No.528. LONDON, SATURDAY, OCTOBER 12, 1833. UNIVERSITY OF LONDON. LECTURES ON COMPARATIVE ANATOMY AND ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY, Delivered during the Session 1833-4, BY ROBERT E. GRANT, M. D., F. R. S. E., &c., &c. ; Fellow of the Roy. Coll. of Physicians of Edin. ; and Professor of Comparative Anatomy and Ani- mal Physiology in the University of London. LECTURE I. ON THE HISTORY AND PRESENT STATE OF THE SCIENCE. B COMPARATIVE Anatomy is that branch of physical science which treats of the I structure of animals. It describes the e forms of the several organs, their intimate I composition, their internal mechanism, I and their various connexions with each other in everv class of animals. It traces the gradual development of the organs in the embryo, from their primitive through all their succeeding forms, and shows the relations which exist between these tran- sient form and the new conditions in which the animal is placed in each of the phases of its existence. It teaches us the uses of the several parts of animals, the functions they perform in their economy, the laws which regulate the co-existence of organs in the same machine, and those which determine the forms of individual organs in each class. It points out the relation which exists between the me- chanism and the movements of animals, their structure and functions, and thus leads us to penetrate the mystery of their vital phenomena, their diversified living habits, and the remarkable instincts of particular species. It discovers to us un- expected analogies in the forms and struc- ture of parts in animals remote from each other in the scale, and by extending those analogies it leads us to perceive a resem- blance of structure in verv different classes of animals, and a uniformity of system-a unity, of plan-in the organization’of the whole animal kingdom. Comparative anatomy is a science of analysis and synthesis, and shows us the composition and the primitive or essential elements of all the organs of the body, by watching the order in which their parts are called successively into being, either in the embryo of the same animal, or izi ascending through the great body of the animal kingdom. Presupposing a know- ledge of the structure of the human body,-, it compares the organs of the inferior ani- mals with those of man, and shows us that the transient forms of his organs are only repetitions of the permanent forms of the same parts in inferior classes,-that the, same laws regulate the forms in both, and that although he possesses, upon the whole, the most complex and elaborate organization met with in nature, he is inferior to many of the lower animals in the degree of development of particular organs. It is only by this kind of com- parison that we can acquire an accurate conception of the true character of human organization. And by more extended comparisons we determine the rank which the inferior tribes of animals occupy in the scale of beings. By determining the general laws which regulate the natural development of parts, we arrive at the theory of irregular developments, or mon- strosities, in the animal kingdom, and find that those apparently anomalous forma- tions are the result of laws as simple and uniform as those which regulate the healthy or normal structure. By taking an extensive survey of the organization of existing animals, we discover this remark-- able truth, that the development of every organ of the human body can -be traced through all its successive stages in the great body of the animal kingdom, and the form which an organ presents in each of the lower classes corresponds with its


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ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY,Delivered during the Session 1833-4,


ROBERT E. GRANT, M. D., F. R. S. E.,&c., &c. ;

Fellow of the Roy. Coll. of Physicians of Edin. ;and Professor of Comparative Anatomy and Ani-mal Physiology in the University of London.



of physical science which treats of the

Istructure of animals. It describes the eforms of the several organs, their intimate Icomposition, their internal mechanism, Iand their various connexions with eachother in everv class of animals. It tracesthe gradual development of the organs inthe embryo, from their primitive throughall their succeeding forms, and shows therelations which exist between these tran-sient form and the new conditions inwhich the animal is placed in each of thephases of its existence. It teaches us theuses of the several parts of animals, thefunctions they perform in their economy,the laws which regulate the co-existenceof organs in the same machine, and thosewhich determine the forms of individualorgans in each class. It points out therelation which exists between the me-chanism and the movements of animals,their structure and functions, and thusleads us to penetrate the mystery of theirvital phenomena, their diversified livinghabits, and the remarkable instincts ofparticular species. It discovers to us un-

expected analogies in the forms and struc-ture of parts in animals remote from eachother in the scale, and by extending thoseanalogies it leads us to perceive a resem-blance of structure in verv different classesof animals, and a uniformity of system-aunity, of plan-in the organization’of thewhole animal kingdom. ’

Comparative anatomy is a science ofanalysis and synthesis, and shows us thecomposition and the primitive or essentialelements of all the organs of the body, bywatching the order in which their partsare called successively into being, eitherin the embryo of the same animal, or iziascending through the great body of theanimal kingdom. Presupposing a know-ledge of the structure of the human body,-,it compares the organs of the inferior ani-mals with those of man, and shows us thatthe transient forms of his organs are onlyrepetitions of the permanent forms of thesame parts in inferior classes,-that the,same laws regulate the forms in both, and

that although he possesses, upon thewhole, the most complex and elaborate

organization met with in nature, he isinferior to many of the lower animals inthe degree of development of particularorgans. It is only by this kind of com-parison that we can acquire an accurateconception of the true character of humanorganization. And by more extendedcomparisons we determine the rank whichthe inferior tribes of animals occupy inthe scale of beings. By determining thegeneral laws which regulate the naturaldevelopment of parts, we arrive at thetheory of irregular developments, or mon-strosities, in the animal kingdom, and findthat those apparently anomalous forma-tions are the result of laws as simple anduniform as those which regulate the

healthy or normal structure. By takingan extensive survey of the organization of

existing animals, we discover this remark--able truth, that the development of everyorgan of the human body can -be tracedthrough all its successive stages in thegreat body of the animal kingdom, andthe form which an organ presents in eachof the lower classes corresponds with its


condition at some period of the human’ merous accidents of a savage life had oftenembryo. But the researches of the com- exposed to him in the human body. This

parative anatomist are not confined to the was the more likely to arrest his attentionexisting races of animals. In the remains with regard to the great viscera of theof animals entombed in the ancient strata trunk, as the opening and dividing of ani-of the earth, he is enabled to trace phases mals, whether to prepare them as food, orof organic development on the surface of to offer them as sacrifices, was often at-our planet, which have long preceded the tended with superstitious ceremonies, andexisting forms, and have even been ex- was confided only to those who had an in-tinct anterior to the existence of our race, fluence over the minds of their fellow men,and of all the vertebrate tribes. and whose duties as augurs required themComparative anatomy was so named by to observe and to study the appearances ofVICQ-D’.kZYP-, on account of the numerous these parts.comparisons which it institutes between I The oldest historical records aboundthe structures of different animals, and with details of the sacrifices of animalsfrom its having been at first cultivated offered to the deities, by the priests of thechiefly with the view of illustrating human Israelites, the Egyptians, and the Greeks ;structure, by comparing the organs of the and in most of the civilized .nations of an-inferior animals with those of the human tiquity, mysterious signs and auguriesbody. It is also frequently called zootomy, were taken from the inspection of the vis-from S"’-’ov "

an anirnal," and " to cera of slaughtered animals. MOSES de-cut," a term which implies that the dissec- scribes the mode of conducting these sa-

tion of animals is the source from which crifices among the Israelites more thanthe facts of the science are derived. thirty centuries ago, when young bullocks,

Like other sciences founded on direct rams, sheep, calves, kids, lambs, goats,observation, comparative anatomy con- young pigeons, and turtle doves, weresisted in its infancy of a few simple and offered to the Deity as atonement for theunconnected facts, which, in its advance- sins of his people. Homer makes constant .

ment, became gradually multiplied, ex- allusion to the sacrifices of domestic ani-tended, and generalized, and were ulti- mals and auguries taken from the appear-mately reduced to a regular body of ance of the internal organs, by the Gre-science. Although few branches of phy- cian priests at the Trojan war, elevensical inquiry have advanced with more hundred years before Christ. The priestsreluctant steps than that which investi- of Egypt at as remote a period, enjoyedgates the internal mechanism of animals, extensive opportunities of examining theand the laws which regulate their compli- internal parts of quadrupeds, birds, andcated vital phenomena, the origin of none ’reptiles, worshipped as deities in thatcan probably be traced back to a remoter country, and preserved after death em-antiquity. balmed in the pyramids. Many of theMan, the most complicated in internal carcases of these animals are still brought

structure, and ;the most perfectly organ- to Europe from these ancient monuments,ized of material beings, was created after in a state of high preservation. GEOFFROYall the other animals of this earth. Sur- SAiNT-HiLAiRE, when with the Frenchrounded with the means of supplying his army, brought from the tombs of Uppernatural wants, and impelled by his in- and Lower Egypt, mummies of cats, dogs,stincts and passions, he must have early monkeys, the head of a bull, birds of prey,commenced hostilities with the brute cre- ibises, and crocodiles. Interesting ’de-ation, to procure the means of his sub- scriptions of the sacrifices of animalssistence, to obtain their fleecy skins to among the Egyptians, and of the wholeshelter his nakedness from the inclemen-’’ process of embalming, are gen in thecies of the seasons, or to protect his life writings of Herodotus, the most ancient ofand property from their rapacious attacks. profane historians, and in those of Dio-His natural repugnance to scenes of blood dorus Siculus.would thus be overcome by the habitual Although Moses, in his laws to thesight of the mangled carcases daily ob- Israelites, and Homer throughout histained from the chase, before he began to poems, have shown that they possessedtame or domesticate useful animals, or to an intimate acquaintance with the inter-preserve flocks for his support. nal parts, and the living -economy of many

Notwithstanding the diversity of exter- of the lower animals, the zootomicalnal form and character presented by his knowledge collected by the priests during -gdaily victims, he could not fail to observe their rites and ceremonies, consisteda remarkable sameness in their internal only of observations on the natural and-structure, and even to be struck with the morbid appearances of the larger viscera,resemblance of their internal organs to particularly of the heart and liver, fromthe corresponding parts which the nu- which their signs and omens of future.


events were chieny taken, and these ac- department which, notwithstanding thecumulated observations, which formed a advantages he is known to have possessed,considerable portion of their art of divina- is quite extraordinary for the period at.tion, were not applied by them to the ad- which he wrote. Some of ARISTOTLE’Svancement of any rational pursuit. descriptions of quadrupeds were con-

That singular and acute philosopher, sidered by CuviER as superior to those ofDEMOCRITUS, about 400 years before BuFFON, and in the lowest tribes of ani-Christ, during his retirement in the un- mals we shall see that his details are

healthy forests of Abdera, devoted himself sometimes more minute and accurateto the examination of the internal struc- even than those of CuviER himself.ture of the lower animals, with a scientific After the time of ARISTOTLE much at-object in view. His contemporary, Hip- tention was devoted to this subject by me-.POCRATES, who visited him in his solitude, dical men, from a laudable desire to be-found him dissecting.. under a tree, sur- come better acquainted with the true na-rounded with the carcases of the quadru- ture of disease, and from the difficulty ofpeds he had already examined, and the obtaining human bodies for that purpose-father of physic is said to have profited by in those times of ignorance and supersti-the anatomical observations of this philo- tion. DIOCLES, HEROPHILUS, ERASIS-sopher. In his letter to HIPPOCRATES on TRATUS, ELi4N, and GALEN, directedthe nature of madness, this acute observer their attention to this branch of anatomy.first maintained the brain to be the true The writings of Elian in particular con-.seat of the operations of the mind. Hip- tain much information on all the classesPOCRATES, who afterwards directed much of the animal kingdom; and it is wellof his leisure to the study of anatomy, known that almost the whole of the ana-considered this organ as an inert refrige- tomical knowledge which GALEN applied.ratory of water and earth, destined to to the human body, was derived from thecondense the vapours which rose from the dissection of the lower animals. This, inlower cavities of the body. particular, has been detected by the nu-PYTHAGORAS, ALCMEON, and EMPE- merous errors into which he has been led

DOCLES, are also said to have directed by applying the osteology of quadrupedstheir attention to the structure of ani- to the human skeleton.mals. The natural history of the Elder PLINY,The cultivation of this study is attended like the voluminous writings of ARISTOTLE,

with circumstances very different from may be regarded as an encyclopaedia ofthose of the abstract sciences, and which all the knowledge of the time when it washave mainly contributed to retard its pro- written, and by the few facts in compara-.gress. It depends for its advancement tive anatomy which it has recorded, inmuch less on the efforts of genius, or addition to those of the Greek philosopher;learning, or profound meditation, than it marks the slow progress of, this scienceon the constant employment of the during a period of four hundred years,eyes and the scalpel, and the abundant which intervened between them.supply of animals from all parts of the During the long darkness of the middleglobe, which are often inconsistent with ages the scientific investigation of thethe private means of scientific men. With- animal frame appears to have retrogradedout the powerful and well-directed patron- rather than advanced. So late as the be-

age of ALExANDER the GREAT, the varied ginning of the sixteenth century, theand extensive learning, and the compre- writings ofRoNDELETIUS, COLUMBUS, andhensive genius of ARISTOTLE, would have ALDROVANDUS, may be said to have re-

little availed him in accumulating that created this study, and by pointing out itsgreat body of zootomical knowledge which practical applications they gave a properhe has left to the admiration of succeed- direction to the pursuit. The works ofing ages. Thousands of men were em- FABRICIUS contain many zootomical de-

ployed throughout Greece and Asia to tails; and, in his public instructions, thecollect all kinds of animals for ARISTOTLE, illustrations which he drew from com-and eighty talents of gold were placed at parative anatomy directed the views of hishis disposal for the advancement of this pupil HARVEY. It was by experimentsbranch of science. The zoological trea- and dissections of the lower animals thatsures thus collected from all parts of the HARVEY ascertained the true course ofworld were carefully examined, dissected, the blood through the system, and thusand described; and though the physiolo- established a discovery which has changedgical views of ARISTOTLE occasionally par- the face of medical science- The singulartake of the errors of those times, he every- discovery of GALVANI, which has had aswhere displays a minute and extensive ac- marvellous an influence on the science ofquaintance with the structure and habits chemistry, and has led to the establish-of animals, an extent of knowledge in this ment of the new science of galvanism, was


made by observing the contractions of the to be separated from that of the humanmuscular fibres while that physician was body, and its progress and history to be-dissecting a frog. come distinct from those of human ana-The discovery of the lacteal vessels, by tomy, with which they had been hitherto

ASELLIUS of Pavia in 1622, was made by identified.examining the mesentery of a live dog. The precision introduced into the studyThe thoracic duct was first detected by of the animal kingdom by the philoso-

ETJSTACRIU- in examining the viscera of phical arrangements of LiNN-Cus, thea horse, and the true function of this canal taste created for the study by the elo-was afterwards ascertained by PECQUET, quence and genius and labours of BurroN,by observations made on other quadrupeds the numerous and elaborate descriptionsas early as 1651. of DAUBENTON, CAMPER, PALLAS, and

ASELLIUS’S discovery of the lacteals in VICQ-D’AzYR, the curious zootomical dis-quadrupeds was known for twelve years coveries of LYONNET, Gorzr, DE GEER,before VESLINGIUS detected them in the MuLLER, SPALLANZANI, and FONTANA;human body. the many useful contributions of SCARPA,That minute and indefatigable zooto- GouAN, LESKE, BLOCH, CAMPARETTI,

Mist, Sw AMMERDAM, whose splendid Bi- STE>r0, Kn:LlVIYER, PETIT, FERREIN,MIa Naturse" has thrown so much light I BAR7HEZ, HFDWIG, RAFN, BLAKE, TE-on the organization of the lowest tribes of NoN, LoRDAT, RosENMULLER, GEOFFROY,animals, was the first who observed the MERREM, and the elder :lI/fECKEL, and thevalves in the absorbent vessels in 1664. useful labours of our countrymen DOUG-The absorbent vessels themselves had been LASS, HEWSON, MONRO primus and se-discovered about ten years before both in cundus, and the two HuNTERS, not onlyEngland and Sweden. enlarged the boundaries of the science inThe importance of the discoveries thus all its departments, and raised its import-

due to comparative anatomy in illustrating ance in the scale of knowledge, by thethe anatomy and physiology of the human numerous useful applications of its prin-body, and the numerous improvements ciples which they pointed out, and by thethey introduced into medical science, gave luminous views they unfolded regardinga new impulse to the study in most of the the general laws of animal organization,schools of Europe. but succeeded also in giving an impulseThe zootomical details of SEVERINUS to the study in many of the first univer-

and BLASIUS, the minute and accurate in- sities of Europe.vestigations of REDI, MALPIGHI, and Since the publication of the first ele-SwAMMERDAM, the valuable contributions mentary treatise on comparative anatomyof PERRAULT and DUVERNEY, and the by the venerable BLUMENBACIT, the fatherTixeful labours of our countrymen TYSON, of this science in Germany, and still itsNxEDHAM, GREW, and COLLINS, consi- most zealous patron, the study has beenders-bly extended the boundaries of the ardently pursued by numerous distin-science about the beginning of the seven- guished German anatomists, and is culti-teenth century, and the many striking in- vated with zeal and advantage in many of;stances of design and intelligence, which the universities of that country. The dis-they pointed out in the economy of the tinguished talents and varied learning ofinferior animals, excited a more lively in- the late Professor RuDOLpHi of Berlin,Merest in these pursuits. the luminous views of HuMBOLDT, OKEN,The numerous and interesting inquiries TIEDEMANN, TuEViRANUs, and Professor

of REAUMUR, and the writings of DuvER- MECKEL of Halle in this department, theNOY, CALDESI, VALENTINI, MEYER, and useful labours of Professor CARUS of Dres-STELLER, laid open many new and curi- den, GURLT, JEUDE, NEERGAARD, PAN-ous paths of investigation. The volumi- DER, D’ALTON, ALBERS, GALL, FisHER,noi-is writings Of HALLER showed the ROSENTHAL, NITZSCH, BREMSER, TEM-utility of this study in every department MiNCK, Professor FoHMAN, LICHTEN-(of human anatomy and physiology. The STEiN, SCHWEIGGEIL of Konigsberg, andbeautiful works of ROESEL and TREMBLY BOJANUS of Poland, and the numerous,and ELLis, excited a lively interest among contributions of REIL, VOIGT, BAER,tthe physiologists and naturalists of Eu- OPPEL, RATHKE, FRORIEP, WiEDEMANN,rope, by the singular and unexpected re- WEBER, Spix, GADE, MoRRErr, WAGLER,aults of their investigations into the struc- OLFERS, WENZEL, FUNKE, Dr. MULLER,rture of the lowest and most neglected Professor EHRENBERG, the distinguishedtribes of animals. traveller and companion of HUMBOLDT,

From the rapid progress and the sub- and many others, have continued to pre-Division of the other physical sciences, serve for Germany the high rank which;;and from the vast extent of the animal it has so long held in the history of thiskingdom, the study of zootomy began now department of science. It is not, however,


alone by lectures and publications that of RUSCONI on the structure and’ develop-Germany has advanced the interests of ment of the salamander, the proteus, andcomparative anatomy. The splendid mu- other reptiles ; the valuable labours ofseum of Berlin, formerly under the di- Rrsso on the animals of the Meditpr-rection of RUDOLPHI, contains a vast and; ranean, the researches of the late Ro-beautiful series of zootomical preparations,! LANDO on the great centres of the ner-the rich collections of Professor MECKEL i vous system in the higher classes of ani-are constantly increasing in extent by the mals, the zootomical investigations of

indefatigable zeal of that profound anato- MORESCHI of Milan, LIPPI, CARENA,mist, and the zootomical collections of GIORNA, and MALACARNE, the laboriousLeyden, Bonn, Frankfort, Halle, Vienna, researches of BROCCHI and CATULLO onDresden, Goettingen, and other parts of the fossil animals of Italy, and the syste-Germany, will extend and perpetuate an matic works on comparative anatomy byinterest in the study, even beyond the ex- Professor JACOPI of Pavia, and U cc gl.LIertions of its present numerous cultiva- of Florence, have continued to support;tors. The annual meetings of the Ger- the long-established reputation of theman naturalists in different parts of the Italian schools; and not a little of thatempire, and the numerous societies de- zeal for zootomical pursuits, which of latevoted to the advancement of these pur- years has been so generally manifested insuits, promote the rapid diffusion of sci- that country, and is so advantageous to theentific discoveries, excite a generous emu- science, is due to the public instructions,lation, and give a due direction to that and to the unwearied, though unsupported,zeal for which they are so eminently dis- exertions of the late Dr. METAXA, mytinguished. learned friend and preceptor, who wasThe poverty of the Italian states pre- appointed professor of comparative ana-

vents them from giving that public sup- tomy in the University of La Sapienzs, atport to the more expensive branches of Rome, in 1813, by Baron CUVlER.physical science, which is so advantage- All the descriptive branches of physicalously and judiciously bestowed by the science require for their successful studymore wealthy countries of Europe. Hence, a constant appeal to the objects described,notwithstanding the number of distin- and no department appears more de-guished anatomists who have flourished pendent on such illustration than compa-in Italy, the great medical schools of Pa- rative anatomy. Common observationvia, Padua, Pisa, and Bologna, present no makes us all familiar with the generalmeans of studying this department of ana- outward forms of animals, and a short

tomy; and in the vast museum of wax description may convey to us a prettyanatomical preparations, the Gabinetto accurate idea of the form of one we havePhysico at Florence, there are very few never seen. But their complicated ma-specimens illustrative of comparative ana- chinery lies concealed from our view, it

tomy. Italy, however, the country of requires patience and skill to bring it intoPLINY,- of ALDROVANDUS, of REDI, of sight, and no distinct idea can be con-FABRICIUS, MORGAGNI, SPALLANZANI, veyed by mere description to the inexpe-FONTANA, MASCAGNI, and SCARPA, has rienced, of that complex arrangement ofnot remained indifferent to the progress parts, and those minute differences ofof this science in other parts orf Europe, structure, on which the peculiar habits ofbut has laboured with singular success in the species often depend. A constant

many of its most obscure departments. reference to the objects themselves is theWe shall have frequent occasion to speak more necessary in comparative anatomy,of the researches of CAVOLINI on the ani- from the extent and variety of the animalmals of the Bay of Naples. They present kingdom, and the rarity of many of thethe most singular discoveries which have objects it comprehends.yet been made in this department of sci- In the possession of these means ofence, and though published by that pro- illustrating every department of this ex-found and accurate observer nearly fifty tensive study, no country in Europe canyears ago, they are only now beginning compete with France. The museums ofto be known to Europe. The folio ana- comparative anatomy and zoology in thetomical works of Poi.i, on the Anatomy of Garden of Plants at Paris, have been con-the Testaceous Mollusca of the Two Sici- stantly augmenting for more than a cen-lies, published at Parma, have never been tury, and have long surpassed in extentsurpassed for minuteness of detail and and magnificence everything of the kindsplendour of execution. The interesting in existence. When BUFFON was appoint-and beautiful quartos of DELLE CHIAJE, ed director of the Garden of Plants inon the Anatomy of the Invertebrate Ani- 1739, there were two rooms containingmals of the Kingdom of Naples, the re- zoological specimens already open to pub-cent researches and interesting discoveries lic inspection, and one room containing


skeletons, which was kept private. The’and menagerie of the Stadtholder, whichunremitting exertions of BUFFON, and his . were pillaged by the French on the taking ,

influence with the King of France, soon of Holland. The great accumulation of

greatly extended the zoological collection. materials rendered it necessary to subdi-The quadrupeds and birds, so eloquently vide the department which embraced thedescribed by BuFroN, and the fishes de- animal kingdom, and LAcEPEDE was ap-scribed by LACEPEDE, were preserved in pointed to teach the zoology of vertebratethat cabinet, but their arrangement was animals, a chair now so ably filled by hisin accordance with the well-known con- illustrious successor GEOFFROY SAINT-

tempt of BUFFON for scientific classifi- HILAIRE. LAMARCK was at the same timecation. appointed to the chair of the zoology ofDAUBENTON, the pupil of WINSLOW invertebrate animals, an appointment

and DuvER.rrnY, was appointed by BUF- which he held till his death in 1830, at theFoy, in 1745, demonstrator of anatomy, advanced age of 86 years. Two assistantand occupied himself in making skeletons zoologists, DESMOULINS and DUFRESNE,of all the animals he could procure, and were also appointed at that early periodin dissecting and describing their soft (1793) to complete the zoological depart-parts. During the directorship of BuF- ment ; and the late celebrated LATEILLEFON, the Academy of Sciences purchased was made assistant-naturalist in the fol-the anatomical collection of HUNAUD, lowing year.who had been formerly demonstrator, MERTRUD, who had dissected animalsand presented it to the Garden of Plants, for many years along with DAUBENTON,where it was joined to the collection al- was already too much advanced in yearsready formed by DuvERNEY, and aug- at the time of his appointment to themented by DAUBENTON. The elaborate chair of comparative anatomy, to under-zootomical descaptions and plates of DAU- take the active duties of that extensiveBENTON, taken from the specimens of the department, and by the advice of his col-Cabinet du Roi, and published along with leagues he appointed CUVIER to lecturethe works of BUFFON, formed the most for him in 1795. CuviER had alreadyvaluable contribution to comparative ana- made himself favourably known to thetomy which had hitherto appeared, and naturalists of Paris, by his interesting pa-presented the subjects in their most in- pers on the anatomy of the mollusca, andtelligible and attractive forms. by his popular lectures on natural history,About the middle of the last century, delivered in the central school of the Pan-

VICQ-D’AZYR, who had been appointed by theon. The appointment of CuviER toPETIT to assist him in the course of hu- this chair in the Garden of Plants, formedman anatomy in the Garden of Plants, the commencement of a new and a bril-eminently distinguished himself by the liant era in the history not only of com-numerous striking illustrations he drew parative anatomy, but of the study of na-from comparative anatomy, and bv his ture; for since the period of Aristotle, no

profound and original views. While BIL- one had ever combined with the study ofLARDERIE, who succeeded BUFFON, was these departments, more distinguisheddirector of the Garden, LEBRUN, one of talents, more varied and extensive know-the ministers of the King of France, in- ledge, or more indefatigable zeal in thetroduced a professorship of zoology. pursuit, aiad none has ever succeeded inOn the breaking out of the revolution effecting more important revolutions in

in 1792, when BILLARDERIE made his physical science.escape from France, the museum of natu- On the death of MERTRUD in 1802,ral history, formerly the king’s garden, CUVIER was confirmed as his successor inunderwent a new organization, and a dis- the chair of comparative anatomy, andtinct professorship of the anatomy of ani- now directed his whole energies to themals was introduced, which was given to extension of the zootomical museum as

the venerable MERTRUD, so justly eulo- the only means of rendering the instruc-gized by CuviER for his zeal in that pur- tions in this department of solid and per-suit. SAINT PIERRE, who had just been manent utility. In the same year CUVIERappointed to the directorship of the gar- and his pupils dissected the male elephantden, induced the government, which had from the Stadtholder collection, which

always seconded the efforts of the direc- died at Paris. They dissected another maletors, to purchase for that rising establish- elephant in 1804, and a female a few yearsment the menagerie of Versailles, and thus after. By the unremitting exertions ofbegun that collection of living animals, CUVIER and his assistants and pupils inwhich has so long excited the interest and dissecting and preparing the animalsadmiration of Europe. The collections of which died in the vast menagerie, the ca-the garden were greatly increased in 1795 binet of comparative anatomy in 1806 wasby the arrival of the zoological museum.’ already in such a state of completeness as


to extent of material and scientific ar- mal kingdom, he has surpassed all hisrangement, as to be opened to public in- predecessors and contemporaries, by hisspection, and it has continued open to the profound, philosophical, and original viewspresent time. of the anatomy of the higher animals, andThe direction of the menagerie was by the ingenuity and boldness of his spe-

placed under the care of FREDERICK Cu- culations in regard to the development,viER in 1805, and from the facilities he and the analogies of organs and the ge-thus enjoyed, he greatly aided the re- neral laws of the animal economy. He hassearches of his brother by the numerous greatly extended our acquaintance withadditions he made to the osteological part the species of vetebrate animals, and allof the cabinet, and by his own profound his zoological descriptions are marked byinquiries into the structure and forms of a precision and accuracy and philoso-the teeth of quadrupeds. The work of phical spirit, which give a stability andFREDERICK CuviER on the teeth, consi- dignity to one of the most popular and at-dered as zoological characters, has proved tractive of the physical sciences.of great practical utility in the study both The labours of LAMARCK on the inver-of recent and fossil quadrupeds. tebrate animals, continued for more thanThe eloquence, the learning, and the thirty years, have proved not less eminentlygenius of CuvIER,- the uncommon popu- beneficial to that obscure and difficult partlarity of his lectures, the rapid succession of the science. He has carefully examinedand importance of his discoveries, his in- every portion of that immense division ofdefatigable spirit of research, the original- the animal kingdom, and entirely reformedity and grandeur of his general views, and that part of zoology. In his voluminousthe variety and extent of his means of illus- writings he has entered largely into thetration, not only rendered the subject a organization of all the classes, and fullyfavourite study in Paris, but quickly ex- described the characters, the history, andtended his fame through Europe. The the synonymes of the species. His ge-multiplicity of his avocations prevented neral views are distinguished by an extenthim from undertaking thus early a sys- and minuteness of observation, and ori-tematic work on the science; but manu- ginality and boldness of conception, whichscript copies of his lectures taken by pu- have thrown a new light over this intri-pils were circulated in Paris, and even cate part of nature, although the noveltyquoted in publications. In 1800 M. Du- and singularity of some of his results haveMERIL, who was at the head of the anato- retarded their general adoption.mical department of the School of Medicine The liberal and well-directed encourage-at Paris, and who had taken copious notes ment of the French government to one ofat several courses of CUVIER’S lectures, the most expensive departments of thecommenced the publication of these lec- studies of nature, and the great subdivisiontures with the consent and assistance of of labour among its cultivators in France,CUVIER. Two volumes of the " Lecons enabled them to extend rapidly the bound-d’Anatomie Comparee " were thus publish- aries of the science in every direction ;ed by DUMERIL, when his important du- and notwithstanding peculiar difficultiesties at the School of Medicine, and the fron: ’.’- eir limited commercial relations,new investigations of CuvrER. into the and from the long-continued interruptionsfossil animals of the Paris Bason, inter- to their navigation by their contests withrupted the publication of the work. At nations commanding the sea, it is to themlength in 1805, Dr. DUVERNOY, a distin- we owe almost every important improve-guished pupil and relative of M. CuviER, ment in comparative anatomy, and we areand a zealous anatomist, was intrusted indebted to them for almost all our ac-with the completion of that work which quaintance with the actual and the pasthas stood unrivalled for its extent, origi- state of the zoology of the globe.nality, elegance, and accuracy, for nearly The vast zoological museum of Paris,thirty years, notwithstanding the conti- which has been open to public inspectionnued and rapid advancement of the for a hundred years, and the immense col-science in every department during that lection of zootomical preparations whichlong period. have been constantly employed in teach-

So early as 1793, GEOFFROY SAINT- ing the structure of animals, by a succes-HILAIRE commenced his career in the sion of zealous and profound anatomists,garden of plants as Professor of the Na- for nearly forty years, have not onlytural History of Vertebrate Animals ; the spread a taste for these pursuits in France,duties of which he has continued to fulfil and familiarised that country with theirwith unabated zeal, and with immense ad- profoundest arcana as a branch of generalvantage to that important part of the education, but they afford a means ofscience, for a period of forty years. La- comparison, a powerful instrument of in-bouring on a limited portion of the ani- vestigation to facilitate the progress of


discovery, enjoyed by, no other country, sects has been greatly illustrated by theand which has mainly contributed to their profound researches of the unfortunategreat superiority in this department over SAVi&NY, by the long-continued laboursthe other nations of, Europe. Almost of the late LATREILLE, by the recent

every school in France has produced its splendid publication of STRAUS-DURCK-labourers in this great fieldof inquiry. The HEiM, and by the zealous investigations oflabours of CUVIER, which continued un- AUDOUIN, EDWARDS, and other zootomists.%bated over a period of nearly forty years, of the French school. The structure offill more than thirty volumes, and embrace almost every class of animals has been theevery part of the study of animated nature, subject of separate and minute examina.His investigations into the structure of the tion among the zootomists of France. Theextinct races of quadrupeds, which occupy experimental inquiries of MAGENDIE,seven quarto volumes, have altogether re- DUTROCHET, DESMOULINS, and - manyformed the study of fossil zoology, and af- others, have lately added considerably toford the most splendid illustration which has our knowledge of the structure andphy-yet appeared of the utility of comparative siology of the lower animals. ADANSON,anatomy, as applied to the investigations of FERUSSAC, DESMAREST, CLOQUET, FLOU-the geologist. The public lectures and the RENS, DERHEiMS, GIRARD, SOMME, LA-numerous writings of M. BLAINVILLE on MOUROUX, RASPAIL, Quoy, GAIMARD,comparative anatomy have been highly RANG, and many other of their country-beneficial to the science, and the energies men, have added greatly to the reputationof his ever active mind have been directed of the French school by their numerousto almost every part of the study, from the discoveries and valuable labours in com-mammalia to the infusoria. His system of parative anatomy. Indeed, the science iscomparative anatomy which, unfortunately now so generally cultivated in France, andfor the science, is still uncompleted, dis- owes so much of its present advancementplays an extensive and minute acquaint- to the zeal and learning of French anato-ance with the organization of the animal rnists, that agrcat portion of our time in thiskingdom, and his materials are disposed place will be occupied in explaining andin a luminous and philosophic arrrange- illustrating their views and discoveries.ment. Fossil ichthyology is greatly in- Since the death of the venerable LA,-debted to him for his valuable labours MARCK, about four years . ago, ’at’ theon the Ichthyolites of Monte Bolca, pre- advanced age of 86 years, M. DE BLAIN"served in the Paris Museum. He has VILLE and M. DE LATREILLE had beenthrown a new light on the structure and appointed professors in the garden ofeconomy of molluscous animals, both re- plants. M. DE BLAINVILLE was appointedcent and fossil, and on the singular class to treat of the organization and history ofof entozoa. And more recently his exten- the inarticulate classes of invertebratesive labours on the class of zoophytes animals, and M. LATREiLLE those of thehave added many improvements in that crustacea arachnoida and insects. M.

department. He is now (1833) appointed CUVIER, during the summer (1831), sub-successor to Baron Cuvrrr, in the chair stituted M. FLOUREN8 for himself in theof Comp. Anat. in the Garden of Plants. course of the anatomy of the vertebrata.The immense researches of DE SERRES on M. DE LATREILLE was aided in his firstthe structure and development of the course of lectures (1831) by M. ANDOUIN.brain and nervous system in the classes GEOFFROY ST.-HILAIRE has taken theof vertebrated animals are one of the most assistance of his son ISIDORE G. ST.-Hi-

complete and valuable contributions which LAIRE. The recent appointment of M. DEhave for a long time been made to the BLAiNviLljE to the chair 6f comparativescience. They form a striking confirmation anatomy in the Garden of Plants, vacantof the philosophical views of GEOFFROY by the death of Baron CuviFR, willon the unity of plan in the organization of greatly contribute to preserve the celebrityanimals, and a beautiful illustration of the of the French school of comparative ana-utility of -comparative anatomy as applied tomy, and give a strong impulse to thoseto the development of the organs of the philosophical views which are so conspi-human body. cuous in all his writings.

Notwithstanding the numerous avoca- Although a century behind our conti-tions of M. DUMERIL, as chief of the ana- nental neighbours in this department oftomical school of Paris, professor of zoology, science, no country in Europe ever pos-and keeper of the museum of natural his- sessed opportunities of cultivating andtory, his numerous detached memoirs and advancing the study of comparative ana-his separate works have illustrated many tomy equal to those so long enjoyed byobscure parts of the structure of animals, Great Britain. Her powers command the

particularly of fishes and insects. The ocean, her colonies are planted in everycurious and complicated structure of in- portion of the habitable globe, and the


skill and enterprise of her navigators and kind of beings than the other two king-travellers have immensely extended the doms of nature taken together. More

progress of geographical discovery in both than 150,000 of its species are known,hemispheres. The great savannas of the and all these are more nearly allied toNew World, and the frozen solitudes of man than are the beings of the other king-North America, have been explored. The doms. They contain not only the germs,Arctic seas are annually navigated by but the successive stages of the develop-fleets of British whalers. The vast soli- ment of human organization. Theirtudes of New Holland and Van Diemen’s study, however, in this country, may beLand have been often traversed. British considered as still in its infancy. Theirarmies have traversed vast regions in Asia nature and structure and properties havehitherto almost unknown. The scorching been less investigated. From the utility andsands and savage deserts of Africa have applications of their study being lessoften been deliberately explored, and the known, it has been hitherto only admittedicy summits of the Cordilleras, and of the into some of our public institutions as aHimalaya mountains, 27,000 feet above branch of natural history, combined withthe ocean, have proved no barriers to Bri- one or both of the other more populartish enterprise, Our countrymen have departments, themselves already too greatcircumnavigated the globe times without for any human mind. From the study ofnumber, have sought dangers in every part the animal kingdom being thus almostof the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and, deprived of public support, it has beensurrounded with mountains and fields of neglected by those who had most oppor-ice moving like tempests, in every direc- tunities of advancing its progress at hometion through the Arctic and Antarctic seas, and in the colonies.they have boldly struggled to approach Attempts, however, have frequentlythe Poles. been made in this country by private in-The mineral treasures of the most dis- dividuals, to raise the study of the animal

tant countries have been collected and kingdom to an equal rank with that ofexamined, and the floras of most regions plants and minerals, by placing it on aof the globe have been carefully investi- scientific foundation, and by pointing outgated and described. The studies of geo- its practical applications. As a branch of

logy and mineralogy have long formed a anatomy, the study of the animal struc-part of the plan of education in all our ture is intimately connected with that ofBritish universities, and numerous socie- the human body. Both MONRO primusties have long existed in all parts of the and secundus, at the conclusion of theirkingdom devoted to the advancement of courses of human anatomy in the Univer-these pursuits. Immense advantage to sity of Edinburgh, gave separate lecturesthe country has accrued from the encou- on the anatomy of domestic animals, andragement given to these branches of MONRO tertius, at the commencement ofnatural history, by the discovery of its his career, followed this example of hisnumerous mineral riches, by the improve- illustrious ancestors. The earliest sepa-ment of its agriculture, and by enabling it rate publication on comparative anatomyannually to distribute over the colonies in this country, was an essay on that sub-men well qualified to extend these advan- ject, published from manuscript notes

tages. The active exertions and published taken at the lectures of :MONRO primustransactions of these societies have also in 1744. The great work of MoNRO se-mainly contributed to the present advanced cundus, on the structure of fishes, pub-state of geology in Europe. The study of the lished in 1785, has scarcely been equalledvegetable kingdom, one of the most inte- by anything which yet appeared in Britainresting and important branches of physical in this department, and it owes much ofscience, commenced its career as merely its value to the many accurate plates withsubservient to Materia Medica. It has which it is illustrated, executed by thegradually risen by its utility and attrac- late distinguished anatomist Mr. FYFE.tious to the rank of an independent and The lectures of Mr. FYFE on human ana-favourite science in all our public seminaries tomy, long delivered in the University ofof learning. It has proved of great prac- Edinburgh, were illustrated by numeroustical utility in its numerous applications appeals to the structure of the lower ani-to agriculture, horticulture, medicine, do- mals, which he had made a particularmestic economy, and the arts; and it is subject of study, and his valuable Manualjustly regarded as an essential branch in of Comparative Anatomy, published inthe education of all medical men. 1813, was the first original work of theThe animal kingdom is that to "which kind which had appeared in our language.

man belongs, and all the beings which like A small part only of the lectures on com-him have motion and feeling. It compre- parative anatomy, by the late Dr. HAR-hends a greater number of known distinct WOOD, has been published.


The indefatigable and successful labours anatomy of the invertebrated classes ofof the two HUNTERS have elucidated many animals. Dr. HART has given severalof the most intricate parts of the animal courses of lectures on this subject ineconomy, and the highly interesting views Dublin, Dr. REILLY in Bristol, and Dr.of DARwiN laid open many new paths of SCOULER in the Andersonian Universitycurious inquiry in the application of com- of Glasgow. Annual courses of a few lec-parative anatomy to human physiology. tures on some select parts of comparativeThe varied and useful labours of the late anatomy are given in the theatre of thedistinguished Sir E. HoME, whose merits Royal College of Surgeons of London tohave naturally been least appreciated at the members of that body, and thesehome where they were least understood, courses have successively exercised thecontinued for more than thirty years; they talents of Mr. ABERNETHY, Sir E. HoME,have been a principal means of preserving Sir A. CooPER, Mr. LAWRENCE, Sir A.a taste for the study in this country, and CARLISLE, Sir C. BELL, Mr. GREEN, andhave mainly contributed to extend the other eminent anatomists. Mr. THOMAS

reputation of the British school of ana- BELL has also given separate courses oftomy. The study has been also indebted lectures on comparative anatomy at Guy’sto the labours of Professor MACARTNEY Hospital, and Mr. SOUTH has given simi-of Dublin, particularly for his observa- lar courses at St. Thomas’s Hospital.tions on the structure of birds, and to the Numerous zootomical collections existclassical writings of Mr. LAWRENCE. The in this country, although they are scarcelywritings of Mr. ELl.is on zoophytes, and ever employed in teaching the subject.of Dr. LEACH on the articulated classes, The Barclayan Museum, now belonging toare known to all Europe. Many inte- the Royal College of Surgeons of Edin-resting parts of this subject have also been burgh, is the richest in Scotland, and anillustrated by the labours of Dr. FLEMING, Osteological Museum, containing manyDr. JOHNSON, Sir ANTHONY CARLISLE, valuable skeletons, as of the dugong, theMr. CLIFT, Mr. YARRELL, Mr. M’LEAY, walrus, the fossil elk, the hippopotamus,and others. the camel, has been recently formed in the

Besides the original work on compara- University of Edinburgh by the exertionstive anatomy by Mr. FYFE, we possess, in of Professor JAMESON. The Hunterianour language, several elementary trea- Museum of Glasgow contains many inte-tises, translated from the French and the resting zootomical preparations, and theGerman, as that of CuviER, of CARUS, and collection of the Andersonian Institution isof BLUMENBACH. BosTOCK’s classical increasing by the labours of Dr. SCOULER.work on physiology abounds with inte- The zootomical part of the Museum of theresting zootomical details. Dr. CRAIGIE, Royal Institution of Liverpool has beenof Edinburgh, has recently published a greatly indebted to Professor TRAIL, of

separate treatise, which forms an article Edinburgh, and the splendid zoologicalin the new edition of the Encyclopaedia Museum of Manchester, which fills sevenBritannica. The beautiful investigations apartments, contains several interestingof Sir CHARLES BELL on the nervous specimens of comparative osteology, bothsystem have been chiefly conducted on recent and fossil. The zootomical part ofthe lower animals, and the interesting the Museum of Dr. KIDD, at Oxford, hasdiscoveries of Professor BUCKI.AND, as been much extended by the labours of Dr.developed in his Reliquiae Deluvianae, OGLE, and several zootomical prepara-have been chiefly made by the applica- tions are preserved in the Ashmolean Mu-tion of comparative osteology to geolo- seum of the same city, which contains alsogical inquiries. the collection of fossil animals formed byAbout twenty years ago, unsuccessful Dr. BucKLAND. The Museum of the Col-

attempts were made by the patrons of the lege of Surgeons of Dublin, though defi-University of Edinburgh to introduce the cient in osteological specimens, containslate Dr. BARCLAY, who had accumulated many dissected zootomical preparations offor twenty years materials for teaching great beauty and value preserved in spirit.this science, as professor of comparative The collection of Dr. MACARTNEY in Tri-anatomy in that great medical school, and nity College, Dublin, is small but select,no attempts have since been made to sup- and that of the Park-street Medical Schoolply this deficiency in the great northern is extending by the labours of Dr. HART.university. In 1816 Dr. BARCLAY com- The Museum of the Dublin Royal Societymenced public lectures on comparative contains few zootomical preparations, butanatomy at Edinburgh, which he con- possesses the most complete skeleton of,tinued in the summer season to the end the great fossil elk which has been hi-of his valuable career. In 1824 (the last therto found.

year of his lectures) he entrusted me with In this metropolis there are many inte-the part of his course which related to the resting private zootomical collections, be-


sides those attached to the hospitals andmedical schools, as that of Mr. LANG-STAFF, the Museum of M. DE LA FoNS,that of Mr. THOMAS BELL, and of Mr.YARRELL. The collection in this Univer-sity has been formed expressly for teach-ing this department, and owes much tothe skill and taste of the pupils. There Iexists also a rich collection of specimensin Guy’s Hospital, which is rapidly extend-ing by the judicious liberality of the direc-tors of that vast establishment. That ofSt. Thomas’s Hospital contains many beau-tiful preparations, made by Sir A. COOPER,and was formerly used in the lectures ofMr. SOUTH on Comparative Anatomy. Asmall, but very select collection, exists alsoin King’s College, which is rapidly extend-ing, and the Zoological Society of Londonhas commenced the formation of a Mu-seum of Comparative Anatomy and Zoo-logy, which, with the extraordinary oppor-tunities they enjoy, may be expected ulti-mately to equal any in Europe. The mostextensive and useful collection of zooto-mical specimens in the British dominionsis that preserved in the Museum of theCollege of Surgeons of London, a consi-derable nucleus of which was formed bythe late Mr. JOHN HUNTER. This collec-tion, however, like most of those I havementioned, is, unfortunately for these stu-dies in this country, very little employedin communicating instruction either in

comparative anatomy or animal physiology.




During the present Session, 1833.[Revised (before translation) by the Baron himself in the

fasciculi of his " Lecons Orales de Clinique Chirur-gicale," published periodically by G.Bailliere, Paris.]


Resection of tlte inferior Maxillary Done.BEFORF we speak, Gentlemen, of re-

section of the lower jaw-bone, it may notbe amiss to lay before you some considera-tions on resection of bones in’general. Thecases in which we find ourselves compelledto cut away more or less of the body orarticular extremity of a bone, while wepreserve the limb, are those of an oldsanies, which we cannot arrest ; deep-seated necrosis, destroying a great part, orthe whole thickness, of a bone; recent

fractures and luxations, in which the frag-ments of the bone project, considerably,externally, and offer a great resistance toour efforts at reduction; spina ventosa,or osteo sarcoma affecting the centre orone extremity of a bone; artificial arti-culations, the consequence of ununitedfractures ; finally, comminuted fracture ofthe articular extremities, produced bygun-shots, or other projectiles, &c. Thegreater part of the lesions which 1 havejust enumerated has been pointed outto you, in another lecture, as indicatingamputation of the limb ; it is true, in fact,that the choice which the surgeon has tomake between amputation and resection,depends less on the nature of the diseaseor injury, than on the circumstances bywhich it is attended; the extent and seve-rity of the local disorders, the manner inwhich the patient’s constitution is affected,&c.; thus, caries affecting only one arti-cular surface, or apophysis, will, ceteris

paribus, require resection, whilst it wouldbe useless if both articular surfaces werediseased; if the affection of the soft part wasconsiderable, if the duration of the dis-

ease, or a long and copious suppuration,had affected the patient’s constitution toany considerable extent. Resection will.be sufficient for the reduction of a com-minuted fracture, with protrusion of thefragments through the wound, and willusually be attended with success; but thismethod is ineffectual, and will not preventthe fatal accidents which follow fractures,when the tendons, muscles, nerves, or

vessels, have been lacerated; in a word, inthese cases, which I have in a former,lecture described to you as imperiouslyrequiring amputation, it is useless to

compare the two operations in a greaternumber of circumstances ; the duty of thesurgeon chiefly lies in deciding whetherthe operation be applicable to the case

before him, and in weighing carefully itschances of success as compared with am-.putation. As to the lower jaw, every ope-ration in which a portion of this bone isremoved by the application of the saw

upon two different points, is, properlyspeaking, a resection ; however, the nameis more particularly applied by surgeonsto an operation which has for its objectthe removal of the broken extremities in

cases of fracture, in order to obtain theirreunion, if the fracture be recent -,-to ex-

cite an action necessary to the formationt of callus, if the fracture be old. It isdifficult to establish any method of resec-tion of the lower jaw which will be

applicable to the generality of cases requir-ing this operation; it must necessarilyvary according to a great variety of cir-- cumstances.