Unit 2 Part 2 Chapter 9: Economic expansion in the 18 th century.

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul><p> Slide 2 Unit 2 Part 2 Chapter 9: Economic expansion in the 18 th century Slide 3 Changes Exploration and colonies have created a new economy- but in the 1700s the vast majority of Europeans were still farmers- and their daily work had changed very little since the middle ages 18c will bring remarkable technology and change to dramatically reform European life. Slide 4 Agriculture and the Land 80% of Europeans were farmers (some countries lower, some higher %- Netherlands only country where they were not clear majority) Agricultural yields really no better than they had been in ancient world- and every 8-10 years they crops would fail altogether. Cycle of hunger often left populations weak- susceptible to disease. Population of Euro has been fairly steady (with ups and downs) for 100s of years Slide 5 Open Field System Land around village (owned by nobles) divided into long narrow strips w/no fences etc rotated on a 3 year cycle (wheat, beans, fallow) Commons: open fields of hay/pasture land used by all. After harvest livestock pastured in the fields- gleaners allowed to pick up what was left behind Not an overly efficient system- but traditional and workable. People didnt see a big reason to change it- but changing it will allow growth Slide 6 Regional Differences Eastern Europe further behind than Western- still using forced labor (Russia so far behind they only ADDED serfs in 1649) All over Europe nobles own vast majority of land Nobility/Serfdom provided short term profits for landlords- but stifled econ development Slide 7 Low Countries Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg Tiny area- and really tough to farm (much below sea level- esp. in Holland) they had to WORK to make it happen-so began to farm scientifically (helps that Netherlands big in Sci Rev) Began Enclosure movement- pioneered drainage techniques to expand farmland 1 st country to show you could get more food in less space by farming with a plan Slide 8 Agricultural Revolution There was a break from past ways of farming during the 18c. Didnt happen all at once. Began as bread prices began to rise from inflation of 1600s- created greater profit for farmers- gave them motivation to achieve better crops. Characterized by experimentation, new crops, and technology Slide 9 Columbian Exchange Crops from new world create a revolution in the European diet. Most important were potatoes and corn as staple crops, but also began to grow tomatoes, beans, peppers etc Slide 10 England Adapted Dutch ideas Jethro Tull- created iron plows to turn soil more deeply and seed drill to plant (rather than cast) wheat. New fertilizers, crop rotation eliminated fallow period, began scientific breeding of livestock for size (they then made more manure) Charles Townsend: ambassador to Netherlands- notice crop rotation- Dutch used turnips/clover to replenish field rather than fallow period. Robert Blakewell- scientific breeding of livestock for a variety of products- meat, wool, leather etc. Slide 11 Enclosure Landlords consolidated (and hedged) their fields for greater production. Common/strip fields replaced by large blocks. Peasants unhappy- but landowners used Parliament for backup between 1727- 1801. Peasants became tenant farmers, or were driven off the land altogether. Slide 12 Corn Laws Over 300 Laws passed dealing with enclosure etc to benefit landowners. (capitalism rules) High tariffs on foreign grain- keep food prices high (which hurts poor) Slide 13 Impact Significantly improved farm production in Western Euro. (Fr, Dutch, Eng all used) food supply became more reliable Controversial (at the time and now) because it hurt the poor to help the rich Traditional communities disrupted Peasants moved to towns and cities looking for labor (leads them right into being the workforce of the IR.) Women could no longer raise animals on common land and live off product (milk, cheese) began to work in cottage industries (spinning, weaving) instead Slide 14 Demography Study of population growth and movement- esp. as relates to environment and natural resources. 18c Euro will undergo significant agricultural change- their first in a long time Slide 15 Traditional Patterns Before 1700 there was a predictable cycle- population would grow for several generations, then there would be crop failure or an outbreak of disease (or both) which would create a drop, and you would start all over Some changes bigger than others- took until 1550 for population to reach what it had been in 1347 (black death), Slide 16 Population Growth Population estimates before 1800 are generally unreliable- but one can safely estimate that the population of Euro grew from 100/120 million in 1700 to 180/190 million in 1800. Breaks the old cycle More about the decline of death rates than the rise of birthrates at this point- people marrying later, having smaller families, but more survives Advances in medicine not significant yet- except for Smallpox inoculation introduced in Eng by William Jenner Slide 17 Disease Black death as reappeared sporadically (never as bad, but always an issue). Last outbreak 1720 in Marseilles- but strict quarantine measures keep it from spreading- those become standard practice. Also, the Brown rat (from Asia, and NOT a carrier of plague) overruns the Black rat Slide 18 Sanitation/Hygiene Planned water supplies/sewer systems significantly improved health (reduce dysentery, typhoid, typhus) Enclosure and urbanization often led to draining of swampland for expansion- limited disease carrying mosquitos etc Slide 19 Food Pop. Of Euro is better nourished than ever before. Milder climate period creates better crop yield Potatoes key crop for poor- 1 acre can produce enough food for a family of 4. Also, there is better transportation of farm goods (roads, canals etc) so people in cities eating better as well Slide 20 Growth of Cottage Industry Pop. is growing, and people are getting pushed of land (enclosure) contributed to the development of cottage industry in Eng. Putting Out System- merchant put out raw materials to workers, who processed it in their homes and returned a finished product. Textiles, housewares, buttons, gloves, instruments Rural workers (esp. women) use this to supplement income Whole family would work on products- spinsters unmarried girls of family- needed 4-5 spinners to create enough thread to keep 1 weaver busy. Slide 21 Proto industrialization Rural industry became a major segment in econ of 18 th century. Rural people wanted $$, capitalists eager to circumvent guilds in towns, most manufacturing still done by hand w/ common tools. However- Improvements were coming: John Kay: flying shuttle 1733 James Hargreaves: spinning Jenny 1764 Richard Arkwright: Water frame 1769 Slide 22 Cities Even before IR, urban population had been growing 1500-1700 urban pop rose from 5%-9%, mostly in established cities. After 1750 pop pattern changed with est. of new cities, which would become major industrial centers Slide 23 Capitals and Ports 1600-1750 the biggest econ growth was in port cities (Atlantic trade) Also, as monarchs consolidated power- their capital city became more important as well. Old, landlocked medieval trade centers began to decline Sugar most important new trade product. Tobacco and cotton also very popular (all slave products) Slide 24 New cities and towns New pattern after 1750- result of improved areas of agricultural production (market towns) and cottage industry (which will lead to areas with 1 st factories as new- expensive- machines are invented) England and France both more than 20% urban by 1800 Slide 25 Inflation Scale of economic activity increased after 1730 due to demographic growth. (more people means demand for more food, goods, etc) Generally mild, supports econ growth b/c people are making profits. Sometimes inflation would get out of hand due to debt, war, etc and cause problems Rents rose considerable (land shortage) wages rose less quickly- gap between rich/poor increased (a major theme of IR) Slide 26 South Sea BubbleMississippi Bubble 1720 South Sea Co: Eng joint stock Co with monopoly on slave trade and rights to national debt. (investors make $$ as govt pays back debt) But govt doesnt pay- Co gives out more stock instead of profits, leading to a speculative frenzy which burst. Took Eng. Govt 20 years to pay off debt 1720 Mississippi Co: Fr joint stock Co with monopoly on trade in Fr. Louisiana- and took over national debt. Same problem as Eng, but in France, the govt never gets rid of the debt- will become a key feature in issues which lead to Fr. Revolution Slide 27 The Early Industrial Revolution What is it? From 1650-1715 Europe is beginning to change. Used technology to get control of worlds waterways and tip the balance of power (in terms of civilizations) in their favor. Even more change will come between 1750-1850 Even more change will come between 1750-1850, until IR has changed virtually ever aspect of life. Energy: human/animal will be replaced by machine (run by water and then steam) 2 major types of changes: Technological Environmental Slide 28 Why Britain? Capitalism/Middle Class Middle class (bourgeoisies) large and growing in Eng. Landowners were not the only ones with $$- entrepreneurs respected and admired. Trade was expanding (even after Amer. Rev) Stock markets, flexible capital. Comparatively high literacy rates Protestant work ethic Worlds leading maritime power (w/protection from Navigation Acts) Bank of Eng est 1694- Entrepreneurial system. Their mercantilism designed to benefit business econ, not royal econ Slide 29 Agricultural Revolution Increased productivity of land- while needing fewer workers. Peasants become wage laborers- willing and able to move to other jobs and other places for better opportunity. Demand for goods increasing since people are no longer as likely to be self sufficient agricultural population Slide 30 Population English pop has an overall better diet, dependable food supply, and good econ which encouraged people to marry earlier and have more kids- bigger pop. Death rate falling as well Slide 31 Transport Before steam- water transportation was the cheapest and most effective way of moving goods. England has plenty of navigable rivers, and is flat for building canals if there is an area w/o a good river. Nowhere in Eng is more than 20 miles from navigable Water. John Macadam- 1756 created hard surfaced roads (Tarmac) Isolation from continent- borders are secure Slide 32 Stable Govt Civil wars over- strong Constitutional Monarchy (unlike absolutist Fr, Sp, or Aus) House of Commons represents interests of businessmen- govt supports business efforts Limited monarchy meant they couldnt dominate economy Dont fight wars @ home- no disruptions Lowes Act- limited personal liability in Business Slide 33 Early Inventions England 1 st area to experiment with new energy (lost most of their forrests- looking for other sources) Coal heat is hotter than wood- helped make new steam engine effective Steam Engines: 1698 Thomas Savoy 1705 Thomas Newcomen 1769 James Watt Slide 34 Raw Materials: Steam engines need coal- England had lots, also had plenty of Iron deposits- the building blocks of IR Eng. Self Sufficient in key material-gave them an edge (Wales and N. Eng) Henry Cort- developed process for smelting pig iron. In 1850 Eng produced worlds iron Slide 35 Early Technological Innovation Mass Production One concept that helped create IR was the idea of having all the products turn out the same (as opposed to uniqueness of craftsmen) Pottery an early mass produce industry- (China from Asia already uniform- it was popular, but expensive, they set out to copy) Josiah Wedgewood broke process down- workers specialized in specific chores done over and over. Created molds so all pieces turned out identically Slide 36 Textiles Another early industry, esp. for cotton (grown elsewhere, but processed in Eng) By 1830s Eng was center of textile industry (maintained even after cotton gin 1793- made it profitable for Amer to grow) Popular b/c it was more comfortable than wool, and easier to clean Technology made process faster- in 1790 could make thread 10x faster than 1770. 1820 processed of worlds cotton cloth- and cotton made up of Engs exports. Slide 37 Iron Also experienced breakthroughs which made process possible on a large scale. Abraham Darby- discovered coke could be used for smelting Slide 38 Transportation Necessary to transport finished goods as well as deliver raw materials Connected various industries (coal, steel and textile) 1807 Robert Fulton made steamboat- 2 way river travel @ same speed Slide 39 Interchangeable Parts Eli Whitney- standardized parts for all versions of same machine- so if it breaks you replace part- not machine Slide 40 Power: the Steam Engine Most important invention. Never tired, or dry, or frozen etc James Watt created for mining (pump water)- quickly took the place of human/water power Most fundamental change of tech in early modern age- radically transformed the way humans work- it can work when you are not Slide 41 The Factory System New machines were large and expensive- not doable for cottage industry. Made far more sense to bring workers to machines. Strict division between workers and managers, and division of labor on factory floor: men/women, skilled/unskilled. Slide 42 Towards a Global Economy Atlantic trade routes became even more important as need to markets and raw materials expands (trade still dominates 18c- industry will take over in 19c) Decline in supply of gold/silver meant govts often short of $$. Est. public and private banks- began wider circulation of paper $$. Bank of England (banknotes) est 1694 Bullionism: Countries sought to create and protect reserves of gold/silver- try to avoid paying with those- use paper currency (which they control) instead Slide 43 Mercantile Empires Majority of trade is still done in Europe (wheat, timber, wine, wool) but those with overseas empires had an edge. At the beginning of 1700s Spain was already far behind, Dutch beginning to lose steam. England and France are starting a battle for dominance that will shape foreign and economic policy for a century A countrys goal- through their colonies- was to be self sufficient, you wanted a favorable balance of trade (more going out than coming in) Sugar, tobacco, cotton, indigo major products. Only England sending large #s of people to LIVE in their colonies at this point Slide 44 Slide 45 Decline of Dutch At the beginning of the 17c the Netherlands was the leading merchant maritime power. Trade was perfect occupation for them- since low countries were a challenging environment Age of Louis XIV challenging for them- get sucked into frequent wars As Eng and Fr take over more trade- they go into finance Anglo Dutch Wars: 1652- 1674 fought 3 wars with England which damaged their colonial power (ex. lost New Amsterdam in 166...</p>


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