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  • UNIVERSITY OF HAWAI'I LIBRARYFROM SOCIAL ACTIVISTS TO DEVELOPMENT BROKERS: THE

    TRANSFORMATION OF PHILIPPINE NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS

    INTO DEVELOPMENT INTERMEDIARIES

    A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE DIVISION OF THEUNIVERSITY OF HAWAIl IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE

    REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFDOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

    IN

    SOCIOLOGY

    DECEMBER 2002

    ByLiza 1. Lim

    Dissertation Committee:

    Hagen Koo, ChairpersonHerbert Barringer

    Kiysohi IkedaRick Baldoz

    Belinda Aquino

  • 1

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    It took me a while to complete the writing of this dissertation. In process,

    however, I came to know people who have blessed me with their gifts of ideas, time and

    more importantly, friendship.

    I would like to express my gratitude to my chair, Dr. Hagen Koo, for his patience

    in reading and commenting on the earlier drafts of this paper. I have learned a lot from

    him. I also appreciated his willingness to allow me to sit in on his Civil Society class

    where I came across ideas that I found very useful for this paper. I am also thankful to Dr.

    Benedict Tria-Kerkvliet for taking time to comment on some chapters of this paper

    despite his busy schedule.

    The members of my dissertation committee, Dr. Herbert Barringer, Dr. Kiyoshi

    Ikeda~ Dr. Belinda Aquino and Dr. Rick Baldoz had also been gracious in reading my

    draft, despite its volume. I am especially appreciative, however, ofDr. Ikeda who not

    only provided me with insights on how to improve my paper, but also with the much

    needed advise and inspiration.

    In the course of writing this paper, I also came across individuals who helped

    facilitate my data gathering and who provided me with inspiration and moral support. Fr.

    Salvador Orara, SJ gave me the opportunity to get involved with the ISO and the

    permission to use it as a case study. I also appreciated the time and effort he spared to

    share with me some of his insights about the ISO and the NGO sector as a whole. I am

    also indebted to Fr. Antonio Moreno, SJ who took on some of my responsibilities at the

    ISO in 1996 so I could pursue the writing this dissertation. Fr. John Carroll, SJ shared

  • 11

    with me most of the information about the early years of the ISO. He has been my

    mentor and my friend. Dr. Mary Racelis, Dr. Angelita Gregorio-Medel and Ms. Maria

    Lourdes Melegrito provided me not only a comprehensive overview of the history of civil

    society in the Philippines, but also significant insights on how these came to be. Mr.

    Alberto Catangcatang helped me locate materials and resource persons that I would not

    have been able to get, if I am going to look for them myself. The earlier study conducted

    by Krononalysts, Inc., on the other hand, relieved me of having to conduct the interviews

    with some key informants directly.

    Lastly, I would like to thank the people whose friendships encouraged me to

    pursue this project at times when I almost wanted to let it go - my family, Eleanor Japon,

    Emma Porio, Patricia Calcetas, Antonio Femadez, Jr., Mayumi Ma. Quintos, Clint and

    Josie Clausen, Macrina Abenoja, Diosdado Pascual, Lloyd Kuniyoshi, Tyros Buyama,

    Veronica Soriano, Maria Eva Pangilinan, and Youngjin Choi.

  • III

    ABSTRACT

    Since the 1986 People Power Revolution, the Philippine civil society groups,

    particularly the NGOs, had been considered as one ofthe most active in the world in terms

    ofpromoting democratization. Although it has only been recognized recently, the Philippine

    civil society has been in existence as early as the 16th century. Moreover, it is not only

    comprised ofthe middle class-based NGOs, but also the people's organizations whose roles

    in the democratization process were crucial, yet underplayed.

    Oflate, however, the NGOs are more recognized as representatives ofthe Philippine

    civil society because of the critical roles they play as development intermediaries. As such,

    they broker influence and resources between the organized grassroots and the formal social

    institutions such as the state, the Catholic Church and the ideological parties. Because of

    this, they allowed some fractions of the Filipino middle class to get mainstreamed in the

    field ofdevelopment administration and enabled them to strategically position themselves to

    countervail the influence of the elites on the state.

    This paper examines how the Philippine social development NGOs emerged and

    over time, evolved into development intermediaries. It identifies the development within the

    Catholic Church, the changes in the ideological parties, the socio-economic situations at

    particular historical junctures and the responses ofthe state towards organized efforts of the

    citizenry as major factors that shaped the Philippine civil society's transformation. It

    likewise described how such macro-processes compelled a particular NGO, the Institute of

    Social Order, to undertake professionalization and transform itself into a development

    intermediary organization over time.

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Acknowledgements 11

    Abstract IV

    List ofTables ix

    List ofFigures and Illustrations x

    List ofAcronyms xi

    IV

    Chapter 1.

    Chapter 2.

    Chapter 3.

    Introduction " 1

    Literature Review 13

    The Nature and Characteristics of Civil Society ..... 14

    Historical vs. Analytic Conception of Civil Society.. 17

    Civil Society and the Democratization Process 19

    The NGOs and POs as Civil Society Organizations.. 24

    NGO Typologies, Features and Characteristics 26

    Why Social Development NGOs BecomeDevelopment Intermediaries 35

    Organizational Implications ofBecomingDevelopment Intermediaries 37

    The Middle Class Dimension ofNGO Initiatives ..... 41

    Summary 45

    Conceptual Framework and Research Methodology. . .. . .. . .. 48

    Definition ofTerms 48

    Assumptions and Thesis 54

    Research Focus 61

  • Chapter 4.

    Chapter 5.

    Chapter 6.

    Data Collection 63

    Data Analysis 65

    Limitations of the Study 65

    Early Forms ofPhilippine Civil Society: InformalVoluntary Associations and Social Movement(16th Century to 1972) 69

    The Birth of the Philippine Civil Society 71

    Beginnings of the "Organized" PhilippineCivil Society Movement (1946-1960) 84

    Expansion and Radicalization of the PhilippineCivil Society (1961-1971) 91

    Conclusion 104

    The Rise ofthe Philippine NGOs (1972-1986) 115

    The Suppression and Outlawing of Civil Society(1972-1977) 115

    Cause-Oriented Groups and the Service DeliveryNGOs (1978-1983) 125

    The NGOs as a ''Middle'' Force (1983-1986) 135

    Conclusion 145

    The Institutionalization of Civil Society: The NGOs AsIntermediary Organizations (1986-Present) 153

    The Emergence ofthe "Social Development"Industry (1986-1992) 154

    The Mainstreaming ofCivil Society (1992-1997) 164

    v

  • Chapter 7.

    Chapter 8.

    Civil Society vs. "Civil-ized" Society(1997-Present) 184

    Conclusion 197

    An NGO in Transition: The Case ofThe Institute of SocialOrder (ISO) 208

    Sowing the Seeds of Catholic Social Action: TheSocial Justice Crusade 209

    Taking Roots: The Era ofTrade Unionism 211

    First Blossoms: Experimenting on New StrategiesOfPropagating Faith that does Justice 219

    Thriving on Stony Grounds: Catholic SocialAction Under the Dictatorship 226

    The Flowering of Anti-Dictatorship Movements:LIAC during the EDSA Revolution 238

    Gleaning and Replanting: Reorganization andTransfer to Ateneo de Manila Campus 239

    The Pruning: ISO's Early Years as a ProfessionalSocial Development Agency .244

    Grafting Ideological Politics with SocialDevelopment: The ISO in Organizational Crisis .... .251

    Reseeding: ISO in Contemporary Times 257

    Conclusion 260

    The ISO As An Arena Of Conflict 273

    Volunteers for Social Action 273

    Extension Workers for CommunityOrganizing 277

    VI

  • Chapter 9.

    Professionals for Social Development 286

    Conclusion 298

    The ISO-PO Partnership: A Case Of Civil SocietyMaking Civil Society 305

    The Grassroots Sectors as Passive Acceptorsof Ideas 305

    A Relationship between the Leaders and the Led.... 308

    Organizing Communities for Power 311

    Building Sectoral Federations as Mass Bases forThe Anti-Dictatorship Movements 316

    "Contractualizing" NGO-PO Partnership forSocial Development 319

    ISO as a Full-Pledged DevelopmentIntermediary Institution 327

    Conclusion 330

    Vll

    Chapter 10. Analysis And Conclusion 336

    Nature and Characteristics of the EvolvingPhilippine Civil Society 336

    External Factors that Shaped the Evolutionof the Philippine Civil Society 346

    Implications of the Transformation fromSocial Activist to a Development IntermediaryOrganization: The ISO Experience 357

    NGO-GO Partnership 360

  • Vlll

    Appendices

    Appendix 1. Interview Guide for For Key Informants on the History of theNGO Movement in the Philippines

    Appendix 2. Interview Guide/Focus Group Discussion Guide for ISOManagement and Staffs

    Appendix 3. Focus Group Discussion Guide for Leaders and Officers onso'sPartner People's Organizations

    Appendix 4.1 Summary of Changes in the Nature and Characteristics of thePhilippine Civil Society, By Historical Period - Pre-AuthoritarianPeriod (16th Century to 1972)

    Appendix 4.2 Summary of Changes in the Nature and Characteristics of thePhilippine Civil Society, By Hi