Unlocking AnalogiesTake good notes!
What are analogies?Analogies show relationships between words. The symbols used in analogies are the single colon : and the double colon :: The single colon : is read is toThe double colon :: is read asExample: shark : fish :: cow : mammal, which would be read shark is to fish as cow is to mammal.
Breaking Down AnalogiesI am going to break down analogies into different types, so that you become comfortable with one type of analogy before you are ready to explore another.
Here we go! Were on a mission to understand and unlock analogies!!
Synonym Pairs in AnalogiesSynonyms are words that are similar in meaning to each otherHow many words can you think of that mean the same as hot?
Synonym PairsIf the first pair of words are synonyms, then the second pair of words are synonyms as well.However, all the words do not have to be synonyms for each other.Example: hot : warm :: cold : coolExample: big : large :: small: little
Synonym PairsLets write some synonym analogies together!
Antonym Pairs in AnalogiesAntonyms are words that mean the opposite of each other.Example: sad : happy :: up : downExample: in : out :: pretty : ugly
Antonym Pairs in AnalogiesLets write some antonym analogies together!
Homophone Pairs in AnalogiesHomophones are words that sound alike but are spelled differently and have different meanings.How are aisle, Ill, and isle related?What other homophones can you think of?
Homophones in AnalogiesExample: see : sea :: hair : hareExample: hear : here :: plane : plainExample: main : mane :: meet : meat
Lets write some homophone analogies together!
Part to WholeWhat relationship is shown in the analogy below?Teacher is to faculty as principal is to administrationA teacher is part of a faculty, and a principal is part of the administration. Both are parts of groups in the field of education. This analogy would be classified as a part-whole relationship.Another example: athlete : team :: spectator : audienceAn athlete can be part of a group of players on a team. A spectator is part of a group of spectators in an audience.
CharacteristicsThe first word is an adjective that describes a quality of the second word.rough : sandpaper :: smooth : silkThe first word is a noun that describes a characteristic of the second word.flexibility : muscle :: rigidity : bone3. sweet : apple :: __________ : lemon
Identifying Classes Analogies can name things that are in the same class.How are these words related? violin, viola, celloThey are all stringed instruments. They are part of the same class.
How Things Are AlikeHow are the first two words alike? How are the second two words alike?An analogy can compare members of one class to members of another class.
Example: Parakeet : bird :: greyhound : dog
A parakeet is a type of bird. A greyhound is a type of dog.
We can compare the two word pairs by saying they each are a member of a class.
Class PairsHow are the words in the first pair alike? How are the words in the second pair alike? How is the second pair similar to the first pair?Snowboarding : snow sport :: sailing : water sportSnowboarding is an example of a snow sport; sailing is an example of a water sport. Each word pair describes a member and its class.
Objects People UseAnalogies can be used to connect objects with their functions.How are these words related? helicopter, airplane, gliderThey are all things that fly. How are these words related? skates, wheelbarrow, bicycleThey are all things that roll.
The Right Functionbroom : sweep :: soap : cleanThe purpose of a broom is to sweep. The purpose of soap is to clean. We can compare the two word pairs by saying they describe objects and functions. Complete this analogy:Pencil : _________ :: scissors : cut
Comparing Objects and Functions How are the words in the first pair related? How are the words in the second pair related? How is the second pair similar to the first pair?Tongue is to taste as ears are to hear.The function of a tongue is to taste. The function of ears is to hear. In this way, the relationship between tongue and taste is like the relationship between ears and hear.
Things People Do Analogies can be used to connect people with the actions they perform.How are these words related? surgeon, operatesThe word operates tells what a surgeon does.What does a jockey do? A jockey rides.Surgeon is to operates as jockey is to rides.surgeon : operates :: jockey : rides
The Right ActionHow are the first two words related? How are the second two words related?author, write artist, paintAn action an author performs is to write. An action an artist performs is to paint. We can compare the two word pairs by saying they describe people and the actions they perform. Another way of saying this is Author is to write as artist is to paint.author : write :: artist : paint
Comparing Doers and Actions How are the words in the first pair related? How are the words in the second pair related? How is the second pair similar to the first pair?Builder is to construct as reporter is to inform.An action that a builder does is to construct. An action that a reporter does is to inform. In this way, the relationship between builder and construct is like the relationship between reporter and inform.
Where Is It Found?How are these words related? buffalo, prairieThe word prairie tells where a buffalo is found.Where is a cow found? A cow is found in a pasture.Buffalo is to prairie as cow is to pasture.
buffalo : prairie :: cow : pasture
The Right LocationHow are the first two words related? How are the second two words related?teacher, classroom scientist, laboratoryA teacher might be found in a classroom. A scientist might be found in a laboratory. We can compare the two word pairs by saying they describe people and the places they work. Another way of saying this is Teacher is to classroom as scientist is to laboratory.teacher : classroom :: scientist : laboratory
Comparing LocationsHow are the words in the first pair related? How are the words in the second pair related? How is the second pair related to the first pair?Journalist is to newspaper as chef is to restaurantA journalist works at a newspaper. A chef works at a restaurant. In this way, the relationship between journalist and newspaper is like the relationship between chef and restaurant.journalist : newspaper :: chef : restaurant
Types of Analogies Weve LearnedSynonymsAntonymsHomophonesPart to WholeCharacteristic Of
Type Of/Example OfObject to FunctionDoer to ActionLocation