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2. THE ADJECTIVE (specialized texts)  Specific objectiv es: At the end of the chapter you will be able to: define and identify the regular and irregular adjectives correctly use the degrees of comparison translate some Idioms containing adjectives  Estimated time for indiv idual study: 4 hour s  Limba engleza  The Degrees of Compariso. !eg"lar Ad#ecti\$es  Irreg"lar Ad#ecti\$es  %hrases &ith Ad#ecti\$es  'pecific o#ecti\$es '"mmar Assessmet exercises *iliograph

# Unit.2%2c+Drept%2c+an+i%2c+Sem+i Unit.2%2c+Drept%2c+an+i%2c+Sem+i Unit.2%2c+Drept%2c+an+i%2c+Sem+i Unit.2%2c+Drept%2c+an+i%2c+Sem+i

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8/12/2019 Unit.2%2c+Drept%2c+an+i%2c+Sem+i Unit.2%2c+Drept%2c+an+i%2c+Sem+i Unit.2%2c+Drept%2c+an+i%2…

Specific objectives:

At the end of the chapter you will be able to:

• define and identify the regular and irregular adjectives• correctly use the degrees of comparison• translate some Idioms containing adjectives

Estimated time for individual study: 4 hours

Limba engleza

The Degrees of Compariso. !eg"lar Ad#ecti\$es

'pecific o#ecti\$es

'"mmar

Assessmet exercises

*iliograph

8/12/2019 Unit.2%2c+Drept%2c+an+i%2c+Sem+i Unit.2%2c+Drept%2c+an+i%2c+Sem+i Unit.2%2c+Drept%2c+an+i%2…

Alina Cheşcă The sequence of tenses

2.+. The Degrees of Compariso. !eg"lar Ad#ecti\$es

♦ Adjectivul este de două feluri: descriptiv - arată calităile unui obiect! fiine! etc"

#important! clever! young! red! small\$ şi restrictiv - e%primă modificări ale distanei!

cantităii! etc" #this, m"ch, m\$" My sister is tall, slim and beautiful.

♦ Adjectivul se plasea&ă de obicei 'naintea substantivului pe care 'l determină:

A red  car.

A smart  lawyer.

A bank  account.

This contract.

♦ (n limba engle&ă adjectivul nu se acordă cu substantivul 'n gen! număr şi caz. El are

e%act aceiaşi formă pentru singular şi plural"

A beautiful   girl.

Two beautiful girls.

♦ )umele de ări! naionalitatea! limba vorbită 'ntr-o anumită regiune se scriu'ntotdeauna cu majuscule:

I  am a omanian citizen, but, as I!m working in the banking system, I can s"eak English #ery

well.

A\$ +entru obiecte:

)umărul!

calităile!

vechimea!

forma!

culoarea!

originea!

materialul!

-ing!

,ubstantivul"

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Alina Cheşcă The sequence of tenses

Two beautiful, old, round, black, \$erman tables.

.\$ +entru fiine:

)umărul

Calităile

/ărimea

01rsta

*riginea

,ubstantivul

Three beautiful, tall, young, Romanian girls.

Ad#ecti\$ele a" trei grade de compara-ie: %oziti# & atunci c1nd este descris un obiect sauun set de obiecte 'long, small, good, beautiful( , )om"arati# & atunci c1nd comparăm calităileunui obiect sau set de obiecte cu cele ale unui alt obiect sau set de obiecte 'longer, smaller  ,

better, more beautiful( şi *u"erlati# 'the longest, the smallest, the best, the most beautiful(.

(n funcie de modul 'n care adjectivele formea&ă gradele de comparaie ele sunt'mpărite 'n ad+ecti#e neregulate şi ad+ecti#e regulate, acestea din urmă fiind la r1ndul lor

'mpărite 'n adjective scurte #adjectivele monosilabice şi adjectivele bisilabice terminate 'n -y! precum şi c1teva alte adjective de origine germanică terminate 'n -ow! -er! -le! etc" #ha""y,

yellow, gentle, cle#er, common, handsome, narrow, "leasant, quiet, sim"le, stu"id(  şiadjective lungi #plurisilabice\$"

2%istă c1teva adjective care nu au grade de comparaie! cum ar fi:

*u"erior, unique, ece"tional, glorious, great, mar#ellous, s"lendid, su"reme,

wonderful, ultramodern, matchless, absent, equal, left, o""osite, right, single, etc"

3ormarea comparativului şi superlativului unui adjectiv urmea&ă aceste reguli:A\$ A452C6I0272 C8962

+*I6I0 C*/+A9A6I0 8+297A6I0

A- A-& ER 'T/A0( T/E A-& EST

L10\$

/A%%2

L10\$ ER 'T/A0(

/A%%I  ER 'T/A0(

T/E L10\$ EST

T/E /A%%I  EST

.\$ A452C6I0272 78);I

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Alina Cheşcă The sequence of tenses

+*I6I0 C*/+A9A6I0 8+297A6I0

A-   MORE  A- 'T/A0( T/E MOST  A-

3EA4TI54L

E6%E0*I7E

MORE  3EA4TI54L 'T/A0(

MORE  E6%E0*I7E 'T/A0(

T/E MOST  3EA4TI54L

T/E MOST  E6%E0*I7E

Iată 'n cele ce urmea&ă schema integrală a comparaiei adjectivelor:

%18ITI7

good

2ou are ha""y

beautiful

)1M%AATI7

A( -e inferioritate

good

2ou are not as9so ha""y as your sister

beautiful

3( -e egalitate

good

2ou are as ha""y as your sister

beautiful

)( -e su"erioritate

better

2ou are ha""ier than your sister

more beautiful

*4%ELATI7

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Alina Cheşcă The sequence of tenses

A( elati#

best

2ou are the ha""iest girl in the world

most beautiful

.\$ Absolut

good

2ou are #ery ha""y

3eautiful

+*I6I0 C*/+A9A6I0 8+297A6I0\$ood 'bun, bun:, 3etter 'mai bun( The best 'cel mai bun(

3ad 'r:u( ;orse 'mai r:u( The worst 'cel mai r:u(

Much 'mult, mult:( More 'mai mult( The most 'cel mai mult(

Many 'mul<i, multe( More 'mai mul<i( The most 'cei mai mul<i(

Little '"u<in, "u<in:( Less 'mai "u<in( The least 'cel mai "u<in(

1ld  'b:tr=n, #echi( 1lder   'mai #echi,mai

b:tr=n(

Elder  'mai >n #=rst:, mai

mare, referitor la

"ersoane din aceea?i

The oldest 'cel mai #echi,

cel mai b:tr=n(

The eldest 'cel mai mare,

cel mai b:tr=n re eritor la 5ar  'de":rtat( 5arther 'mai de":rtat @

"entru distan<e(

5urther 'mai de":rtat @

"entru s"a<iu ?i tim"

The farthest 'cel mai de":rtat @ ca

distan<:(

The furthest  'cel mai >nde":rtat @

folosit mai ales tem"oral(

Late 't=rziu( Later 'mai t=rziu(

The latter 'cel de&al

doilea, ultimul din doi,

folosit mai ales >n

sintagmaB The formerC

the latter(

The latest 'cel mai t=rziu, cel mai

recent, cel mai nou(

The last 'ultimul final @ du": el nu

mai urmeaz: nimic altce#a din

aceea?i serie(

0ear 'a"ro"iat( 0earer 'mai a"ro"iat( The nearest 'cel mai a"ro"iat(

The net 'urm:torul dintr&o serie(

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Alina Cheşcă The sequence of tenses

♦ 2%presia Dcu c=t....cu at=t   este e%primată 'n limba engle&ă prin folosireacomparativelor de superioritate ale respectivelor adjective! precedate de prepo&iia theB

The more, the merrier  ! " )u cat suntem mai multi, cu atat e mai #esel.

The longer the days are , the warmer they become. )u cat sunt zilele mai lungi, cu atat de#in

mai calde

The more beautiful, the better. )u cat sunt mai frumoase, cu atat e mai bine.

♦ 2%presia Ddin ce >n ce mai....D   este redată prin repetiia comparativului desuperioritate:

2our results are better and better. ezultatele tale sunt din ce in ce mai bune.

*he becomes more and more beautiful. Ea de#ine din ce in ce mai frumoasa.

As winter comes, the weather is colder and colder. )and #ine iarna, #remea e din ce in ce

mai rece.

Acti\$it +

#! \$omplete the sentences %ith adjectives from the bo&:

Strong, e&pensive, cheap, much, short, many, busy,

e&pensive, practical, ade'uate, perfect, legal, further, latter!

<" 6he rooms at the 9it& are very """"

=" >ow""" airports are in )ew ?or@

B" I thin@ I need some""" information if you want me to help you"

" *f the two solutions he preferred the former to the"""

D" >er action was""""

E" 7etFs eat here" I donFt have much money and itFs reallyG

H" >er plan is very"""! but his is just"""

" >ow""" does a hotel room cost J" 6he hotel is very"""

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Alina Cheşcă The sequence of tenses

<K" I lent him a""" sum of money"

<<" Le can wal@ from here" ItFs only a""" distance"

<=" >is measures were"""

<B" 3ather comes home late because he is a very""" man"

(! )ut the adjectives in brac*ets into the correct form:

<" 6hese boo@s are not""" #e%pensive\$ as the other ones"

=" 6he #many\$""" people who have a problem with cash flow phone the ban@and as@ for an overdraft"

B" A personal loan is often a #good\$""" idea because the repayments arestructured over a pre-arranged period"

" tore cards are generally #e%pensive\$""" then other credit cards and can only be used in shops which offer them"

D" ?our homewor@ is #bad\$""" than hers"

E" 6his hotel manager was the #polite\$""" we had ever met"

H" ir Linston Churchill was the #faimous\$""" 2nglishman in the Lorld LarII"

" M6he more! the #merry\$"""M says an 2nglish proverb"

J" .oo@s are""" and""" #e%pensive\$ nowadays"

<K" 7eviFs ma@e the""" #famous\$ trousers in the world"

<<" ?our""" #old\$ sister is my""" #old\$ friend"

<=" Certain regions produce""" #much\$ petroleum than they consume! and othersconsume""" #much\$ than they produce"

<B" Africa produces more than twice what it consumes! and the /iddle 2ast is

the #big\$""" producer of all"

<" >owever! those two regions are tied for consuming the""" #small\$ amount"

<D" 2urope consumes about H=N more than it produces" It is one of the"""#large\$ producers but it is also the #large\$ consumer of all the regions"

.  +ill in the blan*s %ith the right %ord! \$hoose bet%een the follo%ing

%ords: m"ch/ ma/ fe&/ a fe&/ little/ a little0

<" Le have""" friends here"

=" 6here arenFt""" jobs for middle-aged persons"

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Alina Cheşcă The sequence of tenses

B" /i@e would li@e""" mil@ in his tea"

" As we didnFt have""" time! we had to ta@e a ta%i"

D" )owadays""" people have servants in their houses"

E" he didnFt spend """ money on her holiday"

H" 6his te%t is rather difficult" he has had to loo@ up""" new words in thedictionary"

" I donFt read""" boo@s because I donFt have""" spare time"

J" >e couldnFt give me""" information"

<K" ?ou must hurry" 6here is""" time left"

<<" 0ery""" e%periments have been done to find out the cause of that accident"

<=" I have""" friends that I can trust! but not """"

<B" I had""" time to spare! so I browsed round a boo@shop"

<" It didnFt cost"""

<D" *nly""" of the committee members went to the meeting"

<E" 8nfortunately! the solicitor has very""" clients"

Identity and solidarity

Identity is one of the most important ingredients for the cohesion of the human society" >umans need

to feel about themselves that they  belong to the same group and that can be made only by discovering the same

characteristics in the ir behavior! in the language! the @nowledge and the culture! so tha t this identity creates the

solidarity of the human group" Le can not draw the e%istence of human race! the civili&ation and the transformation

from autonomous individuals or ha&ardous and random couples to a structured group and to a well established society!

with human civili&ed institutions without the solidarity component" Identity is the ingredient that ma@es humans

recogni&e a responsibility towards the other individuals from their group! or the structured group as a whole! or the

human society or! at the end! the solidarity with the entire humanity and man@ind" 9esponsibility ma@es humans

behave sympathetic with their neighbors"

Identity and   so#ereignty

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Alina Cheşcă The sequence of tenses

6he identityFs role in bringing people together and creating responsibility! coagulating human societies

was politically speculated by group of interests who wanted the power and the legitimacy to rule" 3irst! it was the

animal behavior ma@ing the human to draw o territory and a group of friends who recogni&ed a certain

authority! personali&ed by a specific individual"

After this civil and laic power! the  human soc ie ty needed t o e % p r e s s the fears and to e%plain

the things of life! so that a religious power appeared! organically connected to the human society" 6he historicalfight  between the two powers made the humanity es tablish the inst itution of sovereignty! with its divine origin"

6he soveieignty legitimated a political power with a divine force! including the infallibility of the leaders" tep by step!

the evolution of human society and institutions! the evolution of the state! led to many changcs in the composition ol

the sovereignty institution! which became what it is today" 6his rule regarding the state sovereignty still represents a

primary principle of the 8nited )ations and of the current organi&ation of the world"

Identity and nationalism

.ut these religious and divine characteristics of sovereignty contain a great power! having

the capacity of legitimating political reOuests" 6here have always been leaders or interest

groups who wanted to ta@e over the power" 6hus! this ma@es them speculate the identity and

the attributes of sovereignty for political reasons" 6herefore! if a certain group of interests

wants more power than it can be obtained through democratic system! it can very easily

speculate the creation of a certain identity that legitimates the reOuest of a state! connected to

a certain nation created over night" 6his is the case of every nationalism that sees in identity

the differences between a certain privileged group and the rest of the population of an e%isting

state" It is very easy to demand more political rights and power when you are dealing with a

state where the democratic laws are not well established and the democracy does not function!

where some ethnic or minority groups are not included in the process of decision and the

governance is Ouestionable" 6he result of such challenge of the current state government!

under the above mentioned circumstances could lead to war! when the conflict masters are

also involved with their own interests"

The e"erience of early warning in identity conflicts

6he e%periences of Lestern .al@ans! of ethnic conflicts in the former oviet 8nion and in

Caucasus ma@e the e%perts establish many programs for solving ethnic conflicts! for

preventing identity conflicts and establish a networ@ of early warning 6he special purpose of

these programs is to prevent every difference that can be speculated by political groups for

destabili&ing an e%isting state! especially within the democracies and economies in transition"

6he tability +act in outh-2astern 2urope sustained by the 2uropean 8nion! the 22C+

and other institutions! programs created by 8)4+ and the C+C of *C2 and a number of

);*Fs are very efficient nowadays! leading to an important e%perience in dealing with this

@ind of problems" 6hose problems arc not solved yet! but a special reaction plan in dealingwith emerging identity conflicts is being elaborated"

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Alina Cheşcă The sequence of tenses

6he present study presents the main actions on an identity conflict agenda! a very

profound radiography of the origin of identity conflicts mechanism and the phases of

sovereignty in the history! that ma@es this institution so important! credible and indispensable

as a tool in identity conflicts! a thorough overview on the types of nationalism that speculates

identity differences for political reasons" Le have also focused on the current solutions to this

problem: a presentation of the political! economic and social factors of confidence and

stability building! the thesis on ethnic conflict prevention! the issue of refugees! the

e%periences of 6he 8) >igh Commissioner for refugees and the *C2 >igh Commissioner

for )ational /inorities and the role of non governmental organi&ations" 7ast but not least! we

present some results of the common project theory within the tability +act actions"

Acti\$it 2

#! \$hose the right form of the personal pronouns given in brac*ets:

<" /y husband and #IPme\$ have just come bac@ from the theatre"

=" I am writing a letter to #shePher\$"

B" If you see 5ane! please give #shePher\$ my best regards"

" I sent #theyPthem\$ a present for their wedding"

D" 6ell #hisPhim\$ to come home as soon as possible"

E" 4onFt as@ #usPours\$ so many Ouestions! we are very tired now"

H" #LeP8s\$! the 9omanians are very proud of our past"

" 6hatFs very @ind of #theyPthem\$"

<K" Le wanted to @now where #theyPthem\$ lived"(! +ill in the blan*s %ith the corresponding )ossessive )ronouns or

djectives:

<" It seems that my secretary is more efficient thanG

=" he offered""" services"

B" ;rannie canFt find""" glasses"

" I always pay""" bills on time"

D" he is typing""" reports and we are typing""""

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Alina Cheşcă The sequence of tenses

E" >e has left""" boo@ here"

H" Is this""" opinion

" ?ou should use""" pencil"

J" 6hey show /ary""" toys"

<K" I li@e""" 2nglish teacher"

.  )ut in the corresponding Refle&ive or Emphatic )ronouns:

<" 6he princess used to spend long hours loo@ing at""" in the mirror"

=" >e washes""" every morning"

B" 6he light in the gate switches""" off after two or three minutes"

" /y brother""" withdrew the money from the .an@"D" As she was not hungry she had to force""" to eat"

E" 6he first condition to be successful is that you should believe inG

H" Le were surprised when we saw""" in that large mirror"

" )obody helped me" I did it by"""

J" Children should behave""" when their parents have guests invited"

<K" I feel very lonely when I have supper by"""

4! -se the appropriate interrogative.pronouns or adjectives in the 'uestions

belo%:

<" At""" time do you get up in the morning

=" """ is that beautiful lady

B" """ is your favourite writer

" """ colour is his new tieD" """ does this car belong to

E" """ of the tourists have visited .ritish /useum

H. "". car is that

" """ university is the best in your country

J" """ did you go to the theater with

<K" """ are you loo@ing at

/! +ill in the blan*s %ith the corresponding Relative )ronouns %here

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Alina Cheşcă The sequence of tenses

necessary:

=" Although reliable enough! the partners""" you are waiting for have notarrived yet"

B" Is this the man""" sold you the +C

" >e said that""" frightened him was the appalling silence of the place"

D" 6he man""" car was hit by that lorry is our manager"

E" 6he dog""" is under that tree is very old"

H" I couldnFt remember the number of my own car""" made the policesuspicious"

" 6he woman""" is crossing the street is our neighbour"

J" 6he child to""" you gave that toy was very happy"

<K" 6his is the man""" son won the contest"

<<" G rich you are you canRt buy happiness"

0! +ill in the blan*s %ith the appropriate indefinite pronouns or adjectives:

<" I have""" sugar and my neighbour hasnFt either"

B" 4o you have""" to add

" >e must be""" very important"

D" """ of us has ever heard such an interesting story"

E" 4onFt you reali&e that""" detail is important in this case

H" """  passenger for this flight must have his belongings e%amined at the

airport"

" I thin@ thereFs""" at the door" Lere you e%pecting"""

J" I want to show you""" interesting"

<K" """ can never say for sure what is right and what is wrong"

<<" *ne of my sisters is a lawyer! """ is an accountant"

<=" 6here are""" apples leftS you have eaten""" of them"

<B" >e made two proposals! but""" was accepted"

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Alina Cheşcă The sequence of tenses

<" )either /i@e""" his wife has an alibiS """ of them might be the @iller"

<D" I have a very good wine" Lould you li@e"""

<E" 6here are several boo@s on the tableS """ of them are in 2nglish"

<H" 5ames as@ed me for""" money but I couldnFt give him"""

<" I canFt see my walletS """ must have ta@en it"

<J" If you have no money! I can lend you"""

=K" """ hour they are getting closer to the end of the journey"

=<" 6his time I canFt do""" for you"

==" 6here isnFt""" to be said regarding that matter as only""" details are stillunclear"

1! +ill in the blan*s %ith the corresponding pronouns:

<" Le helped""" with some hot tea and felt much better afterwards"

=" >e lost his @ey and 7aura lostG

B" After getting up I dress""" and rush to my office"

" 6hereFs a bed in the bedroom and""" one in the guest room"

D" /y friend""" is a very e%perienced climber is now in an e%pedition in theAlps"

E" /y girl has made this ca@e all by"""

H" >e is""" best friend"

" 4o you thin@""" will rain today

J" /y brother has two girls: one is a teacher and the""" is an economist"

<K" 6he girl""" s@irt is short is my classmate"

<<" If I were you IFd give up both solutionsS """ is reasonable"

Acti\$it

ead and translate the following tetB

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Alina Cheşcă The sequence of tenses

THE H3A4 DI3E4'I54 51 C5416ICT'

6he issue of refugees

a" 4isintegration and globali&ation

6he international community has invested unprecedented effort in responding to the series

of crises that have ta@en place in the .al@ans since <JJ<" 6he sheer scale of the political and

military interventions and humanitarian assistance programs has been mar@ed by an international

presence unparalleled elsewhere around the world and a protracted period of e%tensive interaction

with the .al@an people" 6he human conseOuences of the inhuman forms of conflict that the

region have witnessed! have become carved in the memories not only of the population! but

also of thousands of international wor@ers who have responded to the needs of the .al@an people

6he history of the .al@an people over the past centuries reflects the struggle

that too@ place in order to integrate the population into the nation state of ?ugoslavia" In the late

<JKFs! the loss of the control mechanism provided both by 6ito and the former Communist regime

created the opportun ity for many local .al@an leaders to reverse the efforts of the past and

pursue disintegration and independence for their respective provinces and ethnic groups" 6hese

internal initiatives came at a time when the e%tern al pressures resulting from the globali&ation of

the world economy were also growing" 6he same political leaders who sought independence and

an increasingly defensive! +resident /ilosevic! in the 3ederal 9epublic of ?ugoslavia! sei&ed the

opportunity to actively encourage inter-ethnic violence in pursuit of their political ambitions"

6he spiralling cycle of harassment! intimidation and fighting between

military forces! militia! neighbors and even  relatives led to  over  B million people

being displaced from their homes because of  conflict in outh-2astern 2urope" It also produced a climatc in which widespread abuse of both human rights and of the norms of

international humanitarian law could be carried out with relative impunity"

6he response of the international community  to the crises in the .al@ans has

been confusing" .efore the signing of the 4ayton +eace Accord in 4ecember <JJD! there were a

plethora of 8) ecuri ty Council 9esolutions on humanitarian issues! but a noticeable lac@ of

political investment in finding solutions" Af ter 4ayton! this poli tical-humanitarian confusion

shifted to mili tary-humani tarian confusion! with over-lapping enforcement and consensual

mandates and with the military as@ed to be simultaneously both belligerent and humanitarian

relief actors"

b" +opulation displacement

/any! among the population! have  lost hope in the future o f then country of

origin and have attempted to migrate to safer! more prosper ous communities in Lestern

2urope and elsewhere" In <JJ! over B!KKK asylum applications were lodged in B= 2uropean

countries" In <JJJ! this increased to nearly D!KKK - with ;ermany being the largest

2uropean recipient country! followed by the 8nited Tingdom" wit&erland became the third

largest recipient country dur ing <JJJ" /ost of the hosting countries are growing increasingly

@een to witness more returns in the year =KKK - especially to Tosovo and to .osnia-

>er&egovina - and fewer asylum see@ers arriving at their borders"

Among the large numbers of people displaced from their homes! the majority of

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those still needing solutions have homes in areas where they would be a minority if they returned"

/ost countries in the region have produced refugees! have shared the burden of hos ting refugees!

or hosted a population of internally displaced persons"

'"mmar

6his second chapter has approached the regular and irregular adjectives! it hasdefined them and analysed the degrees of comparisonS you have been givensentences to e%emplify all the grammar issues that have been taught" /oreover!you have found various phrases and Idioms containing adjectives" .esides thegrammar practice! you have been reOuested to read and translate several te%ts!thus improving your vocabulary"

'elf7e\$al"atio tests

Choose the right variant:

#! Translate into English:

<" Cheltuielile acestei companii au fost din ce 'n ce mai scă&ute 'n ultimii ani"

=" Această companie a cheltuit anul trecut mai mult dec1t 'şi putea permite"

B" +rofitul de anul trecut al acestei firme a fost mai mare dec1t cel de anul acesta"

" Anul acesta inflaia a fost ceva mai mare dec1t anul trecut"

D" Uie 'i este mult mai frică dec1t ei că preurile vor deveni din ce 'n ce mai mari"

E" Cambia este una dintre cele mai vechi metode de plată"

H" +roducia de anul acesta a companiei noastre este mult mai ridicată dec1t cea din anii precedeni"

" .anca Angliei este mult mai veche dec1t .anca )aională a 9om1niei"

J" Anul acesta s-au emis mai multe aciuni dec1t anul trecut"

<K" Am nevoie de informaii suplimentare 'nainte să plec mai departe"

<<" Am doi prieteni! Andrei şi Ioan: cel dint1i este contabil! cel de-al doilea este avocat"

<=" 2ra din ce 'n ce mai speriat că nu va putea să termine anali&a financiară la timp"

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<B" Cu c1t sunt termenii mai avantajoşi! cu at1t este mai greu de obinut contractul"

<" 3ratele meu cel mai mare este economist şi lucrea&ă de doi ani 'ntr-o bancă"

<D" Veful meu vine 'ntotdeauna primul şi pleacă 'ntotdeauna ultimul"

(! Translate into English:

<" /ai dorii nişte vin 4a! doar puin vă rog"

=" 2ste mai cald a&i dec1t a fost ieri"

B" 4upă ce şi-au luat rămas bun unul de la celălalt! cei doi turişti şi-au vă&ut de drum"

" e spune că ea vorbeşte cinci limbi străine"

D" 2 timpul să 'nelegei astfel de lucruri"

E" Avei grijă de voi! copii Q

H" Ioan 'nsuşi i-a scris şi i-a e%pediat scrisoarea cu ceva timp 'n urmă"

" 0ine o vreme c1nd e bine să lupi şi să obii ceea ce vrei"

J" Ce ai reuşit să afli la poliie

<K" Cele trei fete se aşteptau una pe cealaltă la ieşirea din şcoală"

<<" 2u 'nsumi am 'ncercat să o fac să 'neleagă că nu are dreptate"

<=" 4upă ce s-au uitat unul la altul cei doi copii au i&bucnit 'n r1s"

<B" A cui este această carte

2! Translate into English:

<" 6irajele presei 60 sunt de &ece ori mai ridicate 'n 3rana dec1t cele ale marilor cotidienenaionale"

=" 6elevi&iunea a dat o lovitură foarte grea presei scrise deturn1nd 'n folosul său grosul

bugetelor pentru publicitatea destinată marelui public"B" 7ocurile de afişaj obişnuite! pe care se percepe ta%ă! sunt adesea acoperite cu afişeWviolenteM"

" +rocentul posesorilor de aparate radio #JJN\$ este mai mare dec1t cel al deinătorilor detelevi&oare"

D" 9eclama de la cinema se reine de patru-ori mai mult dec1t cea de la televi&iune"E" 4eşi relativ ieftină 'n raport cu numărul de persoane la care ajunge! publicitatea televi&ată

este foarte scumpă dacă privim din perspectiva sumei de bani necesare"H" 4oar marile firme 'şi pot permite reclame televi&ate pentru a-şi lăuda produsele"" * anumită parte a presei nu acceptă ca difu&area sa să fie măsurată sau controlată"J" 6inerii! orăşenii şi persoanele 'nstărite merg cel mai mult la cinema"

<K" +entru unii manageri de canale 60 contea&ă numai audiena"<<" 8nul dintre re&ultatele cele mai evidente este scăderea calităii programelor"<=" 8n alt re&ultat este proliferarea jocurilor televi&ate stupide şi abruti&ante"

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4! Translate into English:

<" )u trebuie să se confunde tirajul cu difu&area"

=" )u toate e%emplarele tipărite sunt 'n mod obligatoriu v1ndute"<" Costul spaiului publicitar este costul care trebuie achitat pentru inserareaPdifu&area

mesajului de către orice mijloc de comunicare 'n masă"=" 9ata de circulaie! care este foarte scă&ută pentru cotidiene #mai puin de două\$! este!

dimpotrivă! ridicată pentru reviste #B! sau mai multe\$"B" 9ata este de asemenea foarte ridicată 'n mediile industriale şi studeneşti #biblioteci\$"" +resa scrisă este singurul mijloc de comunicare 'n masă care face posibilă argumentarea

pe larg"D" (ntruc1t revistele sunt răsfoite foarte frecvent! reclamele lor c1ştigă proporional 'n

audienă"E" Aspectul calitativ al publicului este repre&entat de caracteristicile sale socio-economice!

socio-demografice şi de obiceiurile sale de consum"H" * combinaie ideală trebuie să permită punerea 'n aplicaie a unor suporturi publicitare

care se bucură de o mare credibilitate"<K" 2a trebuie de asemenea să mărească la ma%imum acoperirea individuală a audienei-intă"<<" cara de eficienă a unui astfel de suport publicitar este proporia din inta atinsă care

aparine audienei totale şi care corespunde audienei relevante"<=" Cumularea audienei indică după c1te inserii se consideră că s-a atins cel puin o dată

audiena totală a unui suport publicitar"

/! Read and translate the follo%ing te&ts:

EDCATI54 I4 8!EAT *!ITAI4

I"

2ducation in ;reat .ritain is compulsory and free for all children between the ages of D and<E" At the age of <E about =PB of pupils leave school and get jobs" About <PB stay at schooluntil the age of <" 6here are about BK!KKK state schools with =!KKK private fee-payingschools"

%!I3A!9 'CH556' Children attend a primary school for E years! from D to <<" +rimaryschool may be housed in a single building with two departments: Infant and 5unior or inseparate schools! Infants #D to H\$ and 5unior #H to <<\$"

'EC54DA!9 'CH556' A comprehensive school offers D-year courses to pupils of alllevels of ability" +romotion to a higher class every year does not depend upon e%aminationresults! it is almost automatic" +upils never repeat the year"

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THE 4ATI54A6 C!!IC63  *ne of the most important changes in education brought the 2ducation 9eform Act in <J" It was the introduction of a )ational Curriculumfor children aged D to <E in all state schools" It consists of <K subjects which all children muststudy at school" 6hey are:3oundation subjects: 2nglish! /ath! cience! a modern foreign language #for <<-<E yearolds\$! 6echnology and 4esign! >istory! ;eography! /usic! Art and +hysical 2ducation"

9eligious 2ducation is reOuired for pupils as part of the basic curriculum! although parentshave a right to withdraw their children from religious classes" +upils progress in subjects ismeasured by written and practical tests"

E:A34ATI54' 8C'Es and A-levels #Advanced level e%aminations\$" ;C2s stands forthe ;eneral Certificate of econdary 2ducation" +upils sit for the ;C2s e%ams at the end ofD-year course" 6hey usually ta@e as many subjects as possible" Lea@ students may only sit forthree or four subjects"

.etter students will ta@e five or si%" /ore ambitious pupils continue with Eth form" 6heyremain at school for two more years and ta@e their A-level e%ams"

THE 'I:TH 15!3 /ost secondary schools have Eth-form departments providing one- ortwo-year courses" ome pupils! however go to a special Eth-form college! where theatmosphere is less li@e at school and where they are treated as adults"

At the Eth-form stage students are highly specialised in three or four subjects which will prepare students either for entry to 8niversity! +olytechnic or College of 3urther education! orfor direct entry into employment in industry or commerce"

II.

;reat .ritain doesnFt have a written constitution! so there are no constitutional provisions foreducation" 6he system of education is determined by the )ational 2ducation Acts" chools in

2ngland are supported from public funds paid to the local education authorities" 6hese localeducation authorities are responsible for organi&ing the schools in their areas" If we outline the basic features of public education in .ritain! firstly weFll see that in spite of most educational purposes 2ngland X Lales are treated as one unit! though the system in Lales is a differentfrom that of 2ngland" cotland X )othern Ireland have their own education systems" 6heneducation in .ritain mirrors the countryFs social system: itFs class-divided X selected" 6he firstdivision is! as you! I thin@! have already guessed! is between those who do X donFt pay" 6hemajority of schools in .ritain are supported by public funds X the education provided is free"6hey are maintained schools! but thereFs also a considerable number of public schools" /ost

pupils go to schools which offer free education! although fee-paying independent schools alsohave an important role to play" Another important feature of schooling in .ritain is the variety

of opportunities offered to schoolchildren" 6he 2nglish school syllabus is divided into ArtsPor>umanitiesP and ciences which determine the division of the secondary school pupils intostudy groups: a science pupil will study Chemistry! +hysics! /athematics! 2conomics!6echnical 4rawing ! .iology! ;eographyS an Art pupil will do 2nglish 7anguage and Limba engleza

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7iterature! >istory! foreign languages! /usic! Art! 4rama" .esides these subjects they mustdo some general education subjects li@e +2! >ome 2conomics for girls! 6echnical subjects forgirls! ;eneral cience" Computers play an important part in education" 6he system of optionse%ists in all @inds of secondary schools" 6he national 2ducation Act in <J provided B stagesof education: primary! secondary and further education" 2verybody has a right to school placefor a child from age D to <E! and a school of college place for him or her from <E to <" 6hese

places are provided free of charge" 2verybody has a duty to ma@e sure that the child goes toschool until he or she is <E! that means that education is a compulsory from age D to <E P<<years in wholeP" 6hereFs no law which provides for education on the underfives" In 2nglandabout HN of three- X four-year-olds receive education in nursery schools or classes" Inaddition many children attend informal pre-school play groups organi&ed by parents andvoluntary bodies" In <J 6he )ational Curriculum was introduced" It sets out in detail thesubjects that children should study and the levels of achievement they should reach by theages of H! <<! < X <E! when they are tested" 6he tests are designed to be easier for teachers tomanage than they were in the past" /ost pupils will also be entered for ;C2sP;eneralCertificate of the econdary 2ducationP or other public e%aminations! including vocationalOualifications if they are <E" 8ntil that year headmasters and headmistresses of schools were

given a great deal of freedom in deciding what subjects to teach and how to do it in theirschools so that there was really no central control at all over individual schools" 6he )ationalCurriculum does not apply in cotland! where each school decides what subject it will teach"6he child is taught the subjects he or she must study under the )ational Curriculum" 6hese are2nglish! /aths! ciencePthe core subjectsP! 6echnology! a foreign language in secondaryschool! as it was mentioned! +2! >istory! ;eography! Art! /usicP foundation subjectsP" 6helast ones are not compulsory after the age of <" .ut the child must be given religiouseducation unless the parents decide otherwise" 2ach subject has a set programme of study andattaining levels for each subject covering the years from D to <E" 6hereFre <K levels" 6he fullreOuirements of the )ational Curriculum are being introduced gradually" All the pupils will befollowing it in full by eptember <JJH"6he )ational Curruculum itself was introduced in

<JJ#until that time the schools had a curriculum supervised by the local 72A\$" According to6he )ational Curriculum schools are allowed to introduce a fast stream for bright children"Actually after young people reach <E they have main FroadsF of their ne%t life: they can leavethe school! stay at school! move to a college as a full time student! combine part-time studywith a job! perhaps through the ?outh 6raining programme" chool-leavers without jobs getno money from the government unless they join a youth training scheme ! which provides aliving allowance during = years of wor@ e%perience" .ut a growing number of school studentsare staying on at school! some until < or <J! the age of entry into higher education oruniversities! +olytechnics or colleges" chools in .ritain provide careers guidance" Aspecially trained person called careers advisor! or careers officer helps school students todecide what job they want to do and how they can achieve that" )ow let us tal@ about the

e%ams the young people in .ritain ta@e during their process of education" ince <J! mostsi%teen-year-old have ta@en the ;C2 in D!<K of even <D subjects" +upils going on to highereducation or professional training usually ta@e FAF level e%aminations in two or three subjects"6hese reOuire two more years of study after ;C2! either in the si%th form of a secondaryschool! or in a separate E-form college" *thers may choose vocational subjects P catering!tourism! secretariat! building s@illsP" ubsidi&ed courses in these subjects are run at colleges offurther education"

III"

ited ;igdom

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tructure of 2ducational ystem+re-higher 2ducation ystem>igher 2ducation ystem

I)6I686I*) 6?+2 X C9242)6IA7

Tpes of higher ed"catio istit"tios0

8niversity

*pen 8niversity

College and Institution of >igher 2ducation

*pen College

College of 6echnology

6eacher 6raining College

Institute

'chool lea\$ig ad higher ed"catio credetials0

;eneral Certificate of econdary 2ducation

;eneral Certificate of 2ducation Advanced 7evel

3irst 4iploma

)ational 4iploma

>igher )ational Certificate

>igher )ational 4iploma

Certificate

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Alina Cheşcă The sequence of tenses

4iploma

4iploma of >igher 2ducation

3oundation 4egree

.achelorFs 4egree

.achelorFs >onours 4egree

/asterFs 4egree #taught\$

/asterFs 4egree

/aster of +hilosophy

4octorate

>igher 4octorate

698C6892 *3 248CA6I*) ?62/

%re7higher ed"catio0

4uration of compulsory education:

Age of entry: D

Age of e%it: <E

tructure of school system:

%rimary

6ype of school providing this education: Combined 5unior and Infant chool

7ength of program in years: E

Age level from: D to: <<

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Alina Cheşcă The sequence of tenses

3asic 5irst *tage

6ype of school providing this education: Infant chool

7ength of program in years: =

Age level from: D to: H 3asic *econd *tage

6ype of school providing this education: 5unior chool

7ength of program in years:

Age level from: H to: <<

)om"rehensi#e

6ype of school providing this education: Comprehensive chool

7ength of program in years: D

Age level from: << to: <E

CertificatePdiploma awarded: ;eneral Certificate of econdary 2ducation#;C2\$P0ocational Certificate of econdary 2ducation #0C2\$

*econdary

6ype of school providing this education: econdary /odern

7ength of program in years: D

Age level from: << to: <E

CertificatePdiploma awarded: ;eneral Certificate of econdary 2ducation#;C2\$P0ocational Certificate of econdary 2ducation #0C2\$

6ype of school providing this education: ;rammar chool

7ength of program in years: D

Age level from: << to: <E

CertificatePdiploma awarded: ;eneral Certificate of econdary 2ducation#;C2\$P0ocational Certificate of econdary 2ducation #0C2\$

Technical

6ype of school providing this education: C6C #City 6echnology College\$

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7ength of program in years: D

Age level from: << to: <E

CertificatePdiploma awarded: ;eneral Certificate of econdary 2ducation

#C;2\$P0ocational Certificate of econdary 2ducation #0C2\$*ith 5orm

6ype of school providing this education: i%th 3orm

7ength of program in years: =

Age level from: <E to: <

CertificatePdiploma awarded: ;eneral Certificate of 2ducation Advanced 7evelP;eneral

'chool ed"catio0

+rimary education may ta@e the form of combined junior and infant schools and therefore lastsfor si% years or a first stage covering infant schools #two years\$ and a second stage covering

junior schools #four years\$" econdary education covers schooling from the age of eleven tothe minimum school leaving age of si%teen" +upils follow a common curriculum leading to the

;C2 and 0C2" 6hey may combine a number of ;C2s! 0C2s or a combination of both"At some schools! pupils may stay on at a school si%th form for a further two years when theysit for the ;eneral Certificate of 2ducation Advanced 7evel #;C2 A 7evels\$ or the ;eneralCertificate of 2ducation Advanced ubsidiary e%aminations #;C2 A e%aminations\$! orvocational courses leading usually to a 0ocational Certificate of 2ducation Advanced7evelP0ocational Certificate of 2ducation Advanced ubsidiary 7evel\$" 3urther educationcolleges also offer these courses"

Higher ed"catio0

>igher education is provided by three main types of institutions: universities! colleges andinstitutions of higher education and art and music colleges" All universities are autonomousinstitutions! particularly in matters relating to courses" 6hey are empowered by a 9oyalCharter or an Act of +arliament" As a result of the 3urther and >igher 2ducation Act of <JJ=!the binary line separating universities and polytechnics was abolished and polytechnics weregiven university status #i"e"! the right to award their own degrees\$ and too@ university titles"6he Council for )ational Academic Awards was abolished! leaving most institutions to confertheir own degrees" >igher 2ducation 3unding Councils were created for 2ngland! cotlandand Lales! replacing the 8niversities 3unding Council and the +olytechnics and Colleges

3unding Council" /ost universities are divided into faculties which may be subdivided intodepartments" 8niversities 8T e%amines matters of concern to all universities" /any collegesand institutions of higher education are the result of mergers of teacher training colleges and

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other colleges" 6he 4epartment for 2ducation and @ills is responsible for all universities" )on-university higher education institutions also provide degree courses! various non-degreecourses and postgraduate Oualifications" ome may offer >igher 4egrees and otherOualifications offered by most non-university higher education institutions are validated bye%ternal bodies such as a local university or the *pen 8niversity" An institution can also apply

for the authority to award its own degrees but it must be able to demonstrate a good record ofrunning degree courses validated by other universities" Institutions can apply for universitystatus but must satisfy a number of criteria! including the power to award its own first andhigher degrees" ome higher education is also provided in further education institutions" 6his

provision is funded by the >igher 2ducation 3unding Councils and the 4epartment of2ducation )orthern Ireland" 6he 3urther and >igher 2ducation Act <JJ= allows for thetransfer of further education institutions to the higher education sector! if Fthe full-timeenrolment number of the institution concernedGfor courses of higher education e%ceeds DDNof its total full-time eOuivalent enrolment numberF"

3ai la&s/decrees go\$erig higher ed"catio0

4ecree: 2ducation 9eform Act ?ear: <J

4ecree: 3urther and >igher 2ducation Act ?ear: <JJ=

4ecree: >igher 2ducation Act ?ear: =KK

Classes from: ep to: 5ul

7ong vacation from: < 5ul to: BK ep

6ag"ages of istr"ctio0 2nglish

'tages of st"dies0

)on-university level post-secondary studies #technicalPvocational type\$:

)on-university level:

)on-university level post-secondary technical education is provided by technical colleges!colleges of further and higher education and accredited independent colleges which offer alarge number of courses leading to a vocational Oualification" 6he .usiness and 6echnology2ducation Council offers many vocational courses leading to the .62C 3irst 4iploma #oneyear! full-time\$ or to the .62C )ational 4iploma #two to three years! full-time\$" A >igher

)ational 4iploma is conferred after three yearsF study by the .usiness and 6echnology2ducation Council" As regards professional education! the professions have laid down their

own professional Oualifications #some thirty major professional bodies e%ist\$"

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8niversity level studies:

8niversity level first stage0 8ndergraduate stage:

6his stage lasts for three or four years and leads to the award of a .achelorFs 4egree in Arts!cience or other fields #6echnology! 7aw! 2ngineering! etc"\$" In some cottish universities

the first degree is a /asterFs 4egree" 6he .achelorFs 4egree is conferred as a +ass 4egree oran >onours 4egree where studies are more speciali&ed" 6he .achelorFs >onours 4egree isclassified as a 3irst Class >onours! a econd Class >onours or a 6hird Class >onours" Insome universities and colleges of higher education! a two-year course leads to a 4iploma in>igher 2ducation #4ip>2\$" 6his is a recogni&ed Oualification in its own right" omeuniversities have adopted the credit-unit or modular system of assessment" In someuniversities students must follow a foundation course before embar@ing on the courseleading to the .achelorFs 4egree" tudents of foreign languages are sometimes reOuired tostudy or wor@ for an additional year in the country of the target language" andwich courses

generally involve an additional yearFs wor@ e%perience" ome institutions have introducedaccelerated two-year degrees which reOuire students to study during the normal vacation

period" It is now rare for the class of degree to depend entirely on student performance infinal e%aminations" /ost institutions base a component of the degree class on e%aminationsta@en during the period of study! especially those ta@en at the end of the second year! andmany also use some form of continuous assessment" 6he majority of degree courses alsoinvolve the research and writing of an e%tensive thesis or dissertation! normally ma@ing uparound DKN of the final year assessment"

8niversity level second stage0 /asterFs 4egree! /aster of +hilosophy:

tudy at masterFs level is at the forefront of an academic or professional discipline" tudentsmust show originality in their application of @nowledge and advancement of @nowledge"6he normal entry reOuirement for a /asterFs degree is a good .achelorFs degree" A /asterFsdegree is normally studied over one year" ome /asterFs programmes! including the /"2ng!are integrated in undergraduate programmes and result in a postgraduate Oualification! notan undergraduate one! after four years of study"At a university! after two years of additionalstudy and the successful presentation of a thesis! students obtain the /aster of +hilosophy#/"+hil\$ degree"

8niversity level third stage0 4octor of +hilosophy! >igher 4octorate:

After usually three yearsF further study beyond the /asterFs 4egree! the candidate may present a thesis for the 4octorate of +hilosophy #4"+hil" or +h"4"\$"A further stage leads to>igher 4octorates which may be awarded by a university in 7aw! >umanities! cience!/edical ciences! /usic and 6heology after a candidate! usually a senior universityteacher! has submitted a number of learned! usually published! wor@s"

6eacher education:

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Alina Cheşcă The sequence of tenses

6raining of pre-primary and primaryPbasic school teachers

+rimary school teachers must hold a first degree and a +ostgraduate Certificate of 2ducationawarded by a university or college of higher education" Alternatively! they must hold a .2d4egree and have a Oualified teacher status which can be obtained after successful

completion of an approved course of initial teacher training #I66\$" 6he main types of I66courses are the one-year +ostgraduate Certificate in 2ducation course or the .achelor of2ducation #.2d\$ course"

6raining of secondary school teachers

econdary school teachers must hold a first degree and a +ostgraduate Certificate of2ducation awarded by a university or college of higher education" Alternatively they musthold a .2d 4egree and have a Oualified teacher status which can be obtained aftersuccessful completion of an approved course of initial teacher training #I66\$" 6he maintypes of I66 courses are the one-year +ostgraduate Certificate in 2ducation course or the.achelor of 2ducation #.2d\$ course which normally lasts for four years"

6raining of higher education teachers

>igher education teachers normally hold a higher degree"

4istance higher education

6he *pen 8niversity offers instruction for part-time study for degrees and other courses bycorrespondence! supplemented by radio and television broadcasts! residential summerschools and an e%tensive counselling and tutorial service which operates through local studycentres" 6hree main types of course are available: undergraduate level courses! postgraduatecourses and study pac@s" 6hey are offered as part of Certificate! 4iploma or 4egree

programmes" 8ndergraduate students ta@e a series of courses which are worth one half or

one full credit" A one-credit course is estimated to reOuire BDK-KK hours of study" An*rdinary 4egree .A or .c is awarded to students who have obtained si% creditsS an>onours degree #.A or .c >onours\$ to students who have obtained two of these credits atthe higher levels of study" tudents may choose from a selection of <B courses at fourlevels of difficulty" 8p to three credits may be allowed for previous Oualifications such as aninitial teacher training Oualification or a >igher )ational 4iploma" 6he *pen College offersvocational and professional training often leading to recogni&ed Oualifications" 6he *penCollege of Arts! set up in <JH! is affiliated to the *pen 8niversity" It aids students of thearts who wish to study at home" It receives no government funding but as a registered

charity it receives donations from other organi&ations"

7ifelong higher education

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Alina Cheşcă The sequence of tenses

Ed"catio i <ales

)owadays education in Lales differs slightly from the system used in 2ngland" 6he statutory

national @ey stage tests in Lales were! until =KKK! the same as in 2ngland and were managed

by the chool Curriculum and Assessment Authority #CAA\$" In =KKK! the )ational

Assembly for Lales too@ responsibility for these tests in Lales! at which point they weredeveloped by test agencies on behalf of the Awdurdod Cymwysterau! Cwricwlwm ac Asesu

Cymru #ACCAC\$! whilst the tests in 2ngland were developed for the Yualifications and

Curriculum Authority #YCA\$" In =KK=! the Lelsh Assembly decided to cease the tests at Tey

tage *ne" Instead! optional teacher assessment materials were provided to schools in =KKB

originally been developed by the )ational 3oundation for 2ducational 9esearch #)329\$ and

the other test agencies to be used as statutory assessment materials for =KKB" At the end of

=KKB! the 4augherty 9eport was commissioned by the Lelsh Assembly to underta@e a reviewof the countryFs assessment procedures" 6he interim report by the committee was perceived by

the media as supporting a complete abolishment of the assessments at @ey stages two and

three"

The school years in England and 3ales

In general! the cut-off point for ages is the end of August! so all children must be of a

particular age on the <st of eptember in order to begin class that month"

• +rimary 2ducation

o Infant chool or +rimary chool

9eception! age to D

?ear <! age D to E

?ear =! age E to H #T< )ational Curriculum 6ests - 2ngland only\$

o

5unior chool or +rimary chool

?ear B! age H to

?ear ! age to J

?ear D! age J to <K

?ear E! age <K to << #2leven plus e%ams in some areas of 2ngland! Tey

tage = )ational Curriculum 6ests\$

• econdary 2ducation

o /iddle chool! >igh chool or econdary chool

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?ear H! old 3irst 3orm! age << to <=

?ear ! old econd 3orm! age <= to <B

?ear J! old 6hird 3orm! age <B to < #Tey tage B )ational

Curriculum 6ests! @nown as A6s #tandard Assessment 6ests\$\$

o 8pper chool or econdary chool

?ear <K! old 3ourth 3orm! age < to <D

?ear <<! old 3ifth 3orm! age <D to <E #old * 7evel e%aminations!

modern ;C2 e%aminations\$

o 8pper chool! econdary chool! or i%th 3orm College

?ear <= or 7ower i%th! age <E to <H #A-level e%aminations\$

?ear <B or 8pper i%th! age <H to < #A=-level e%aminations" .oth A-

levels and A=-levels count towards A-levels "\$

In some regions of 2ngland! pupils attend a 7ower #+rimary\$ chool before going to! a

/iddle chool between and <= or! more commonly J and <B! and then a >igh chool or

8pper chool" *ther! more vocational Oualifications offered including ;)0Ys and .62Cs "

2ducation in cotland differs from the system used elsewhere in the 8nited Tingdom "

.asically! there are two systems: one covering 2ngland ! Lales ! or )orthern Ireland and one

covering cotland " 6he two education systems have different emphases" 6raditionally! the

2nglish! Lelsh and )orthern Irish system has emphasised depth of education whereas the

cottish system has emphasised breadth" 6hus 2nglish! Lelsh and )orthern Irish students

tend to sit a small number of more advanced e%aminations and cottish students tend to sit alarger number of less advanced e%aminations"

The school years in Scotland

In general! the cut-off point for ages is the end of August! so all children must be of a

particular age on the <st of eptember in order to begin class that month"

•  )ursery chool

o ?ear <! age B - D"

• +rimary chool

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o +rimary <! age range - E"

o +rimary =! age range D - H"

o +rimary B! age range E - "

o +rimary ! age range H - J"

o +rimary D! age range - <K"

o +rimary E! age range J - <<"

o +rimary H! age range <K - <="

• econdary chool

o 3irst year! age range << - <B"

o econd year! age range <= - <"

o 6hird year! age range <B - <D"

o 3ourth year! age range < - <E"

o 3ifth year! age range <D - <H"

o i%th year! age range <E - <"

)ote that the age ranges specify the youngest age for a child entering that year and the oldest

age for a child leaving that year" Also note that children may leave school at the end of any

school year after they reach <E years of age and that they may attend cottish universities

when they are <H" 6herefore two sets of national e%aminations are held" 6he first set! the

tandard ;rade e%aminations! ta@e place in the 3ourth year of secondary school and show

basic education level" 6he second set! the >igher e%aminations ta@e place in the 3ifth and

i%th years" A third level! Advanced >igher! is sometimes ta@en by students intending to

study at an 2nglish university! or those wishing to pass straight into second year at a cottish

university! and covers the gap between the cottish M>igherM level and the 2nglish

MAdvancedM level courses! although there is not always a one-to-one mapping"

2ducation in )orthern Ireland differs slightly from the system used elsewhere in the 8nited

Tingdom " 6he )orthern Irish system emphasises a greater depth of education compared to

the 2nglish  and Lelsh  systems" 6he majority of e%aminations sat! and education plans

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followed! in )orthern Irish schools are set by the Council for Curriculum! 2%aminations and

Assessment # CC2A \$"

chool holidays in )orthern Ireland are also considerably different to the rest of the 8nited

Tingdom " )orthern Irish schools generally only get < day off for the half term holiday #in

3ebruary! /ay and *ctober" Christmas holidays usually only consist of a wee@ or so! thesame with the 2aster vacation! compared to 2nglands two wee@s" 6he major difference

however is that )orthern Irish summer holidays are considerably longer with the entirety of

5uly and August off giving a nine wee@ summer holiday"

The school years in orthern 5reland

In general! the cut-off point for ages is the end of August! so all children must be of a

particular age on the <st of eptember in order to begin class that month"

• +rimary 2ducation

o +rimary chool

+rimary <! age to D

+rimary =! age D to E

+rimary B! age E to H

+rimary ! age H to

+rimary D! age to J

+rimary E! age J to <K

+rimary H! age <K to << # 2leven plus e%ams to determine secondary

school placement"\$

• econdary 2ducation

o >igh chool or ;rammar chool

3irst 3orm! age << to <=

econd 3orm! age <= to <B

6hird 3orm! age <B to <

3ourth 3orm! age < to <D

3ifth 3orm! age <D to <E #old *-7evel e%aminations! modern ;C2e%aminations\$

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o >igh chool! ;rammar chool! or i%th 3orm College

7ower i%th! age <E to <H #A-level e%aminations! where applicable\$

8pper i%th! age <H to < # A-levels \$

%rimar ed"catio

+rimary or elementary education is the first years of formal! structured education that occurs

during childhood" In most Lestern countries! it is compulsory for children to receive primary

education #though in many jurisdictions it is permissible for parents to provide it\$"

+rimary education generally begins when children are four to seven years of age" 6he division

between primary and secondary education is somewhat arbitrary! but it generally occurs atabout twelve years of age # adolescence \$S some educational systems have separate middle

schools for that period" +rimary and secondary education together are sometimes #in

particular! in Canada and the 8nited tates \$ referred to as M T-<= M education! #T is for

@indergarten! <= is for twelfth grade\$"

6ypically! primary education is provided in schools ! where #in the absence of parental

movement or other intervening factors\$ the child will stay! in steadily advancing classes! until

they complete it and move on to secondary schooling" Children are usually placed in classeswith one teacher who will be primarily responsible for their education and welfare for that

year" 6his teacher may be assisted to varying degrees by specialist teachers in certain subject

areas! often music or physical education" 6he continuity with a single teacher and the

opportunity to build up a close relationship with the class is a notable feature of the primary

education system" *ver the past few decades! schools have been testing various arrangements

which brea@ from the one-teacher! one-class mold"

6he major goals of primary education are achieving basic literacy and numeracy amongst all

their students! as well as establishing foundations in science! geography! history and othersocial sciences " 6he relative priority of various areas! and the methods used to teach them! are

an area of considerable political debate"

6raditionally! various forms of corporal punishment were an integral part of early education

in the 8T" 6his practice has now been outlawed in the 8T"

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;idergarte

6he ;erman e%pression @indergarten usually refers to the first level of official education !

according to the T-<= educational system" Tindergarten is usually administered in an

elementary school "

6he eOuivalent in 2ngland and Lales is reception " 6he Australian eOuivalent of this is the

preparatory grade #commonly called Fgrade prepF or FprepF\$! which is the year before the first

grade" In the state of )ew outh Lales ! however! it is called @indergarten" At least in

0ictoria ! @indergarten #distinct from grade prep\$ is a form of! and used interchangeably with!

pre-school "

6he first @indergarten was opened in <BH in .ad .lan@enburg ! ;ermany by 3riedrichLilhelm August 3rZbel "

6he first @indergarten in the 8nited tates was established by /argarethe #/argaretta\$ /eyer

chur& #wife of activistPstatesman Carl chur& \$! in Latertown! 4odge County! Lisconsin "

?oungsters ! usually aged -E attend @indergarten to learn the finer points of meeting friends

#and enemies\$! professional authority #in the form of a teacher \$! playtime ! naptime !

drawing ! music ! sometimes the basics of reading and writing ! and various other activities"

3or children who previously have spent most of their time at home! @indergarten often servesthe purpose of training them to be apart from their parents without an%iety"

6he youngster continues to ;rade < after @indergarten"

6he actual word M@indergartenM! as one may guess! translates to MchildrenFs gardenM" /any

FTindergardenF" Tindergarten establishment #day-care\$ in ;ermany are for pre-school children

of all ages and are often run by churches! city or town administrations" Tindergartens

#;erman plural Tinderg[rten \$ in ;ermany are not a part of the actual school system! such as

in the 8A"

Tindergartens often last only for half a day #morning or afternoon\$! though in many locations

there are full-day @indergartens"

Elemetar school

6he elementary school consists of the first seven years of school! that is! grades < through D or

E! as well as  @indergarten ! a preliminary year of school before grade < #@nown in 2ngland Limba engleza

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and Lales as F 9eception F\$" *riginally! however! it was studied after primary school in the

<Jth century! #some schools that have only the youngest students are called primary schools to

this day\$" Also @nown as grammar school in the 8nited tates it is a major segment of

compulsory education" 8ntil the latter third of the =Kth century! however! grammar school #or

elementary school\$ was grades < through " After grammar school! one usually attends high

school " #In many districts! grades D- or D-J were called M middle school M! or furtherseparated into M intermediate school M! Mmiddle schoolM! andPor M junior high school M"\$

'ecodar ed"catio

econdary education ! or secondary school ! is a period of education which follows directly

after primary education #such as intermediate school or elementary school \$! and which may

be followed by tertiary or Mpost-secondaryM education" 6he purpose of a secondary educationcan be to prepare for either  higher education or vocational training " 6he e%act boundary

between primary and secondary education varies from country to country and even within

them! but is generally around the seventh to the tenth year of education! with middle school

covering any gaps" econdary education occurs mainly during the teenage years" +rimary and

secondary education together are sometimes #in particular! in Canada and the 8nited tates \$

referred to as M T-<= M education! # T is for @indergarten ! <= is for twelfth grade\$"

8rammar schools i the ited ;igdom

In education in the 8nited Tingdom ! a grammar school is a secondary school attended by

pupils aged << to < to which entry is controlled by means of an academically selective

process consisting! largely or e%clusively! of a written e%amination " After leaving a grammar

school! as with any other secondary school! a student may go into further education at a

college or university "

6he e%amination is called the eleven plus " +artly due to the failure to fully implement the tri-

partite system prescribed by the <J 2ducation Act! the e%amination came to be seen as

delivering a passPfail result with the academically selected pupils passing and attending

grammar schools and the remaining pupils being deemed to have failed and being consigned

to the poorly funded schools euphemistically designated econdary /odern chools "

6his arrangement proved politically unsustainable! and! over the period <JEK to <JHD! non-

selective #McomprehensiveM\$ education was instituted across a substantial majority of the

country" 6he eleven plus e%amination had been championed by the educational psychologist

Cyril .urt and the uncovering of his fraudulent research played a minor part in accelerating

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6o understand grammar schools in the 8T! some history is needed" After Lorld Lar II ! the

government reorganised the secondary schools into two basic types" econdary moderns were

intended for children who would be going into a trade and concentrated on the basics plus

practical s@illsS grammar schools were intended for children who would be going on to higher

education and concentrated on the classics! science! etc" 6his system lasted until the <JEKs! at

which point changes in the political climate led to the general acceptance that this was adiscriminatory system which was not getting the best out of all children" 6his was partly

because some authorities tended to prioritise their budgets on the grammar schools! damaging

the education prospects of children attending secondary moderns"

6he decision was ta@en to switch to a single type of school designed to give every child a

complete education" 6hat is why this new type of school is called a comprehensive school"

>owever the timetable of the changeover was left to the local authorities! some of whom were

very resistant to the whole idea and thus dragged their feet for as long as possible" 6he resultis that there is now a mi%ture" /ost authorities run a proper comprehensive system! a few run

essentially the old system of secondary moderns and grammar schools #e%cept the secondary

moderns are now called McomprehensivesM\$" ome run comprehensive schools along side one

or two remaining grammar schools"

6he 7abour government that came to power in <JJH instituted measures that allowed parents

to force a local referendum on whether to abolish grammar schools in their area" 6he form of

this referendum depends on whether there is still a full two-tier system running! in which case

all parents with children at primary schools in the area are eligible to vote! or whether thereare only a few grammar schools in the area! in which case only those parents with children at

primaries that regularly send children to the grammar school are eligible" .y =KKB! only a few

referenda had ta@en place and none of these had delivered the reOuisite majority for

conversion"

6he debate over selective education has been widened by other measures introduced by the

7abour government! allowing schools to select a portion of their inta@e by MaptitudeM for a

specific subject" 6here are many who thin@ that selection allows children to receive the formof education best suited for their abilities! while Mone-si&e-fits-allM comprehensives fail

everybody eOually" *ne of the greatest attac@s on the comprehensive system is that it leads! in

essence! to selection on the grounds of wealth as the good schools are generally located in

areas with e%pensive housing! so children from poor areas are denied the possibility of

attending them" Conversely! there are many who thin@ that the selection of children at <<

divides them into MsuccessesM and MfailuresM at that age! and is therefore wrong" 6he current

7abour government! from the party that originally championed comprehensive education!

appears to favour the first of these groups! and their introduction of local referenda on

grammar schools has been attac@ed by opponents of selective education as an unwor@able

system designed to give the semblance of choice while maintaining the status Ouo"

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+rivate schools generally give the same sort of education as grammar schools! but there are

e%ceptionsS ;ordonstoun for one" In areas where the local authority provides a comprehensive

education \ which some parents donFt li@e for various reasons \ independent schools are

particularly common"

Higher ed"catio

>igher education is education provided by universities and other institutions that award

academic degrees! such as university colleges! and liberal arts colleges "

>igher education includes both the teaching and the research activities of universities! and

within the realm of teaching! it includes both the undergraduate level #sometimes referred to

as tertiary education \$ and the graduate #or postgraduate \$ level #sometimes referred to asOuaternary education\$" >igher education differs from other forms of post-secondary education

such as vocational education " >owever! most professional education is included within

higher education! and many postgraduate Oualifications are strongly vocationally or

professionally oriented! for e%ample in disciplines such as law and medicine"

6here is a three-level hierarchy of degrees # .achelor ! /aster ! 4octor \$ currently used in the

8nited Tingdom"

postgrad in .ritish 2nglish\$ is an individual who has completed a bachelorFs degree #."A"!

.""P."c"! or another flavor\$ and is pursuing further higher education ! with the goal of

achieving a masterFs degree #/"A"! /""P/"c"! /"2d"! etc"\$ or doctorate #+h"4"! 2d"4"! 4"A"!

4"c"! 4"/"A"! 6h"4"! etc"\$ In the 8nited tates! graduate education can also refer to those pursuing a post-masterFs 2ducational pecialist degree or post-masterFs Certificate of

Advanced tudy" 6he term usually does not refer to one in medical school and only

occasionally refers to someone in law school or business school "

dmission

Admission to do a research degree in the 8T typically reOuires the sponsorship of a professor"

Admission to do a masterFs degree #based on coursewor@\$ depends upon having an

undergraduate degree! generally in a related subject"

6ife

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+ostgraduate wor@ at universities in the 8T is very intense"

+unding

It is very difficult to obtain funding for postgraduate study in the 8T" 6here are a few

scholarships for masterFs courses! but these are rare and dependent on the course and class ofundergraduate degree obtained" /ost masterFs students are self-funded"

3unding is available for some +h"4" courses" 6here is more funding available to those in the

sciences than in other disciplines

Costs

6he costs for a normal education in the 8nited Tingdom are as follows:

• +rimary: )o Charge

• econdary: )o Charge

• 3urther #econdary\$ 2ducation in either a si%th form or college: )o Charge if under <J

in that particular academic year or on a low income"

• >igherP6ertiary 2ducation #8niversity\$: A tuition fee per year

7ey 8e&ercise 29:

<" 6he circulation figures of the 60 press are ten times as high in 3rance as those of themajor naional dailies"

=" 60 has dealt the printed press a terrible blow by capturing the bul@ of general publicadvertising"

B" 9egular posters! on which a charge is levied! are often pasted over with MwildM posters"" 6he eOuipment rate for radio-sets #JJN\$ is even higher than the one for 60 sets"D" 6he recall rate for cinema advertising is four times as high as for 60 ads"E" Although relatively low-priced in relation to the number of people reached! 60

advertising is very e%pensive in terms of the amount of money needed"H" *nly large advertisers can afford 60 ads to e%tol their products"" ome press media refuse to have their circulation monitored and measured"J" Cinema-goers are to be found mainly among young people! urban dwellers and affluent

citi&ens"<K" 3or some managers of 60 channels! the number of viewers is all that counts"<<" *ne of the most obvious results is the downgrading of programmes"

<=" Another conseOuence is the boom of stupid and debasing 60 games"

7ey 8e&ercise 49:

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<" *ne should not confuse print-run and circulation"=" All printed copies are not necessarily sold"<" 6he cost of advertising space is the price to be paid for the message to be inserted inPrun

by any medium"=" 6he pass-on readership rate! which is very low for dailies #less than two\$ is on the

contrary high for maga&ines #B! or more\$"B" 6he rate is also very high in industry! and among students #libraries\$"" 6he printed press is the only medium in which arguments can be developed at length"D" As maga&ines are very freOuently leafed through! their advertisements gain proportionate

e%posure"E" 6he Oualitative measurement of the audience is represented by its socio-economic and

socio-demographic features! its consumption pattems"H" An ideal combination should enable to feature media that enjoy high credibility"

<K"It should also ma%imi&e the individual coverage of the target audience"<<"6he efficiency scale of such a medium is the proportion of the target being reached that

belongs to the overall audience and corresponds to the addressable audience"<="Audience cumulation indicates after how many insertions one considers that the overall

audience of a medium has been reached at least once"

TE3= DE C54T!56 (3e-ioat> pe %latforma 'a?ai)

<rite a essa of pages o The Higher Ed"catio i E"rope ad emphasizethe role of ed"catio i people@s li\$es.

*iliograph0

.roo@es! /ichael! >orner! 2" #=KK=\$ 3usiness English. Engleza "entru afaceri.

.ucureşti: 2d" 6eora"

.roo@es! /ichael" #=KKB\$" Engleza "entru +uri?ti. .ucureşti: 2d" 6eora"

Chifu! Iulian #=KK\$" Identity Conflicts" .ucureşti: +oliteia-)+A"

Chirălescu! /"! +aidos C" #=KKD\$" %roficiency in English. Institutul 2uropean"Coo@! 5"! ;ethin! A" #<JJD\$" A 0ew ;ay to %roficiency in English. *%ford"

4ayan! A"! 7indsay! L">" #=KKK\$"  Engleza "entru marketing si "ublicitate".ucureşti: 2ditura 6eora"

4elgiudice! 7uminita #<JJJ\$"  5ifty 4seful Tests in English" .ucureşti: 2d"Aramis"

4ema&et! .ertrand #<JJJ\$"  Engleza comertului eterior.  .ucureşti:  2ditura6eora"

;ălăeanu-31rnoagă! ;" #=KKK\$" Limba englez: >n con#ersatie. .ucureşti: 2d"

Vtiinifică şi 2nciclopedică";heorghitoiu! Andreea" #<JJ\$" -ictionar englez&roman de #erbe cu "articula

Limba engleza

8/12/2019 Unit.2%2c+Drept%2c+an+i%2c+Sem+i Unit.2%2c+Drept%2c+an+i%2c+Sem+i Unit.2%2c+Drept%2c+an+i%2…

Alina Cheşcă The sequence of tenses

>anga Calciu! 9odica #<JJE\$" Crestomatie de te%te juridice engle&e" .ucureşti:2d" 7umina 7e%"

>anga! 0ladimir #=KKK\$"  -ictionar +uridic englez&roman" .ucureşti: 7umina7e%"

>ealth! 9"." #=KK=\$" Im"act Assignments in English. 7ondon: 7ongman"

>ulban >" #<JJH\$" English for 2ou" Iaşi: 2d" 9ă&eşu"7e 4ivenach! 2loi #=KKD\$" Engleza in "resa" .ucureşti: 2ditura 6eora"

7upuleasa! 9" #=KK\$" eady for Eams. .ucureşti: 2ditura +olirom"

/arie-Claude! 9oland #=KKK\$" )7 in limba engleza.4n "as s"re anga+are".ucureşti: 2ditura 6eora"

/artin! /" Combe #=KKK\$" Listening and )om"rehending " /acmillan"

/ihaescu! Ale%andra #=KKH\$" \$ramatica limbii engleze" .ucureşti: 2ditura )iculescu"

/olnar *prea! )icoleta #=KKK\$" )urs de limba engleza "entru studentii facultatilor cu "rofil +uridic. .ucureşti: 2d" All 2ducational"

*prescu! imona #<JJJ\$" Engleza "entru +uri?ti" .ucureşti: 2d" *scar +rint"

+eters! 5o-Ann #=KK\$"  Let!s Learn English. Metod: Larousse de >n#:<are a

limbii engleze" .ucureşti: 2ditura 6eora"

9usu! 7iliana #=KK<\$"  Limba engleza "entru studentii facultatii de dre"t ".ucureşti: 2d" ylvi"