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UNIT - I. Syllabus Introduction to Open Source Operating Systems and Programming Languages, Introduction to Bharat Operating System (BOSS) GNU/Linux users

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  • UNIT - I
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  • Syllabus Introduction to Open Source Operating Systems and Programming Languages, Introduction to Bharat Operating System (BOSS) GNU/Linux users model GUI, System Folders, study Commands (Using command terminal) with switches : ls, Directory Commands, Change user, privileges, passwords, tty, who, config, make, rpm, yum, sudo, Shutdown Eclipse Editor, Compiler, Linker, Libraries, GUI, Configuring Programming Environments: C, C++. Java, Python (Pydev), Output, Debug windows 2 FPL-I UNIT-I
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  • Syllabus.. Introduction to types of Programming Languages Machine-level, Assemblylevel and High-level Languages, Scripting Languages, Natural Languages; Their relative Advantages and Limitations. Characteristics of a Good Programming Language; Selecting a Language out of many available languages for coding an application; subprograms. Short Introduction to LISP, Simulation Platforms: MATLAB and GNU Octave(Open Source), Importance of Documentation, Documentation Platform LATEX (Free ware/Open Source). 3 FPL-I UNIT-I
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  • What is Computer? Prof. N. B. Pokale Computer is an electronic device used to perform Arithmetic & logical operations depeneds on input given to it. Computers only understand binary language i.e. 0s and 1s FPL-I UNIT-I 4
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  • Generations of Computer First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Fifth Generation Prof. N. B. Pokale FPL-I UNIT-I 5
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  • First Generation H/W Technology Vacuum tubes S/W Technology M/C and Assembly Lang. Prof. N. B. Pokale Vacuum Tube FPL-I UNIT-I 6
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  • Second Generation H/W Technology Transistors S/W Technology High Level Lang. Prof. N. B. Pokale FPL-I UNIT-I 7
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  • Third Generation H/W Technology ICs with SSI and MSI technology S/W Technology Standardization of High Level Lang. Prof. N. B. Pokale FPL-I UNIT-I 8
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  • Fourth Generation H/W Technology ICs with VLSI technology, Microprocessors S/W Technology GUI based OS( multitasking), UNIX OS, C Lang, N/W based Applications,C,C++,smalltalk Prof. N. B. Pokale FPL-I UNIT-I 9
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  • Fifth Generation H/W Technology ICs with ULSI technology, Larger Capacity Main Memory & HDD S/W Technology WWW, Multimedia Applications, Internet Based applications Prof. N. B. Pokale FPL-I UNIT-I 10
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  • Terminologies Prof. N. B. Pokale PC Hardware (hard to change) Software (easy to change) System software E.g.Operating system Application software E.g. Railway reservation system FPL-I UNIT-I 11
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  • Prof. N. B. Pokale Figure 1-4: Software FPL-I UNIT-I 12
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  • Prof. N. B. Pokale Secondary storage Input devicesOutput devices Control unit Arithmetic/ logic unit Register storage area CPU Main Memory Structure of Computer FPL-I UNIT-I 13
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  • Hardware Components Central processing unit (CPU) A hardware component that performs computing functions utilizing the ALU, control unit, and registers. Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) Performs mathematical calculations and makes logical comparisons Control unit Coordinates flow of data in/out of ALU, registers, primary and secondary storage, and various output devices Prof. N. B. Pokale FPL-I UNIT-I 14
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  • Hardware Components Registers High-speed storage areas used to temporarily hold small units of program instructions and data immediately before, during, and after execution by the CPU Primary storage Holds program instructions and data (main memory) Prof. N. B. Pokale FPL-I UNIT-I 15
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  • Prof. N. B. Pokale Memory types Primary RAM,ROM Secondary HDD,CD,PenDrive FPL-I UNIT-I 16
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  • Devices for Secondary Storage HDD Compact Disk Read-Only Memory (CD- ROM) Digital Video Disks Memory cards Removable storage Prof. N. B. Pokale FPL-I UNIT-I 17
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  • Input Devices Prof. N. B. Pokale Digital cameras Scanning devices Touch sensitive screens Keyboard Mouse FPL-I UNIT-I 18
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  • Output Devices Display monitors Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs) Printers and plotters Prof. N. B. Pokale FPL-I UNIT-I 19
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  • Storage Capacity Unit Symbol kilobyte KB 2 10 = 1024 megabyte MB 2 20 =1024 KB gigabyte GB 2 30 = 1024 MB terabyte TB 2 40 = 1024 GB Prof. N. B. Pokale FPL-I UNIT-I 20
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  • Applications of computer Business application Industrial applications Home applications Education and Training Science applications Arts and Entertainment Prof. N. B. Pokale FPL-I UNIT-I 21
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  • Distribution of Software Software made available to intended users through two forms. i.Closed Source/Licensed ii.Open Source iii.Pirated FPL-I UNIT-IProf. N. B. Pokale 22
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  • Closed Source Software Closed source software is a proprietary software It is distributed under a licensing agreement to users. The users can not modify, copy, or redistribute the software FPL-I UNIT-IProf. N. B. Pokale 23
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  • Open Source Software Open-source software (OSS) is computer software that is available with source code. the source code and certain other rights normally reserved for copyright holders are provided under an open-source license that permits users to study, change, improve and at times also to distribute the software. Open source software is very often developed in a public, collaborative manner. Examples- Linux, Apache, Firfox, OpenOffice FPL-I UNIT-IProf. N. B. Pokale 24
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  • Introduction to Open Source Operating System BOSS BOSS is GNU/Linux distribution developed by C- DAC It is derived from Debian for enhancing the use of free/open source software throughout India. It has support for almost all Indian languages. It is available in all the official Indian languages such as Marathi, Hindi, Gujarati, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Tamil etc. FPL-I UNIT-IProf. N. B. Pokale 25
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  • Features of BOSS User friendly Graphical Installer Indian version of OpenOffice- Bharatheeoo 3D Desktop Auto detection of devices Hardware support for many electronic gadgets Auto mounting of all hard disk partitions Localization support for desktop Smart common input method Migration tool- Bulk document converter Internet tools- Pidgin, Firefox, X-chat, Ekiga Multimedia support Kennel- An application to send SMS FPL-I UNIT-IProf. N. B. Pokale 26
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  • Screen Shots of BOSS
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  • FPL-I UNIT-IProf. N. B. Pokale 28 Desktop Components
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  • FPL-I UNIT-IProf. N. B. Pokale 29 BOSS APPLICATION MENU
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  • FPL-I UNIT-IProf. N. B. Pokale 30 BOSS ACCESSORIES MENU
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  • FPL-I UNIT-IProf. N. B. Pokale 31 BOSS PLACES MENU
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  • FPL-I UNIT-IProf. N. B. Pokale 32 BOSS SYSTEM PREFERENCES
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  • FPL-I UNIT-IProf. N. B. Pokale 33 BOSS TERMINAL WINDOW
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  • Linux System Folders FPL-I UNIT-IProf. N. B. Pokale 35
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  • FPL-I UNIT-IProf. N. B. Pokale 36 Root(/) The starting point of your directory structure. This is where the Linux system begins. Every other file and directory on your system is under the root directory. Usually the root directory contains only subdirectories, so it's a bad idea to store single files directly under root. Boot (/boot) As the name suggests, this is the place where Linux keeps information that it needs when booting up. For example, this is where the Linux kernel is kept. If you list the contents of /boot, you'll see a file called vmlinuz - that's the kernel.
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  • FPL-I UNIT-IProf. N. B. Pokale 37 etc (/etc) The configuration files for the Linux system. Most of these files are text files and can be edited by hand. Some interesting stuff in this directory: /etc/inittab A text file that describes what processes are started at system bootup and during normal operation /etc/fstab This file contains descriptive information about the various file systems and their mount points, like floppies, cdroms, and so on. /etc/passwd A file that contains various pieces of information for each user account. This is where the users are defined.
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  • FPL-I UNIT-IProf. N. B. Pokale 38 /bin, /usr/bin These two directories contain a lot of programs (binaries, hence the directory's name) for the system. The /bin directory contains the most important programs that the system needs to operate, such as the shells, ls, grep, and other essential things. /usr/bin in turn contains applications for the system's users. However, in some cases it really doesn't make much difference if you put the program in /bin or /usr/bin. /sbin, /usr/sbin Most system administration programs are stored in these directories. In many cases you must run these programs as the root user.
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  • FPL-I UNIT-IProf. N. B. Pokale 39 /usr This directory contains user applications and a variety of other things for them, like their source codes, and pictures, docs, or config file

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