Unit1 Introduction

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Name: M.Vanitha Designation: Asst.Prof Email: mvanitha@vit.ac.in Cabin: 313A 19 SJT Contact Hours: - Friday (B1/B2 slots)

Why this subject? To acquire some understanding and appreciation of a computer systems functional components, their characteristics, their performance and their interactions. Need to understand computer architecture in order to structure a program so that it runs more efficiently on a real machine. In selecting a system to use, they should be able to understand the tradeoff among various components such as CPU clock speed vs memory size.

ITA407 COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE LTPC 3003Unit No. 1BASIC STRUCTURE OF COMPUTERS 9 Hrs Elements of Computers Limitations of Computers-Evaluation of computers Design Methodology - System design - System Representation, Design process, The Gate level the Register level- Register - level components, programmable logic devices, Register level design the Processor Level - Processor Level Components, Processor level design. Unit No. 2 PROCESSOR BASICS 9 Hrs CPU organization: Fundamentals; Data Representation: Basic formats, Fixed Point Numbers, Floating point numbers; Data Path Design-Fixed point arithmetic-Addition and Subtraction, Multiplication, Division; Arithmetic Logic Units- Combinational ALU, Sequential ALU


9 Hrs

Floating point Arithmetic, Pipeline Processing-Pipeline design- Parallelism in uni-processor system parallel computer structures vector processing requirements


9 Hrs

Memory technology: Memory Device Characteristics, Random Access Memory (RAM), Serial Access Memory; memory systems: Memory Allocation virtual memory -Caches: Main features, address mapping

Unit No. 5 I/O AND SYSTEM ORGANIZATION 9 HrsBasic concepts, Bus control IO and System Control: Programmed IO, DMA and Interrupts, IO processors, Operating Systems Multiprocessors and fault tolerant computers.

Text Books 1 John P Hayes, Computer architecture and organization, III edition McGraw2 2. M.M.Mano, Computer system architecture, PHI, 1982. References 1. John. L. Hennessy & David A. Patterson, Computer Architecture, Elsevier, India, 3rd Ed, 2003.

Hill, 199

2. Andrew S.Tanenbaum, Structured computer organization, PHI, 1990. 3. William Stallings, Computer organization and architecture, Addison Wrsley 5th edition, 2001. 4. Carl Hamacher, Zvonko Vranesic and Safwat Zaky, Computer organization, McGrawHill, 2002. 5. Kai Hwang, Advanced Computer architecture, McGraw-Hill1993.

Evaluation Procedure Quiz 1 (5M) CAT 1 (15M) Quiz 2 (5M) CAT 2 (15M) Quiz 3 (5M) Assignment / Mini project (5M) Term End Exam 50M

Computing the Last 100 years

A Brief History of Computers

The beginning of computing Abacus (3000BC)

Babbages Differential Engine (1823)

ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) Designed by Mauchly and Eckert University of Pennsylvania First general-purpose electronic digital computer Response to WW2 need to calculate trajectory tables for weapons. Built 1943-1946 too late for war effort. ENIAC DetailsDecimal (not binary) 20 accumulators of 10 digits Programmed manually by switches 18,000 vacuum tubes 30 tons 15,000 square feet 140 kW power consumption 5,000 additions per second

Vacuum Tube

THE DIFFERENCE ENGINE (1832) 25,000 parts

Vacuum tubes, 80 feet long, 8.5 feet high, several feet wide, total 18,000 BABBAGE tubes vacuum

It is for decimal number system, Which can perform A,S,M,D. To speed up addition ENIAC 1946uses operation it pipelining First Electronic tech.


Numeric Integrator and Calculator To reprogram the ENIAC you had to rearrange the patch cords that you can observe on the left in the prior photo, and the settings of 3000 switches that you can observe on the right

Alan Turing (1912-1954)

John Mauchly leaning on the UNIVersal Automatic Computer

Dr. Von-Neuman with IAS machineStored Program Concept Main memory storing programs and data ALU operating on binary data Control unit interpreting instructions from memory and executing Input and output equipment operated by control unit Princeton Institute for Advanced Studies (IAS). Completed 1952

The IBM 7094, a typical mainframe computer

2nd Generation: Transistor Based Computers Transistors replaced vacuum tubes Smaller Cheaper Less heat dissipation Made from Silicon (Sand) Invented 1947 at Bell Labs William Shockley et al. Commercial Transistor based computers: NCR & RCA produced small transistor machines IBM 7000 DEC 1957 (PDP-1)First transistor computer Manchester University 1953.

Second Generation (19581964) 1958 Philco introduces TRANSAC S-2000 first transistorized commercial machine

IBM 7070, 7074 (1960), 7072(1961) 1959 IBM 7090, 7040 (1961), 7094 (1962) 1959 IBM 1401, 1410 (1960), 1440 (1962) FORTRAN, ALGOL, and COBOL are first standardized programming languages

3rd Generation: Integrated Circuits A single, self-contained transistor is called a discrete component. Transistor based computers discrete components manufactured separately, packaged in their own containers, and soldered or wired together onto circuit boards. Early 2nd generation computers contained about 10,000 transistors but grew to hundreds of thousands!!!! Integrated circuits revolutionized electronics.Silicon Chip Collection of tiny transistors

Third Generation (1964-1971) April 1964 IBM announces the System/360 solid logic technology (integrated circuits) family of compatible computers

1964 Control Data delivers the CDC 6600 nanoseconds telecommunications BASIC, Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code

Fourth Generation (1971- ) Large scale integrated circuits (MSI, LSI) Nanoseconds and picoseconds Databases (large) Structured languages (Pascal) Structured techniques Business packages

Generations of Computers Vacuum tube - 1946-1957 (One bit Size of a hand) Transistor - 1958-1964Up to 100 devices on a chip(One bit Size of a fingernail)

Small scale integration - 1965 on Medium scale integration - to 1971100-3,000 devices on a chipThousands of bits on the size of a hand

Large scale integration - 1971-19773,000 - 100,000 devices on a chip

Very large scale integration - 1978 to date100,000 - 100,000,000 devices on a chip

Ultra large scale integrationOver 100,000,000 devices on a chip

Millions of bits on the size of a fingernail.

INTEL PROCESSORSProcessorIntel Intel Intel Intel 4004 8008 8080 8088

Transistor count2,300 2,500 4,500 29,000 134,000 275,000 1,200,000 3,100,000 7,500,000 9,500,000 42,000,000 47,000,000 220,000,000 291,000,000 582,000,000 592,000,000 731,000,000 1,700,000,000 1,900,000,000 2,000,000,000 2,300,000,000

Date of introduction1971 1972 1974 1979 1982 1985 1989 1993 1997 1999 2000 2008 2003 2006 2006 2004 2008 2006 2008 (future) (future)

ManufacturerIntel Intel Intel Intel Intel Intel Intel Intel Intel Intel Intel Intel Intel Intel Intel Intel Intel Intel Intel Intel Intel

Intel 80286 Intel 80386 Intel 80486 Pentium Pentium II Pentium III Pentium 4 Atom Itanium 2 Core 2 Duo Core 2 Quad Itanium 2 with 9MB cache Core i7 (Quad) Dual-Core Itanium 2 Six-Core Xeon 7400 Quad-Core Itanium Tukwila 8-Core Xeon Nehalem-EX

Digital Equipment Corporation (Mini-computers)

PDP-8, Programmed Data Processor

PDP-11 (1970)

Intel Noyce, Moore, and Andrew Grove leave Fairchild and found Intel in 1968 focus on random access memory (RAM) chips

Question: if you can put transistors, capacitors, etc. on a chip, why couldnt you put a central processor on a chip? Ted Hoff designs the Intel 4004, the first microprocessor in 1969 based on Digitals PDP-8


Intel processors CPU Year 4004 1971 8008 1972 8080 1974 8088 1980 80286 1982 80386 1985 80486 1989 Pentium1993 Data 4 8 8 8 16 32 32 64 Memory MIPS 1K 16K 64K 1M .33 1M 3 4G 11 4G 41 4G 111

Difference between Computer Architecture & Computer Organization

Organization of Von-Neumann Machine (IAS Computer) The task of entering and altering programs for ENIAC was extremely tedious Stored program concept says that the program is stored in the computer along with any relevant data A stored program computer consists of a processing unit and an attached memory system. The processing unit consists of data-path and control. The data-path contains registers to hold data and functional units, such as arithmetic logic units and shifters, to operate on data.

Structure of Von Neumann Machine

Memory of the IAS

1000 storage locations called words. Each word 40 bits. A word may contain: A numbers stored as 40 binary digits (bits) sign bit + 39 bit value An instruction-pair. Each instruction: An opcode (8 bits) An address (12 bits) designating one of the 1000 words in memory.

Von Neumann Machine

MBR: Memory Buffer Register - contains the word to be stored in memory or just received from memory. MAR: Memory Address Register - specifies the address in memory of the word to be stored or retrieved. IR: Instruction Register - contains the 8-bit opcode currently being executed. IBR: Instruction Buffer Register - temporary store for RHS instruction from word in memory. PC: Program Counter - address of next instruction-pair to fetch from memory. AC: Accumulator & MQ: Multiplier quotient - holds operands and results of ALU ops.








IAS Instruction set

IAS Instruction set (continued)

Example of an Instruction-pair. Load M(100), Add M(101) 0000000100011111010000000