocracking catalysts.

    Through the alliance, refiners also haveaccess to Albemarles state-of-the-art NEB-ULA hydrotreating catalyst, an innova-tive material discovered by ExxonMobilResearch and Engineering Company andco-developed with Albemarle. The excep-tionally high hydrodenitrogenation (HDN)and hydrodearomatization (HDA) activi-

    ties from NEBULA reduce bottlenecks inhydrocrackers limited by hydrotreating cat-alyst performance. It has been used in over40 applications, including hydrocrackerpretreat, since its introduction in 2001.

    For distillate hydrotreating, the alli-ance makes available the Albemarle's KF770 and KF 771 catalysts, to meet ULSDspecifications across a wide range of oper-ating conditions and feed qualities.

    U O P a n d A l b e m a r l e d e s i g nhydrotreating units using the AlbemarleSTAX methodology to design catalystsystems optimizing certain reactions taking place within a hydrotreater. This technol-ogy allows refiners to see inside the reac-tor and develop a simulation model thatpredicts performance at any point in thecatalyst bed. Each ULSD unit is unique,and the best economic return comes fromapplying a catalyst system that is tailoredto its specific operating conditions andfeed properties.

    Whe n these solutions are com-bined with the strength of the UOPhydroprocessing catalyst and technology portfolio, refiners will find the solutionthat meets their specific operational goals.Catalyst customization completed during the design phase using UOP engineering capabilities results in a unit optimized forutility consumption or erected cost. Cus-tomer risk is minimized when applying thecatalyst system and unit design that willcontinually produce on-spec products.

    In addition to its leading positionin hydrotreating to produce ULSDand hydrocracking technologies, theHydroprocessing Alliance has successfully developed catalyst and process offeringsfor coker naphtha hydrotreating, VGOhydrotreating and resid hydrotreating. Inthe hydrotreating market alone, UOP haslicensed more than 60 Unionfining unitsusing the step-out performance of Albe-marles catalysts. The alliance has also accel-erated innovations in process design andcatalysts resulting in shorter time-to-marketsupply of technology. Thus allowing refin-ers to meet complex project demands withlower capital cost and greater operationalrobustness at a faster pace.

    Aligned to offer you moreUOP and Albemarle are working together for fully integrated hydroprocessing soluti

    The Hydroprocessing Alliance is aunique collaboration of resourcesfrom UOP, A Honeywell Companyand Albemarle.

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    Short- and Long-Term Diesel Strategy

    The demand for high quality dieselis projected to grow more rapidly thanother transportation fuels in the major-ity of the worlds regional markets overthe next ten years.

    Even though this demand growthprojection is well supported, refinerschoices on how to deal with this die-selization trend are not straightforward.Near-term gasoline and diesel demandtrends are likely to be volatile. Othercomplicating factors include cost andavailability of feedstocks, uncertain die-sel-gasoline product value differentials,seasonal changes in product demand,and environmental regulations. Onecritical capability for dealing with thiscomplex matrix of issues is flexibility foroptimal production of quality gasolineand diesel products. This ability allowsa refiner to maximize profitability by responding intelligently to changes inmarket conditions.

    The need for short term flexibility and meeting long term diesel demandis driving towards more hydrocracking capacity to increase production of highquality diesel. Recent advances in theUnicracking process and catalyst tech-nologies have focused on increasing operating flexibility of hydrocracking complexes. This is accomplished by a more efficient use of hydrogen and theability to process additional feed whileimproving yields and properties of desired products. The combination of state-of-the-art catalysts and innovativehydrocracking process developmentsensures that refiners can balance theirdieselgasoline production in the mostefficient and cost-effective ways.

    Technology developmentsfor improved distillateyields and quality

    In response to the increasing needfor high-capacity, maximum distillatehydrocracking units, UOP initiated a technology renewal program to advanceboth the process and catalyst technology for its two-stage Unicracking process.

    Advancements in the design of this tech-

    nology include innovations in each reac-tion section.

    Optimal design of the catalyst systemfor two-stage hydrocracking requires a thorough understanding of the reactionchemistry in each stage. In a two-stageUnicracking process configuration, thefirst-stage reaction environment is richin both ammonia and hydrogen sulfidegenerated by hydrodenitrogenation andhydrodesulfurization of the feed. Thepretreating section uses a high activ-ity catalyst enabling high severity feedhydrotreating, delivering a better qual-ity feed to the first-stage hydrocracking section. The first-stage hydrocracking catalyst, in series flow with the pretreat-ing catalyst, receives a hydrotreated feedlargely free of organic nitrogen and sulfur.This feed is rich in paraffins, isoparaffins,naphthenes, and naphtheno-aromaticcompounds. The predominant reac-tions are aromatic hydrogenation, ring opening, and de-alkylation in additionto isomerization and cracking of paraf-fins. The hydrocarbon stream that exitsthe first-stage hydrocracking reactor isrich in medium to short chain paraffins,naphthenes, and alkyl aromatics withshort to moderate length side chains.This maximizes first-stage selectivity tohigh quality distillate.

    Af te r fr acti on at ing the fi rs t- stageeffluent, very low concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide pass

    through to the second-stage reactor. Thischange in environment significantly impacts reaction rates, particularly cracking reaction rates, leading to very different catalyst behavior in each stage.This results in independently designedcatalyst systems for the two reactionstages, which enables optimum conver-sion severity in each stage and maximizesthe overall distillate selectivity.

    Conditions in the second-stage aremore favorable to conversion of therefractory components in recycle oilsdue to the relatively clean nature of this oil and near absence of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide in the recycle gas.The second-stage hydrocracking cata-lyst is designed to take advantage of thecleaner reaction environment by tun-ing the balance between the acid andmetal functions of the catalyst specifi-cally to the reaction environment in thatstage. Reaction severity is optimized tomaximize distillate selectivity from thehydrocracking reactions. In addition toimproving the ability to optimize con-version severity in the two stages, UOPdeveloped a new second-stage catalystthat achieves significantly higher distil-late selectivity than former generationsof hydrocracking catalysts.

    Incorporating these process andcatalyst innovations resulted in theEnhanced Two-Stage Unicracking pro-cess. This process delivers an increase

    Prepare your hort-term

    and long-term die el trategie

    Fig. 1. Global demand for refined products.Source: Purvin & Gertz

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    of 23 wt% in distillate yield over thenext best alternative in the market. Theincrease in distillate yield also includesa shift in selectivity to produce 35 wt%

    more high-quality diesel product. Theyield increase has been demonstrated ona wide range of feedstocks, including dif-ficult high-nitrogen and high endpoint

    materials. The product qualities fromthe enhanced two-stage operation areexcellent, producing low aromatics, highcetane with ultra low levels of sulfur in

    the diesel product as seen in Fig. 1.Data collected through customerstudies allows UOP to confidently adjustthe optimum conversion and catalystconfiguration for changes in feed qual-ity and specific operating constraints. Inaddition to yield and quality advantages,this two-stage configuration gives therefiner tremendous flexibility for adjust-ing to seasonal or market changes.

    Increasing flexibility andmaximizing profits for

    existing operations Although long-term demand for high

    quality diesel is predicted, the demandpath will not necessarily be straightfor-

    ward, and will contain periods of signifi-cant swings between naphtha and dieseldemand and profitability. As a result,refiners would like the capability to shifthydrocracker operations to flexibly pro-duce either naphtha or diesel. They needcost-effective solutions to successfully increase diesel yields from existing refin-ery assets but with flexibility for maxi-mum production of diesel or naphtha astheir local market dictates.

    UOP, with over 100 refinery cata-lysts and over 70 process technologiesinstalled worldwide over a period of almost 100 years, is uniquely suited toevaluate production potential from exist-ing units. In response to refiner needs,UOP has assembled commercial operat-ing and existing pilot plant data mapsto compare against the existing naph-tha hydrocracker landscape and identi-fied specific data needs to be addressed.

    An exhaustive hydrocrack ing capabil-ity project was developed to providesolutions addressing issues concerning catalyst selection, operating conditions,equipment constraints, and economicviability. In addition to considering therefiner needs, existing data, and unitlandscape, this project included a pilotplant program to fill data gaps and proj-ect specific customer studies.

    Fig. 2. Product quality for diesel produced using the Enhanced Two-StageUnicracking Process.

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    Tpra will use UOP process technolo-gies and catalysts to improve yields andboost performance at its Izmit Refinery in Turkey. Working closely with Tprapersonnel, UOP engineers developed aninnovative approach integrating three new units projected to deliver greater than $30million in capital expenditure savings andgreater than $20 million per year in yieldimprovement benefits.

    Located in the heart of the largestTurkish consumption region for petro-leum products, the Izmit Refinery is oneof four refineries owned and operated by Tpra, an integrated petroleum company and Turkeys largest industrial enterprise.Tpra has the system-wide capacity toprocess 28.1 million tons (about 211 mil-lion bbl) of crude oil per year. The IzmitRefinery has an 11 million ton (82.5million bbl) annual capacity. The IzmitRefinery processed 10.3 million tons of crude oil in 2008, achieving 94 percent of capacity and breaking production recordsfor the facility and for several products,including diesel and jet fuel.

    Tpra management launched a resi-due upgrade project in 2007 to meetincreased customer demand for refinedproducts, especially ultra-low-sulfur die-sel (ULSD) and kerosene. The first stageof the project was to evaluate differentoptions for upgrading the residue and toselect the most economic option for theIzmit Refinery. Tpra has strong inter-nal refinery development and computermodeling skills, and these were used toselect the optimum configuration.

    With UOP technology already widely used at the refinery, Tpra personnel andUOP regional service people had built a strong and positive relationship over theyears. Building on this relationship, UOPconsultants in refinery configuration andhydroprocessing technologies assisted theTpra project team by providing tech-nical information relating to differentupgrading process options.

    With the residue upgrade project, therefinery was looking to increase produc-tion of high-demand, high-value prod-

    ucts, especially ULSD and kerosene.Tpra management wanted to use only commercially proven technology and cata-lysts. They wanted to continue to improveoverall refinery productivity while ensur-ing compliance with new and projectedEuropean Union environmental stan-dards. Finally, they wanted a flexible, cost-effective solution that considered both thefront-end and total life-cycle price tag forthe project.

    The Tpra staff developed a rec-ommendation calling for the creationof a new conversion complex withdelayed coking, hydrocracking, distil-late hydrotreating and coker naphtha hydrotreating capabilities.

    Having chosen an optimum configura-tion for the project, the second stage of theproject was to select the process technolo-gies to be used within the complex. Tpraorganized a very detailed licensor selectionfor each of the units. This was designed toensure that the technologies offered by dif-ferent licensors could be compared directly on the same basis, while still leaving roomfor optimization of operating conditions,yields and capital cost.

    Enhanced two-stage Unicracking forhigher yields of on-spec products

    UOP recommended that the refinery use an enhanced two-stage hydrocracking process to upgrade vacuum gas oil and

    heavy coker gas oil to high value kero-sene and diesel products that fully meettodays rigorous specifications. The com-panys engineers were able to provide a flexible hydrocracking solution tailoredfor the specific needs of the Izmit Refin-ery, based on the proven UOP Unicrack-ing technology.

    The UOP proposal recognized thatcreating capacity to produce more kero-sene and low-sulfur diesel was the primary value driver for Tpra. By tailoring theUnicracking process and catalysts to meetthe refinerys specific objectives, UOPengineers were able to improve yields andincrease flexibility by enabling the unit toproduce the highest yield of kerosene anddiesel from the available feedstock avail-able in the market.

    Integrated solutionfor capital savings

    Following an evaluation of differentoptions for processing the coker naph-tha and distillate-range feeds, Tpraselected co-processing of the coker naph-tha with the distillate streams in a singlehydrotreating unit that was integrated

    with the hydrocracking unit. UOP teammembers created a hydroprocessing solu-tion that met the sulfur specifications andother technical product requirements thatTpra established during the project-definition phase at a significantly lowercapital cost than building individual pro-cessing units.

    The integrated coker naphtha/distil-late hydrotreating unit is part of the UOPMQD Unionfining family of technologiesused to produce high-quality diesel fuelthat meets the most stringent of require-ments, including the low-sulfur and aro-matics content required by current andanticipated environmental regulations.The hydroprocessing units will use sophis-ticated, commercially proven multifunc-tion catalysts that were chosen to meet theproduct-quality standards that the Tpraofficials specified.

    Following selection of UOP technol-ogy for the hydroprocessing units in the

    Tpra choo e UOP hydroproce ing

    to boo t ULsD yield

    The UOPhydroprocessing solutionis estimated to deliversignificant improvementin on-spec distillate yieldsresulting in greater than

    $20 million in incrementalannual revenue.

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    complex, Tpra initiated a further opti-mization step to refine the basis for thefinal design. Working closely with theTpra project team, UOP optimized the

    operating conditions and configurationof the integrated unit. This led to a fur-ther step increase in the yield of valuabledistillate products.

    By working closely with the Tprateam, UOP specialists were able to apply

    the companys broad, cross-disciplineexpertise in technology, processes and cata-lysts to create a solution that addressed allof the customers priorities and concerns.

    By integrating the Unionfining andUnicracking units, the UOP approach will save Tpra an estimated $30 millionin capital costs and improve net presentvalue by about $50 million, according toa Tpra estimate.

    The UOP solution is projected todeliver significant improvement in on-spec distillate yields, resulting in morethan $20 million in incremental annual

    revenue for the refinery, compared toother proposed approaches. Furtherimprovements may be possible after theunits come online in the 2014 timeframeas even more efficient commercial cata-lysts become available.

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    Producing blendable transportationfuels from a wide range of nonconven-tional feedstocks can be complicated. Thepush for higher percentages of renewablefuels in the global fuel supply poses sig-nificant challenges for most refiners asrenewable feed sources change regionally.UOP is committed to the challenge of providing step-out technology in orderto meet our customer needs and thetremendous projected growth in energy demand. Recent development programsinvolving non-edible, second-generationoils such as jatropha, camelina, algae andtallow address the need to produce morerenewable fuels. In addition, energy secu-rity issues have driven renewed interestin processing used motor oil, shale oiland Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids fromgasified materials including pet coke, coaland cellulosic wastes.

    For all of these feed types, UOP andits partners are licensing technology that

    will meet Euro-quali ty diesel and je t

    fuel specifications for direct blend withconventional refinery products. UOP isfocused on leading the charge with pro-cessing options that address a diversearray of alternate feed sources. Theseinnovations can reduce carbon footprints,increase availability of renewable compo-nents, and improve energy security fornations across the globe.

    Converting natural oils andwastes to drop-in biofuels

    The production of renewable fuelsis continuing to expand worldwide as a result of increasing petroleum prices, gov-ernment regulations, and commitmentsto greenhouse gas reduction. To date,there has been little integration of renew-able fuels production within petroleumrefineries despite the increasing demandfor renewable fuels.

    Segregated production of renewablefuels outside the existing refinery infra-structure increases cost and can slow

    adoption. To address this challenge,UOP has developed renewable energy processes that utilize traditional refin-ing technology. The UOP/Eni Ecofin-ing process for the production of greendiesel and the UOP Renewable Jet pro-cess utilize fixed-bed hydroprocessing technologies capable of addressing thechemistry associated with conversion of oils and fats into hydrocarbon alkanes forsuperior fuel quality. These zero-sulfur,high-cetane number (7590) and low freeze point products are virtually indis-tinguishable from petroleum-based fuelsand serve as excellent blend stocks. They allow refiners the ability to blend lower-quality distillate into the refinery poolunlike additive products such as FAME(biodiesel).

    Several refiners are working on renew-able development projects today. The avi-ation industry has also been an importantdriver in the testing and certification of fuels. UOP is working closely with sev-eral refiners and will also produce up to600,000 gallons of Honeywell Green JetFuel for use in US Navy and Military flight testing.

    Processing Fischer-Tropschliquids for high-cetane dieseland no-sulfur jet fuel

    The abundance of coal, natural gasand biomass available today is driving interest in the use of FT technology toproduce quality transportation fuels. TheUOP upgrading technology can producepremium quality, no-sulfur jet and die-sel fuels with cetane numbers in the 70'sfrom the FT liquids.

    UOPs experience in the characteriza-tion and testing of FT-derived liquidsbegan several decades ago, when UOP

    was contracted by the US Departmentof Energy to provide assistance in theupgrading of FT synthesis products.This work was performed in UOPspilot plant facilities in Riverside and DesPlaines, Illinois. Since that time, UOP

    Looking for new way to addre

    growing energy demandConverting alternate feedstocks to high-value products

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    has extended its knowledge of FT liquidsupgrading through extensive pilot planttesting of FT liquids derived from bothcobalt fixed-bed and iron slurry FT pro-

    cesses. These programs have yielded theidentification of UOP-proprietary cata-lyst systems, which can optimize productyields as well as the production of high-quality diesel and jet fuels.

    Although process selection may vary depending upon processing objectives anddesired product slate, UOP-designed FTliquids upgrading facilities will typically include combinations of the UOP FTUnionfining, Unicracking and the UOPCatalytic Dewaxing process technologies.This technology combination allows:

    Stabilization of the FT liquidslighter fraction, by reducing its brominenumber and converting its oxygen-con-taining components, to produce a stor-able naphtha-range product

    Conversion of the heavier portionof the FT liquids lighter fraction to pro-duce jet- or diesel-range blending com-ponents

    Stabilization of the FT liquidsheavier wax fraction by reducing its bro-mine number and oxygen content

    Conversion of the FT liquidsheavier wax fraction to produce jet- ordiesel-range blending components

    Improvement of the cold flow prop-erties of the FT liquids lighter fraction toenable it to be included in the diesel or jetblending pool.

    Reprocessing motor oil tohigh-quality base oil

    Used motor oils can be re-processedin the UOP HyLube process. Unlikemost other re-refining processes, theHyLube process produces a very consis-tent high-quality base oil product andits byproducts are managed to minimizeenvironmental impact while maximizing energy recovery. Tougher base oil stan-dards have been established to facilitateauto manufacturers requirement toimprove engine performance from anenvironmental impact perspective. Thetrend toward smaller engines that oper-ate at higher engine revolutions per min-ute dictates the need for better motoroil quality.

    The HyLube process allows contin-uous processing of the entire used oilcharge stock in a hydrogen-rich environ-

    ment with intermediate oil storage. Theprocess uses efficient catalytic conver-sion or removal of contaminants such aschlorinated, sulfurous, and oxygenated

    organic compounds and polyaromatichydrocarbons, and manages all sulfu-rous and odorous compounds to elimi-nate malodorous and toxic emissions.It allows production of deeply desulfur-ized and saturated base oil and distillatefuel products.

    Conventional base oil productionmethods are energy intensive, consumea diminishing fossil fuel resource, andplace a large burden on the environment.The HyLube Process rejuvenates used oilto higher product standards meeting thegrowing need for higher quality base oils.

    Converting shale oil totransportation fuels

    In some regions of the world, shaleoil is a significant resource, which can beconverted into high-quality liquid fuels

    with the proper processing solutions. Theestimated number of barrels of oil reservesfrom shale in the US alone is over 2 tril-lion. Catalytic and process technology for the treatment of shale oil was devel-oped by Unocal to support a commercial

    operation in Parachute Creek, Colorado.This site operated a 10,000-bpsd shaleretorting and upgrading facility from1983 until 1991.

    In 1995, UOP acquired the technol-ogy and began development efforts toaddress the significant challenges relatedto processing shale oil. Contaminants likeshale fines, arsenic, and unusually highcontents of olefins, aromatics, nitrogen,and sulfur were the key issues that had tobe addressed.

    Renewed interest in processing shaleoil in the US, China, Jordan and Esto-nia has driven further improvements toboth catalytic and process technologiesin order to meet Euro Diesel specifica-tions. Today, UOP is working with cli-ents in the US and Europe where energy security issues are driving further devel-opments. Many of these clients havelong histories of producing fuel oil fromshale, but they need expertise in orderto improve the quality of the materialfor transportation use. UOPs propri-etary advanced catalyst systems providethe ability to upgrade the various quali-ties of shale oil into products including high yields of blendable Euro-quality distillate.

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    UOP helps you exceed your goals with innovative technology,catalysts and optimization solutions specifcally designed tomeet your needs.

    UOP hydroprocessing solutions and optimization services are designed to help

    you maximize your return on investment and grow your business. As regional

    market demands shi t, we provide the process technologies, catalysts and

    services that will meet your changing business needs. Our experts work closely

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    ultra-low sul ur diesel standards while improving your operational e fciency.

    Backed by over 50 years o hydroprocessing innovations, UOP o ers the best and most advanced solutions

    to keep your business one step ahead.