1. After 1450 the West a. engaged in the construction of a regional trading economy. b. lagged behind the Ottoman Empire in the development of global trade. c. opened up Asia for Western dominance. d. declined in influence and fell behind the Orient. e. controlled a growing volume of international trade. 2. The initiative for Western exploration and conquest came from the kingdom of a. Spain. b. Tunisia. c. France. d. Sicily. e. Portugal. 3. The Portuguese Prince Henry the Navigator a. invented the astrolabe b. directed a series of expeditions along the African coast and also outward to the Azores. c. ounded the Cape of Good Hope and eventually sailed to India d. discovered Brazil. e. developed the square-rigged sea ships. 4. Vasco da Gama a. discovered Brazil.

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Page 1: Unit4 practicetest

1. After 1450 the West

a. engaged in the construction of a regional trading economy. b. lagged behind the Ottoman Empire in the development of global trade.c. opened up Asia for Western dominance.d. declined in influence and fell behind the Orient.e. controlled a growing volume of international trade.

2. The initiative for Western exploration and conquest came from the kingdom of

a. Spain.b. Tunisia.c. France.d. Sicily.e. Portugal.

3. The Portuguese Prince Henry the Navigator

a. invented the astrolabeb. directed a series of expeditions along the African coast and also outward to the Azores.c. ounded the Cape of Good Hope and eventually sailed to Indiad. discovered Brazil.e. developed the square-rigged sea ships.

4. Vasco da Gama

a. discovered Brazil.b. directed a series of expeditions along the African coast and also outward to the Azores.c. developed the square-rigged sea ships.d. rounded the Cape of Good Hope and eventually sailed to India.e. invented the astrolabe.

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5. The first Portuguese fleet to reach India sailed there in

a. 1492.b. 1509.c. 1498.d. 1588.e. 1701.

6. The Portuguese trading port and fortress established in India was

a. Calcutta.b. Mozambique.c. Macao.d. Goa.e. Effim.

7. Why did the initiative in early conquest and exploration pass to northern European nations in the later 16th century?

a. Spain and Portugal were defeated in a critical war with the Ottoman Empire.b. None of the answers are correct.c. The Spanish defeat of the English Armada cut England off from further advance in

Europe and forced English attention to foreign conquest.d. The Dutch and British improved the design of oceanic vessels, producing faster ships

than their Catholic rivals.e. Famine and disease disastrously reduced the population of the Iberian peninsula after


8. The chief positive European contribution to the Americas as part of the "Colombian Exchange" was

a. bullion.b. large domesticated animals.c. disease.d. slavery.e. urbanization.

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9. Which of the following statements most accurately describes the impact of European conquest on the population of Native Americans?

a. A large percentage of the native population fled the European invaders, never to be seen again.

b. The arrival of the Europeans increased the total population of the Americas significantly without diminishing the expansion of the Native American population.

c. The arrival of the Europeans caused a slight drop in population growth among Native Americans.

d. After initial decreases associated with losses in battle, the population of Native Americans recovered to pre-conquest levels.

e. Native American population was devastated by the introduction of previously unknown European diseases.

10. Whom did the Spanish defeat at the battle of Lepanto?

a. the Lepantoneseb. the Britishc. the Ottoman Empired. the Portuguesee. the Dutch

11. Which of the following statements accounts for the Spanish failure to hold a position of dominance in world trade?

a. The Catholic Church that dominated Spanish society argued against the establishment of a commercial mentality in Spain.

b. Spain's interests were increasingly directed toward the destruction of the Ottoman Empire.

c. Spain's unreliable naval abilities prevented her from sharing in the world spoils.d. Spain's internal economy and banking system were not sufficient to accommodate the

bullion from the new world, and the Iberian nation lacked significant manufacturing capability.

e. The Spanish withdrew voluntarily from the race for world trade dominance and established a policy of international isolation.

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12. Where were the nations of the core region of the global trade network located?

a. the Mediterraneanb. the Iberian peninsulac. western Europed. eastern Europee. north Africa

13. Which of the following areas did not have a predominantly coercive labor system?

a. Latin Americab. None of the answers are correctc. the southern Atlantic colonies of North Americad. northwestern Europee. eastern Europe

14. Which statement concerning the relationship between Asian civilizations and the world commercial network of the 16th and 17th centuries is NOT accurate?

a. East Asia constituted the civilization that remained most fully and consciously external to the world economy.

b. China was able, thanks to the existence of its coastal navy, to prevent the establishment of European ports.

c. China depended on extensive government regulation to keep European activities in check.

d. Asian civilizations had ample political strength and economic sophistication to avoid dependent status.

e. None of the answers are correct.

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15. Which statement most accurately describes Japanese participation in the global trade network?

a. The Japanese warmly accepted Western commercial interests and became part of the dependent zones of the global trade network.

b. Japan, like China, showed no interest in any aspect of Western trade.c. After 1600 all Europeans were banned from Japan, but Japanese traders continued to

travel and trade abroad.d. The Japanese did display some openness to Christian missions and they were also

fascinated by Western advances in gunnery and shipping.e. The Japanese were quickly enslaved by the colonizing Europeans.

16. Who established the first Spanish colony on the American mainland?

a. Ferdinand Magellanb. Manuel des Capasc. Vasco da Gamad. Vasco de Balboae. Christopher Columbus

17. Why was the Portuguese colony of Angola exceptional?

a. Angola was actually governed by indigenous tribesmen with only loose supervision from the mother country.

b. The Portuguese pressed inland in Angola instead of simply establishing coastal fortresses.

c. In Angola the Catholic Church successfully banned the slave trade.d. Angola was the only European colony established south of the Congo River.e. Angola produced no slaves for the international slave trade.

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18. What impact did the Seven Years' War have on French colonial possessions?

a. The French seized Dutch possessions in Africa.b. The French exchanged their sugar islands in the Caribbean for Spanish colonies in Latin

Americac. The French lost their colonies in India to the British.d. There was no discernable impact.e. The French were able to seize British possessions in North America.

19. In characterizing the period from 1450 to 1750 in the West, which of the following statements is NOT accurate

a. The fall of the Roman Empire filled this era with backwardness and disease.b. The popular outlook, including ideas about personality and family as well as concepts of

nature, had shifted.c. What was once an agricultural society was becoming a predominantly manufacturing

economy.d. Science came to form the centerpiece of Western intellectual life.e. Government powers had expanded.

20. Which of the following statements about the Renaissance is tru

a. The Renaissance, following on the heels of the scientific revolution, popularized the new technological discoveries.

b. The Renaissance was built on a more commercialized economy.c. None of the answers are correct.d. The Renaissance failed to develop any new ideas about political organization.e. The Renaissance occurred first in Italy because of its more centralized political


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21. Who was associated with the Italian Renaissance

a. Platob. Niccolo Machiavellic. Vesaliusd. Galileoe. Pirandello

22. What accounts, in part, for the decline of the Italian Renaissance?

a. the bubonic plagueb. the economic depression that ended artistic patronagec. the invasion of the peninsula by France and Spaind. the Protestant Reformatione. the successful invasion of Italy ca. 1500

23. What was one of the primary differences between the Northern and Italian Renaissances?

a. The Northern Renaissance was begun by the Swiss.b. The Northern Renaissance occurred a century earlier than the Italian Renaissance.c. There were no major literary figures in the Northern Renaissance.d. The Northern Renaissance did not make use of the classical languages typical of the

Italian Renaissance.e. Northern humanists focused more on religion than their Italian counterparts.

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24. Who was responsible for the invention of movable type in the West?

a. Albrecht Durerb. Nicolaus Copernicusc. Johannes Gutenbergd. Thomas Aquinase. John Harvey

25. In the 16th century, at what age did most Europeans marry?

a. 16b. 25c. 23d. 35e. 27

26. Which of the following was not associated with the founding of a Protestant church in the 16th century?

a. Anglicansb. Henry VIIIc. Martin Lutherd. Jean Calvine. Ignatius Loyola

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27. Which of the following statements most accurately describes the nature of popular support for Luther's religious reform movement?

a. German merchants refused to support Lutheranism, because the reform movement was less favorable to money-making than Catholicism.

b. Luther failed to attract the support of the German princes, because he advocated the overthrow of their authority in favor of unification under the Holy Roman Empire.

c. German princes who turned Protestant could increase their independence from the emperor, seize church lands, and control the church in their territories.

d. The poor supported Luther's movement in return for Luther's promise of redistribution of land and property.

e. None of the answers are correct.

28. The center of the Protestant movement begun by Jean Calvin was located in

a. Munich.b. Paris.c. Strasbourg.d. Wittenberg.e. Geneva.

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29. The civil wars of religion in France were ended in 1598 with the declaration of toleration of Protestantism in the

a. Menu of Bologna.b. Magna Carta.c. Synod of Dort.d. Treaty of Westphalia.e. Edict of Nantes.

30. Which of the following was not a result of the Thirty Years' War?

a. Some princely states in Germany chose one religion, some another.b. All of the answers are correct.c. The treaty that ended the war established Spain as the principal power of western

Europe.d. It reduced German prosperity and power for a full century.e. The treaty that ended the war granted political independence to the Protestant


31. Which of the following was characteristic of the commercial revolution of the 16th century?

a. The establishment of colonies led to increased foreign competition and a decline in European manufacturing.

b. European nations progressively adopted free trade and dropped tariff systems.c. A decline in colonialism led to a European-wide conversion from agriculture to

manufacturing.d. Monopolies of trade with specific regions or over specific commodities were

established.e. The commercial revolution saw the formation of great trading companies that

purchased cash crops for re-export.

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32. Commodities that many European peasants and artisans around 1600 ordinarily owned include

a. porcelain.b. forks.c. silver.d. silk screens.e. pewterware.

33. Who was the author of the scientific treatise, Principia Mathematica?

a. Isaac Newtonb. Vesaliusc. Rene Descartesd. John Harveye. Francis Bacon

34. Louis XIV of France was associated with the style of government called

a. corporatism.b. monarchial parliamentarianism.c. enlightened despotism.d. absolute monarchy.e. feudal monarchy.

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35. Which state stood apart from the trend toward absolute monarchy in the 17th century and retained a parliamentary regime?

a. Franceb. Prussiac. Spaind. Austria-Hungarye. Britain

36. What monarch was associated with the establishment of enlightened despotism in Prussia in the middle of the 18th century?

a. William IIIb. Catherine the Greatc. Frederick the Greatd. Joseph IIe. Harbrandt the Lament

37. What Enlightenment social scientist advocated that government avoid regulation of the economy in favor of individual initiative and market forces?

a. John Keynesb. Andrew Lloyd Webberc. Jacques Turgotd. David Humee. Adam Smith

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38. What crop was introduced to Europe in the 17th century and substantially improved the food supply?

a. peasb. potatoesc. cucumbersd. millete. corn (maize)

39. What was the primary difference between the Western and Russian empires?

a. All of the answers are correct.b. The Russian empire lacked economic significance and failed to develop even regional

commercial dominance.c. The Russian empire lacked the new military technology, particularly the use of

gunpowder.d. The Russian empire stayed outside the Western-dominated world economy.e. Russia's expansion involved only limited commercial exchange.

40. Which of the following represents an impact of the Mongol control of Russia?

a. increasing significance of Roman Catholicismb. closer links with the Westc. cultural enrichmentd. lowered cultural and educational levelse. urbanization

41. Ivan III was responsible for the

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a. military campaigns that freed much of Russia from the Mongols.b. creation of the Eastern Orthodox Churchc. policies of Westernization that required changes in dress among the Russian elite.d. conversion of Russia to Roman Catholicism.e. abolition of serfdom in Russia.

42. Ivan the Great's claim that Russia was the successor of the Byzantine Empire implied that Russia was the

a. Mandate of Heaven.b. "third Rome."c. "pax Romana."d. "Great Bear of the East."e. Golden Horde.

43. What group did Ivan the Terrible attack as a means of furthering tsarist autocracy?

a. the Orthodox priesthoodb. the intelligentsiac. the boyarsd. the peasantse. the old believers

44. Why did the Russian expansion policy focus particularly on central Asia?

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a. The Russians were motivated by a desire to push the former Mongol overlords farther back to prevent renewed invasion.

b. Most of the Russian population remained ethnically Mongol with clear cultural ties to central Asia.

c. The Russians wished to seize control of the trade routes with China.d. The Russian expansion policy focused primarily on Northern Asia.e. There were natural barriers to westward expansion.

45. Cossacks were

a. old-line leaders of the Orthodox Church.b. the designated heirs of the tsars.c. peasants recruited to migrate to newly seized lands in the Russian empire.d. those who objected to reforms in the Orthodox Church.e. members of the Russian nobility.

46. The Time of Troubles followed the death of which Russian tsar?

a. Ivan IVb. Alexis Romanovc. Peter the Greatd. Ivan IIIe. Catherine the Great

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47. Which of the following was NOT a policy of Alexis Romanov?

a. the exile of Old Believers to Siberia.b. the reform of the Orthodox Churchc. the abolition of the assemblies of noblesd. the abolition of serfdome. the continuation of colonization in central Asia

48. Old believers were

a. Russian heretics who believed in Christian dualism, divine forces of both good and evil.b. opponents of the Romanov dynasty's claims to authority.c. Russians who refused to accept tsarist reforms of the Orthodox Church.d. Roman Catholics in western Russia.e. mystical shamans.

49. Peter the Great's creation of a new capital at St. Petersburg

a. was sidetracked by a series of wars with the Swedes and never finished.b. reflected the growing importance of Russian dominance of the Baltic Sea.c. was indicative of the desire to push the borders of Russia into the Balkans.d. followed the destruction of Moscow during a peasant rebellion.e. demonstrated the continued emphasis of Russian expansion in central Asia.

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50. Where was Peter the Great's program of economic development concentrated?

a. urbanizationb. mining and metallurgical industriesc. distilling of vodkad. pottery productione. cloth production

51. Peter the Great's policy of cultural Westernization was directed primarily at the

a. Orthodox Church.b. None of the answers are correct.c. merchants.d. peasants.e. nobility.

52. Catherine the Great was attracted to the ideas of the

a. old believers.b. Protestant Reformation.c. French Enlightenment.d. Renaissance.e. boyars.

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53. The government of Catherine the Great

a. was so besieged by peasant rebellions that it scarcely functioned by the end of the reign.

b. advocated the abolition of the peasantry and removed some of the worst abuses of the coercive labor system.

c. was strongly centralized, but yielded virtually all local control to the nobility.d. controlled all aspects of central and local administration.e. None of the answers are correct.

54. All of the following countries participated in the partition of Poland except

a. Austria.b. All of the answers are correct.c. Russia.d. Prussia.e. Hungary.

55. In 1649 Russian serfdom

a. was abolished.b. became hereditary.c. began to modify to a free peasantry under the influence of Westernization.d. was converted to legal slavery.e. was created out of the older practice of outright slavery.

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56. Which of the following was indicative of the growing dependence of Russia on the West?

a. the development of a substantial merchant classb. None of the answers are correct.c. a coercive labor systemd. exportation of manufactured productse. urbanization

57. Which of the following was NOT characteristic of Iberian society?

a. emphasis on nobilityb. emphasis on patriarchal idealsc. a professional bureaucracyd. heavy urbanizatione. absence of slaveholding traditions

58. Which of the following practices was extended to the Americas as a result of Portuguese commercial and colonial experience elsewhere?

a. intendancyb. African slaveryc. the production of tobaccod. wide separation of church and statee. the encomienda

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59. Which of the following practices was originally part of Columbus's plans for the administration of the New World discoveries?

a. the intendancyb. principalitiesc. audienciasd. fortified portse. viceroyalties

60. Encomiendas were

a. None of the answers are correct.b. small industries based on the sheep flocks of the New World.c. grants of land made to Spanish immigrants in the Americas.d. monopolies granted to private individuals for commercial exploitation of specific regions

in the Spanish colonies.e. grants of Indians for labor in Spanish colonies in the Americas.

61. Which of the following men was an advocate of Indian rights?

a. Garcia Floridablancab. Pedro de Valdiviac. Fernando Llamasd. Hernan Cortese. Bartolome de Las Casas

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62. The tremendous decline of the Indian population was matched by the rapid increase in

a. Spanish women.b. imports of cotton cloth.c. Spanish population.d. European livestock.e. technological development.

63. When the encomienda system began to fail, the Spanish government

a. responded by the creation of a free labor system.b. yielded its colonial holdings to Portugal.c. began to rely on Indian labor extracted through local officials, the mita.d. permitted the enslavement of the Indian population.e. enforced its continuation by passage of a series of restrictive laws.

64. The Spanish commercial system with the Latin American colonies was organized around

a. the arts.b. plantation agriculture.c. ranching.d. textile workshops.e. mining.

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65. Which of the following statements concerning the agricultural system of Spanish America is NOT accurate?

a. Plantation crops like sugar and later cacao were exported to Europe in sufficient quantities to exceed the value of bullion in exports.

b. Spanish America remained predominantly an agrarian economy.c. In places where large sedentary populations existed, Indian communal agriculture of

traditional crops continued.d. None of the answers are correct.e. Colonists faced with declining Indian populations found landownership more attractive.

66. Which statement concerning the organization of trade with the Americas is most accurate?

a. The rapid emergence of Holland as a naval power enabled the Dutch to monopolize almost all Spanish trade with the American colonies.

b. The silver supply from the Americas was unsteady.c. The Spanish evolved a convoy system composed of galleons that carried manufactured

goods to the colonies and brought back bullion.d. Despite efforts to provide protection through a convoy system, one half of all ships

traveling between Spain and the Latin American colonies fell to the Dutch, English, and pirates.

e. Spain's failure to develop a system of protection for its commercial fleets left colonial trade at the mercy of pirates and Spain's European enemies.

67. In 1494 Spain and Portugal clarified the boundaries of their colonial possessions in the

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a. Treaty of Westphalia.b. Edict of Nantes.c. Treaty of Paris.d. Treaty of Utrecht.e. Treaty of Tordesillas.

68. In its final form, the Spanish colonial government in Latin America was divided at first into two and later into four

a. corregidores.b. viceroyalties.c. consulados.d. principalities.e. audiencias.

69. In contrast to the Spanish colonies, Brazil's economy was initially devoted to

a. estate agriculture.b. ranching.c. the breeding of slaves.d. mining.e. textile workshops.

70. By the end of the 17th century, slaves comprised approximately what proportion of the Brazilian population?

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a. one-halfb. three-fifthsc. one-quarterd. one-thirde. two-thirds

71. Which of the following statements concerning the Brazilian economy is most accurate?

a. The Brazilian model of estate agriculture based on slave labor could not be successfully duplicated elsewhere in the Americas.

b. Competition from English, French, and Dutch plantations in the Caribbean undercut the Brazilian sugar industry.

c. The demographic decline of the Indian population eventually made the production of sugar impossible, and estate agriculture in Brazil disappeared.

d. Because Brazil never developed a mining economy, sugar remained its most lucrative export.

e. Sugar ceased to be a desired export to Europe.

72. Which of the following statements concerning Portugal's economy is most accurate?

a. Brazilian gold was largely retained in the colony, so that Portugal scarcely benefited from its colonial experience.

b. Portugal's loss of Brazil to the French caused a crisis in the Portuguese economy from which the nation never recovered.

c. Brazilian gold paved the way for rapid capitalization of Portuguese industry.d. Brazil's gold went directly into the Church's coffers.e. The negative balance of trade with England caused an outflow of bullion and created

economic dependency in Portugal.

73. What European nation first established direct contact with black Africa?

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a. Spainb. Italyc. Englandd. Francee. Portugal

74. King Nzinga Mvemba of Kongo was noteworthy because he

a. was the first African monarch converted to Christianity.b. successfully defeated the Portuguese at the battle of Kuwezi.c. was one of the most powerful advocates of the African slave trade.d. None of the answers are correct.e. eventually conquered the Boers of southern Africa.

75. Which of the following do not represent part of the Portuguese model for interaction with the Africans?

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a. a system of fortified trading stations and factoriesb. a strong missionary effortc. refusal to accept alliances with African rulersd. widespread European colonizatione. predominance of military relations

76. Which of the following statements about slavery in Europe before 1450 is most accurate?

a. Slavery had died out during the Middle Ages in most of Europe except along the military frontier between Christians and Muslims in the Mediterranean.

b. Slavery was common to Europe in all eras prior to 1450, although it tended to become a dominant social institution during the Middle Ages.

c. Europe had never had a tradition of slavery.d. Slavery had been extensive in the ancient world, but had died out during the Middle

Ages in all regions of the West.e. Slavery as an institution was healthy and prosperous.

77. How did the Portuguese method of obtaining slaves change in the fifteenth century?

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a. None of the answers are correct.b. After initial raids, the Portuguese discovered that trade was a more secure and

profitable way to get slaves.c. As a result of reaching the Indian Ocean, the Portuguese were able to obtain slaves from

the already established Muslim sources.d. The Portuguese soon discovered that the military might give them power over large

numbers of people who could be reduced to slavery.e. The Portuguese began to utilize the trans-Saharan trade routed to extract slaves from

sub-Saharan Africa.

78. Aside from Brazil, the region of the New World that received the most slaves was

a. Mexico.b. Australia.c. the plantation islands of the Caribbean.d. the British colonies of the southern Atlantic.e. Chile.

79. What was the demographic impact of the slave trade on Africa?

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a. Besides a reduction in overall population, there was no real effect of the slave trade on Africa as a whole.

b. The slave trade had the impact of skewing the population of central Africa in favor of a disproportional number of women.

c. Population in Africa seems to have grown at a higher than average rate.d. The slave trade exported millions, but the loss was made up as a result of the natural

prolificacy of the Africans.e. As a result of the slave trade, the population of Africa was only one-third of what it

would have been without the export of men and women.

80. The British controlled their share of the Atlantic slave trade through the

a. royal navy.b. Royal African Company.c. East India Company.d. Dutch brokers.e. Virginia Company.

81. What was the impact of the slave trade on Europeans sent to Africa?

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a. Most died of tropical diseases.b. Almost every European that visited Africa cam back home wealthy.c. Europeans sent to Africa often remained for many years, absorbing the African cultures.d. Europeans established wealthy colonies that expanded through the ninteenth century.e. Europeans rapidly were dispersed throughout the African nations of the interior,

frequently intermarrying with the native population.

82. Which of the following was not part of the system of "triangular trade"?

a. shipment of North American manufactured products to the Caribbeanb. All of the answers are correctc. transport of plantation products to Europed. exportation of European manufactured goods to Africae. shipment of slaves to the Americas

83. Where did most of the centralizing states of central and western Africa form in response to the Atlantic slave trade?

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a. in the savanna regionb. None of the answers are correctc. near the Swahili trade citiesd. along the coast near the European trade fortse. in the interior, along lines of trade to the trade forts, but outside European zones of


84. Which of the following was not a large African state that developed during the period of the Atlantic slave trade?

a. Asanteb. Oyoc. Benind. Dahomeye. Ghana

85. Under whose rule was unity achieved among the numerous Akan clans of Asante?

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a. Kebaleb. Shakac. Agajad. Usuman Dan Fodioe. Osei Tutu

86. In what area of Africa was a plantation economy based on slave labor established?

a. the Gold Coastb. the Saharac. the savannad. Dahomeye. the coastal region of East Africa

87. The Sufi mystic responsible for initiating a religious reform movement among the Hausa kingdoms in 1804 was

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a. Agaja.b. Shaka.c. Kebale.d. Usuman Dan Fodio.e. Osei Tutu.

88. In 1818 who assumed leadership in the Zulu chiefdom of the Nguni people of southern Africa?

a. Agajab. Osei Tutuc. Usuman Dan Fodiod. Shakae. Kebale

89. The "Middle Passage" referred to

a. the voyage from Africa across the Atlantic to the Americas.

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b. the journey from captivity to the coastline of Africa.c. the overland trek across Panama to the Pacific.d. the sale of slaves in the Americas and subsequent transportation to plantations.e. the group of slaves permanently in rebellion in Suriname.

90. How were the British colonies of the southern Atlantic coast of North America different from the Latin American colonies?

a. Manumission of slaves tended to be more common in the British colonies.b. Britain had no colonies on the southern Atlantic coast of America.c. Although urban slavery existed, there was no plantation agricultural system on the

North American mainland.d. There was no slavery there.e. The British colonies depended less on imported Africans because of the positive rate of

growth among the slaves.

91. The conqueror of the Byzantine empire in 1453 was

a. Timur-i-Lang.b. Mehmed I.c. Suleyman the Magnificent.d. Peter the Great.e. Mehmed II.

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92. Slave troops of the Ottoman empire forcibly conscripted as adolescents from conquered territories were called

a. Din-i-Ilahi.b. mullahs.c. Ozbegs.d. Mudjadeen.e. Janissaries

93. What was the principle of succession within the Ottoman empire?

a. Like the early Islamic administration of the Orthodox Caliphs, the successions within the Ottoman empire were elective.

b. None of the answers are correct.c. Succession within the Ottoman empire was based on primogeniture.d. Ottoman Sultans selected their successors prior to their death and elevated them as co-

rulers.e. Like earlier Islamic dynasties, the Ottoman empire lacked a principle of succession.

94. Which of the following was a result of the Ottoman loss of monopoly over the Indian trade?

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a. The Western nations were able to carve out colonies along the Mediterranean shores of the Ottoman empire.

b. None of the answers are correct.c. As a result of the negative balance of trade with the West, bullion flowed out of the

Ottoman empire and caused a decline in prices.d. Direct carriage of eastern goods to ports in the West implied loss of revenues in taxes in

Muslim trading centers.e. All Ottoman trade with the East ceased.

95. The Safavid family had its origins in the fourteenth century in a family devoted to what variant of Islam?

a. Sunniteb. Sufic. Sikhd. Wahabbie. Ismaili

96. The Ottoman empire halted the advance of Shi'ism and the Safavids at the critical battle of

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a. Chaldiran.b. Panipat.c. Isfahan.d. Tabriz.e. Luxor.

97. Which of the following represents a similarity between the Ottomans and the Safavids?

a. Each empire was quick to adapt the technological advances of the West for its own use.b. Both recruited regiments from slave boys.c. Both empires had their geographical origins in Anatolia.d. Each empire extended their territories into eastern Europe.e. Both empires lacked substantial non-Muslim minorities.

98. What Shah was responsible for the greatest patronage of the arts and for the rebuilding of much of Isfahan?

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a. Abbas the Greatb. Ismailc. Minooshd. Tahmasp Ie. Mehmed II

99. Which of the following represents a difference between the Safavid and Ottoman economies?

a. The Safavid market economy was more constricted than that of the Ottomans.b. Only the Safavid rulers patronized public works projects.c. All of the answers are correct.d. Only the Ottomans sought to encourage artisans and handicraft production.e. The Ottomans alone pursued policies to increase internal and international trade.

100. Which of the following statements concerning the status of women in the Islamic heartlands during the early modern period is most accurate?

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a. Islamic women generally enjoyed more liberties than they did in the previously nomadic social system.

b. Many women in the Islamic heartlands in this era struggled against social restrictions in dress and confinement.

c. Women were carefully excluded from trade and money-lending.d. Women were allowed to hold professional positions within the government.e. Women readily accepted the diminution of status that accompanied the creation of the

Islamic empires.

101. The founder of the Mughal dynasty was

a. Timur.b. Nadir Khan Afshar.c. Yonka.d. Babur.e. Akbar.

102. Whom did the first Mughal emperor defeat at the battle of Panipat in 1526?

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a. The Second Crusadeb. the Muslim ruler of Delhic. the Ottoman Sultand. the Hindu ruler of Agrae. the Safavid Shah

103. Which of the following is an accomplishment of Babur?

a. None of the answers are correct.b. He was responsible for the construction of the Taj Mahal.c. He wrote one of the great histories of India.d. He reformed the inefficient Lodi administration of Delhi.e. He successfully created a new religion that bridged the differences between Hindus and


104. Which of the following was NOT one of the social reforms of Akbar?

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a. He attempted to eradicate the practice of sati.b. He sought to provide relief from the women trapped in purdah.c. Prostitution was eliminated in his realm.d. He encouraged the establishment of special market days for women only.e. He discouraged child marriages.

105. Which of the following statements concerning the reigns of Jahangir and Shah Jahan is most accurate?

a. During the reigns of these two Mughal rulers, military activity reached its greatest level.b. Both emperors continued to press the success of Akbar's Din-i-Ilahi.c. India became in the reigns of Akbar's successors one of the major overseas centers for

European traders.d. During the reigns of these two Mughal rulers, military activity reached its greatest level.e. The plague took hold in the Empire during the reign of these two monarchs with a

resulting drop in population.

106. Which of the following statements concerning the economy of the Mughal empire is most accurate?

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a. The Mughal empire produced nothing of value to the West, but served as a conduit of products from Southeastern Asia much in demand among the Europeans.

b. European traders brought products from throughout Asia to exchange for the subcontinent's famed cotton textiles.

c. The Mughal Empire had no viable exports for world trade.d. Unlike the other Muslim empires, the Mughals successfully banned European merchants

from their markets.e. The Indian markets of the Mughals were flooded with Western products.

107. Europeans used their sea power to control commerce in all the following products except

a. nutmegb. clovesc. cinnamond. peppere. oregano

108. What nation was responsible for opening the Indies to Europeans?

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a. Holy Roman Empireb. Spainc. Englandd. Portugale. Holland

109. What market did the Europeans first discover that they possessed little of value in the markets of the Eastern sea trading network?

a. Calicutb. Cantonc. Malawayed. Deshimae. Constantinople

110. In which of the Asian manufacturing zones were paper, porcelain, and silks major products?

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a. Africanb. Arabc. Chinad. Indiane. European

111. Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the nature of the Asian trading network?

a. There were four great manufacturing centers, or zones.b. Trade within the network was limited to regional exchange, with no products being

shipped over long distances.c. While there was some exchange of goods between the major empires, the other island

regions of Southeast Asia were never incorporated into the commercial system.d. Raw materials such as spices were valuable items of trade within the system, but

manufactured products were not exchanged.e. The islands on the periphery of the major empires were important, because they

supplied raw materials to the manufacturing zones.

112. Which of the following statements concerning the organization of trade in the Asian sea network is most accurate?

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a. The system functioned only so long as it was administered from the Ottoman empire with the tacit support of the Ming dynasty.

b. The entire network was dominated by Arab merchants who worked in common cause to establish a monopoly of trade.

c. There was no central control, and force was usually absent from commercial exchanges.d. Violence and military leverage were the very nature of trade.e. The Chinese, as a result of their naval superiority, were able to secure military

dominance of the system

113. What was the economic policy that encouraged the Portuguese to utilize force in entering the Asian trade network?

a. free tradeb. capitalismc. feudalismd. mercantilisme. socialism

114. Over whose forces did the Portuguese win the sea battle of Diu in 1509?

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a. the Ottomansb. Spainc. Chinad. a combined Egyptian and Indian forcee. the Swahili cities of East Africa

115. Which of the following was a fortified trading port established by the Portuguese in the early sixteenth century?

a. Bataviab. Goac. Malawad. Cantone. Deshima

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116. Despite having captured Malacca, why did the Dutch move their trading headquarters in the spice islands to Batavia?

a. None of the answers are correct.b. Batavia was the capital of the kingdom of Siam.c. Malacca was captured by the Mughal empire.d. Batavia was closer to the sources of spices.e. Malacca was destroyed during the monsoon season in 1665.

117. What happened to the English attempts to enter the spice trade?

a. The English were limited to trade with China.b. The English were able to establish themselves on the island of Java.c. The English quickly formed a partnership with the Dutch and eventually controlled the

lion's share of the spice trade.d. The English were able to exert a monopoly over the shipment of spices from Dutch

possessions in the spice islands.e. The English were forced to fall back on the cotton textile trade of India.

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118. What Jesuit missionary was responsible for creating the strategy of converting Hindu elites as a means of achieving mass conversions?

a. Matteo Riccib. Morie Amsterdamc. Robert di Nobilid. Adam Schalle. Francis Xavie

119. In which of the following areas did the Christian missionaries enjoy the most lasting success?

a. Australiab. Javac. Philippinesd. Japane. China

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120. Which reform was introduced by the first Ming emperor?

a. Family influence in the selection of men to the Chinese bureaucracy was eliminated.b. The position of the scholar-gentry within the bureaucracy was restored.c. The civil service examination system was abolished.d. The opening of all Chinese ports to Western trade.e. The status of women was enhanced.

121. Which of the following European products had a significant impact on the Chinese economy during the Ming era?

a. textile loomsb. firearmsc. the printing pressd. clockse. maize, sweet potatoes, peanuts

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122. What social group benefited most from the expansion of trade during the Ming era?

a. the Buddhistsb. the imperial familyc. the merchantsd. the peasantrye. the scholar-gentry

123. Why did the Chinese abandon the commercial voyages of the Zhenghe expeditions?

a. Weak sailors, the Chinese quickly lost the nerve to travel long distances.b. There was little of value for the Chinese to import, and the voyages were expensive to

carry out.c. The size of the fleets was so limited that they could not compete with the greater

capacity of the European voyages.d. The trade with foreign regions produced a negative balance of trade that drained bullion

from the Chinese coffers.e. Many of the ships were lost as a result of poor ship design and inadequate sailing


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124. Which of the following was NOT a policy imposed as a result of Japanese isolation in the seventeenth century?

a. Neo-Confucian philosophy gave way to the influence of thinkers who championed the school of "National Learning."

b. Foreign traders were confined to the island of Deshima in Nagasaki Bay.c. Christianity was banned and Christians were persecuted.d. None of the answers are correct.e. The Japanese elite abandoned all contact with Western learning and technological


125. Which of the following was responsible for the reestablishment of the Shogunate in Japan?

a. Nobunagab. Hiaru Ashikagc. Toyotomi Hideyoshid. Ticaru Hideoshiwae. Tokugawa Ieyasu