Unit 2 Part 2 Chapter 9: Economic expansion in the 18 th century

Embed Size (px)

Text of Unit 2 Part 2 Chapter 9: Economic expansion in the 18 th century

  • Slide 1

Slide 2 Unit 2 Part 2 Chapter 9: Economic expansion in the 18 th century Slide 3 Changes Exploration and colonies have created a new economy- but in the 1700s the vast majority of Europeans were still farmers- and their daily work had changed very little since the middle ages 18c will bring remarkable technology and change to dramatically reform European life. Slide 4 Agriculture and the Land 80% of Europeans were farmers (some countries lower, some higher %- Netherlands only country where they were not clear majority) Agricultural yields really no better than they had been in ancient world- and every 8-10 years they crops would fail altogether. Cycle of hunger often left populations weak- susceptible to disease. Population of Euro has been fairly steady (with ups and downs) for 100s of years Slide 5 Open Field System Land around village (owned by nobles) divided into long narrow strips w/no fences etc rotated on a 3 year cycle (wheat, beans, fallow) Commons: open fields of hay/pasture land used by all. After harvest livestock pastured in the fields- gleaners allowed to pick up what was left behind Not an overly efficient system- but traditional and workable. People didnt see a big reason to change it- but changing it will allow growth Slide 6 Regional Differences Eastern Europe further behind than Western- still using forced labor (Russia so far behind they only ADDED serfs in 1649) All over Europe nobles own vast majority of land Nobility/Serfdom provided short term profits for landlords- but stifled econ development Slide 7 Low Countries Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg Tiny area- and really tough to farm (much below sea level- esp. in Holland) they had to WORK to make it happen-so began to farm scientifically (helps that Netherlands big in Sci Rev) Began Enclosure movement- pioneered drainage techniques to expand farmland 1 st country to show you could get more food in less space by farming with a plan Slide 8 Agricultural Revolution There was a break from past ways of farming during the 18c. Didnt happen all at once. Began as bread prices began to rise from inflation of 1600s- created greater profit for farmers- gave them motivation to achieve better crops. Characterized by experimentation, new crops, and technology Slide 9 Columbian Exchange Crops from new world create a revolution in the European diet. Most important were potatoes and corn as staple crops, but also began to grow tomatoes, beans, peppers etc Slide 10 England Adapted Dutch ideas Jethro Tull- created iron plows to turn soil more deeply and seed drill to plant (rather than cast) wheat. New fertilizers, crop rotation eliminated fallow period, began scientific breeding of livestock for size (they then made more manure) Charles Townsend: ambassador to Netherlands- notice crop rotation- Dutch used turnips/clover to replenish field rather than fallow period. Robert Blakewell- scientific breeding of livestock for a variety of products- meat, wool, leather etc. Slide 11 Enclosure Landlords consolidated (and hedged) their fields for greater production. Common/strip fields replaced by large blocks. Peasants unhappy- but landowners used Parliament for backup between 1727- 1801. Peasants became tenant farmers, or were driven off the land altogether. Slide 12 Corn Laws Over 300 Laws passed dealing with enclosure etc to benefit landowners. (capitalism rules) High tariffs on foreign grain- keep food prices high (which hurts poor) Slide 13 Impact Significantly improved farm production in Western Euro. (Fr, Dutch, Eng all used) food supply became more reliable Controversial (at the time and now) because it hurt the poor to help the rich Traditional communities disrupted Peasants moved to towns and cities looking for labor (leads them right into being the workforce of the IR.) Women could no longer raise animals on common land and live off product (milk, cheese) began to work in cottage industries (spinning, weaving) instead Slide 14 Demography Study of population growth and movement- esp. as relates to environment and natural resources. 18c Euro will undergo significant agricultural change- their first in a long time Slide 15 Traditional Patterns Before 1700 there was a predictable cycle- population would grow for several generations, then there would be crop failure or an outbreak of disease (or both) which would create a drop, and you would start all over Some changes bigger than others- took until 1550 for population to reach what it had been in 1347 (black death), Slide 16 Population Growth Population estimates before 1800 are generally unreliable- but one can safely estimate that the population of Euro grew from 100/120 million in 1700 to 180/190 million in 1800. Breaks the old cycle More about the decline of death rates than the rise of birthrates at this point- people marrying later, having smaller families, but more survives Advances in medicine not significant yet- except for Smallpox inoculation introduced in Eng by William Jenner Slide 17 Disease Black death as reappeared sporadically (never as bad, but always an issue). Last outbreak 1720 in Marseilles- but strict quarantine measures keep it from spreading- those become standard practice. Also, the Brown rat (from Asia, and NOT a carrier of plague) overruns the Black rat Slide 18 Sanitation/Hygiene Planned water supplies/sewer systems significantly improved health (reduce dysentery, typhoid, typhus) Enclosure and urbanization often led to draining of swampland for expansion- limited disease carrying mosquitos etc Slide 19 Food Pop. Of Euro is better nourished than ever before. Milder climate period creates better crop yield Potatoes key crop for poor- 1 acre can produce enough food for a family of 4. Also, there is better transportation of farm goods (roads, canals etc) so people in cities eating better as well Slide 20 Growth of Cottage Industry Pop. is growing, and people are getting pushed of land (enclosure) contributed to the development of cottage industry in Eng. Putting Out System- merchant put out raw materials to workers, who processed it in their homes and returned a finished product. Textiles, housewares, buttons, gloves, instruments Rural workers (esp. women) use this to supplement income Whole family would work on products- spinsters unmarried girls of family- needed 4-5 spinners to create enough thread to keep 1 weaver busy. Slide 21 Proto industrialization Rural industry became a major segment in econ of 18 th century. Rural people wanted $$, capitalists eager to circumvent guilds in towns, most manufacturing still done by hand w/ common tools. However- Improvements were coming: John Kay: flying shuttle 1733 James Hargreaves: spinning Jenny 1764 Richard Arkwright: Water frame 1769 Slide 22 Cities Even before IR, urban population had been growing 1500-1700 urban pop rose from 5%-9%, mostly in established cities. After 1750 pop pattern changed with est. of new cities, which would become major industrial centers Slide 23 Capitals and Ports 1600-1750 the biggest econ growth was in port cities (Atlantic trade) Also, as monarchs consolidated power- their capital city became more important as well. Old, landlocked medieval trade centers began to decline Sugar most important new trade product. Tobacco and cotton also very popular (all slave products) Slide 24 New cities and towns New pattern after 1750- result of improved areas of agricultural production (market towns) and cottage industry (which will lead to areas with 1 st factories as new- expensive- machines are invented) England and France both more than 20% urban by 1800 Slide 25 Inflation Scale of economic activity increased after 1730 due to demographic growth. (more people means demand for more food, goods, etc) Generally mild, supports econ growth b/c people are making profits. Sometimes inflation would get out of hand due to debt, war, etc and cause problems Rents rose considerable (land shortage) wages rose less quickly- gap between rich/poor increased (a major theme of IR) Slide 26 South Sea BubbleMississippi Bubble 1720 South Sea Co: Eng joint stock Co with monopoly on slave trade and rights to national debt. (investors make $$ as govt pays back debt) But govt doesnt pay- Co gives out more stock instead of profits, leading to a speculative frenzy which burst. Took Eng. Govt 20 years to pay off debt 1720 Mississippi Co: Fr joint stock Co with monopoly on trade in Fr. Louisiana- and took over national debt. Same problem as Eng, but in France, the govt never gets rid of the debt- will become a key feature in issues which lead to Fr. Revolution Slide 27 The Early Industrial Revolution What is it? From 1650-1715 Europe is beginning to change. Used technology to get control of worlds waterways and tip the balance of power (in terms of civilizations) in their favor. Even more change will come between 1750-1850 Even more change will come between 1750-1850, until IR has changed virtually ever aspect of life. Energy: human/animal will be replaced by machine (run by water and then steam) 2 major types of changes: Technological Environmental Slide 28 Why Britain? Capitalism/Middle Class Middle class (bourgeoisies) large and growing in Eng. Landowners were not the only ones with $$- entrepreneurs respected and admired. Trade was expanding (even after Amer. Rev) Stock markets, flexible capital. Comparatively high literacy rates Protestant work ethic Worlds leading maritime power (w/protection from Navigation Acts) Bank of Eng est 1694- Entrepreneurial system. Their mercantilism designed to benefit business econ, not royal econ Slide 29 Agricultural Revolution Increased productivity of land- while needing fewer workers. Peasants become wage laborers- willing and able to move to other jobs and other places for better opportunity. Demand for goods increasing since people are no longer as likely to be self sufficient agricultural population Slide 30 Population English pop has