UNIVERZA V psihodrama, dramska terapija, teorija vlog, analiza vlog ABSTRACT In the theoretical part

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  • UNIVERZA V LJUBLJANI

    PEDAGOŠKA FAKULTETA

    Drugostopenjski magistrski študijski program Pomoč z umetnostjo

    Ana Rokvić Pinterič

    Psihodrama in teorija vlog

    Magistrsko delo

    Ljubljana, 2020

  • UNIVERZA V LJUBLJANI

    PEDAGOŠKA FAKULTETA

    Drugostopenjski magistrski študijski program Pomoč z umetnostjo

    Ana Rokvić Pinterič

    Psihodrama in teorija vlog

    Psychodrama and role theory

    Magistrsko delo

    Mentorica: Doc. Alenka Vidrih

    Ljubljana, 2020

  • 3

    ZAHVALA

    Zahvaljujem se mentorici doc. Alenki Vidrih za neomajno podporo, usmerjanje in vse dnevne in nočne metulje.

    Hvala lektorici Katji Šaponjić za izjemno strokoven pregled dela, odzivnost in „duge luči“.

    Zahvaljujem se tudi dr. Ivi Žurić Jakovina za ustvarjalen dialog in tono „MK“.

    Hvala Jakobu za izreden proces in zaupanje.

    In predvsem hvala Martinu, Ivani in Mili za vso potrpežljivost in podporo.

  • POVZETEK

    V teoretičnem delu magistrskega dela sem predstavila dosedanje ugotovitve na

    področju teorije vlog, predstavila psihodramske tehnike in raziskala elemente, ki

    povezujejo psihodramo in dramsko terapijo kot eno izmed disciplin pomoči z

    umetnostjo. Raziskava je osredotočena na potencial poglavitne psihodramske tehnike,

    igranje vlog, ki na področju dramske terapije in na ostalih področjih psihosocialne

    pomoči še ni dovolj raziskan in izkoriščen.

    V empiričnem delu sem v procesu z lastno udeležbo s kvalitativno študijo proučevala

    primer ene odrasle osebe. Ta se je vključila v skupinski proces psihodrame, s ciljem

    osebnega razvoja in morebitnih sprememb v načinu svojega izražanja in

    sporazumevanja. Spremljala sem njegovo doživljanje igranja različnih vlog in

    spremembe, ki jih je ob tem zaznaval, ter beležila, kakšen pomen je pripisoval udeležbi

    v tem procesu.

    Ugotovila sem, da je analiza vlog pomembna za prepoznavanje vedenjskih, miselnih

    in čustvenih vzorcev, ker uporabnik lahko sam sistematično spremlja svoj razvoj skozi

    vlogo. Uporabnik je ozavestil vedenjske, miselne in čustvene vzorce v svojem življenju.

    Prek zamenjave vlog je ozavestil in razvijal svojo zmožnost empatije, prek odigravanja

    vlog pa se je soočal s svojimi obrambnimi mehanizmi, kar mu je pomagalo pri širjenju

    spektra doživljanja in izražanja ter tako omogočilo spremembe v vedenju, čustvovanju

    in mišljenju.

    Raziskava omogoča redek in poglobljen vpogled v prakso psihodramskega procesa,

    ki pomeni doprinos k psihodrami, dramski terapiji in drugim praksam pomoči, v katerih

    se uporabljata igra in analiza vlog. Ugotovitve v magistrskem delu se nanašajo zgolj

    na okoliščine te raziskave in jih ni mogoče posploševati na izvedbo procesa v

    drugačnih okoliščinah.

    KLJUČNE BESEDE

    psihodrama, dramska terapija, teorija vlog, analiza vlog

  • ABSTRACT

    In the theoretical part of the paper I have presented findings that exist in the field of

    role theory, as well as psychodrama techniques, and researched the elements that link

    psychodrama and drama therapy as one of the branches of arts therapies. The

    research is focused on the potential of the main psychodrama technique, i.e. role

    playing, which in the field of drama therapy and other fields of psychosocial support

    still desires to be thoroughly examined and used.

    In the empirical part I have, through a process of personal participation, used a

    qualitative study to analyse a case of one adult individual. The individual has joined a

    group process of psychodrama, with a purpose of personal development and possible

    changes in his manners of expression and communication. I have observed his

    experience of playing different roles and changes he became aware of, and recorded

    what meaning he attributed to his participation in the process.

    I have come to the realisation that role analysis was important for recognising

    behavioural, thought and emotional patterns because the user may himself or herself

    systematically observe his or her own development through a role. The user became

    aware of the behavioural, thought and emotional patterns present in his life. Through

    role swapping he became aware of and developed his ability for empathy, and through

    role playing he came face to face with his defence mechanisms – that helped him

    widen the spectrum of experiencing and expression which in turn made changes in

    behaviour, feeling and thinking possible.

    The research allows for a rare and in-depth insight into the psychodrama process in

    real life and as such contributes to the fields of psychodrama, drama therapy and other

    support practices in which playing and role analysis are used. The findings presented

    in the paper refer only to the circumstances of this particular research and may not be

    applied in a general manner to a process taking place in different circumstances.

    KEY WORDS

    psychodrama, drama therapy, role theory, role analysis

  • Kazalo UVOD ..................................................................................................................................................... 8

    1. TEORETIČNA IZHODIŠČA ...................................................................................................... 10

    1.1. PSIHODRAMA .................................................................................................................... 10

    1.1.1. Jacob Levy Moreno .................................................................................................. 10

    1.1.2. Definicija psihodrame.............................................................................................. 11

    1.1.3. Spontanost in ustvarjalnost .................................................................................. 12

    1.1.4. Kulturna konzerva .................................................................................................... 13

    1.1.5. Status nascendi, locus, matrix .............................................................................. 14

    1.1.6. Nadgradnja resničnosti ........................................................................................... 14

    1.1.7. Katarza ......................................................................................................................... 14

    1.1.8. Psihodramski elementi............................................................................................ 15

    1.1.9. Psihodramske faze ................................................................................................... 21

    1.1.10 Skupinska psihodrama in sociometrija .................................................................. 26

    1.1.11. Individualna psihodrama .................................................................................... 29

    1.1.12. Psihodrama in dramska terapija ...................................................................... 33

    1.2. TEORIJA VLOGE ............................................................................................................... 36

    1.2.1. Vloga ............................................................................................................................ 36

    1.2.2. Doubliranje ................................................................................................................. 37

    1.2.3. Zrcaljenje .................................................................................................................... 37

    1.2.4. Zamenjava vlog ......................................................................................................... 39

    1.2.5. Metavloga ................................................................................................................... 41

    1.2.6. Analiza vloge ............................................................................................................. 42

    1.2.7. Učenje socialnih in čustvenih veščin .................................................................. 43

    1.2.8. Teorija navezanosti in igranje vlog ........................................................................... 44

    2. EMPIRIČNI DEL ............................................................................................................................. 48

    2.1. OPREDELITEV RAZISKOVALNEGA PROBLEMA......................................................... 48

    2.2. CILJI RAZISKAVE ................................................................................................................. 49

    2.3. RAZISKOVALNA VPRAŠANJA .......................................................................................... 50

    2.4. METODA IN RAZISKOVALNI PRISTOP ........................................................................... 51

    2.4.1. Vzorec .............................................................................................................................. 51

    2.4.2. Postopek zbiranja in obdelave podatkov ................................................................ 51

    2.5. POTEK DEL