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Understanding Neurotransmission and the Disease ... 1 Understanding Neurotransmission and the Disease of Addiction (2 CE Hours) By: Kathryn Brohl, MA, LMFT and Wade Lijewski, Ph.D

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    Understanding Neurotransmission and the Disease of Addiction

    (2 CE Hours)

    By: Kathryn Brohl, MA, LMFT and Wade Lijewski, Ph.D.

    Learning Objectives

    This workshop is designed to help you:

    1. Assess neurotransmission in the context of drug use and research;

    2. Describe the neurotransmitter – neurotransmission interaction;

    3. Apply different research methodologies;

    4. Analyze certain medication and behavioral management interventions;

    5. Describe neurotransmitters and the drugs that affect them;

    6. Apply changes to the Criteria for Substance Dependence and Abuse in the new DSM-V; and

    7. Assess the long term effects of drug use.

    Introduction

    The National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (2013), nearly 88,000 people (approximately

    62,000 men and 26,000 women) die from alcohol related causes annually, making it the third leading

    preventable cause of death in the United States. In 2006, alcohol misuse problems cost the United States

    $223.5 billion.

     Adults (ages 18+): Approximately 17 million adults ages 18 and older (7.2 percent of this age group)

    had an Alcohol use disorder (AUD) in 2012. This includes 11.2 million men (9.9 percent of men in

    this age group) and 5.7 million women (4.6 percent of women in this age group).

     About 1.4 million adults received treatment for an AUD at a specialized facility in 2012 (8.4 percent of adults in need). This included 416,000 women (7.3 percent of women in need) and 1.0 million men (8.9 percent of men in need).

     Youth (ages 12–17): In 2012, an estimated 855,000 adolescents ages 12–17 (3.4 percent of this age

    group) had an AUD. This number includes 444,000 females (3.6 percent) and 411,000 males (3.2

    percent).

     An estimated 76,000 adolescents received treatment for an AUD at a specialized facility in 2012

    (8.9 percent of adolescents in need). This included 28,000 females (6.3 percent of adolescent females in need) and 48,000 males (11.7 percent of adolescent males in need).

    Drug and alcohol dependence continues to challenge mental health professionals as they partner with

    responsible addictionologists (medical doctors who are board-eligible or certified by the American

    Society of Addiction Medicine) to utilize a two pronged approach to providing medical

    intervention/management and psychotherapeutic treatment for their patients/clients.

    During recent decades, the accumulation of research has enlightened the addictions field, while it has also

    provided patients/clients, validation with regard to their physical and mental cravings, and relapse triggers

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    following their withdrawal from drugs or alcohol. In addition it has given interventionists a deeper

    understanding about the disease of addiction, and enhances medication management and psychotherapy

    approaches, to the benefit of their patients/clients.

    Overall, the field of addiction has gathered a substantial body of research that has identified specific

    drugs’ effects on neurotransmission, establishing that drug dependence and addiction are elements of

    organic brain disease. By altering neurotransmission, addictive drugs produce effects that make people

    want to continue to abuse them, and induce health problems that can be penetrating and long term.

    Notably, these effects are drug specific, and disrupt particular neurotransmitters in specific ways.

    However, some relevant effects, such as initial pleasurable feelings, subsequent dependence and

    addiction, are shared by all. The end result is a disruption of the dopamine neurotransmitter system.

    When neuroscientists seek to better understand why a drug is abused and the subsequent consequences of

    this abuse, they ask:

    1. Which neurotransmitter or neurotransmitters does the drug affect?

    2. How does the drug alter transmission?

    In this course, learners will gain further understanding about the interaction between neurotransmitters

    and addictive substances, and how they alter neurotransmission, and subsequent thinking and behaviors.

    Learners will also gain a deeper awareness about research methodologies about neurotransmission and

    drug interaction, as well as recent scientific findings. Abused drugs affect the way people think, feel, and

    behave. The long term effects ultimately interface with our overall society as well; at great emotional and

    financial cost to those affected.

    Long-term effects of drugs on the brain

    A normal question is to ask why drugs are bad. After all, the “high” or “rush” only lasts a little while,

    right? What else could be happening in the drug abuser’s brain? However, one must consider that the

    brain is continuously changing, and learning occurs because neurons are forming new synapses. Scientists

    say that the brain has plasticity. It does not mean the brain is made of a chemical plastic, but it refers to

    the brain’s ability to modify connections in response to experience. When a person learns something or

    has new experiences, some new synapses may form, or existing synapses may get stronger. Other

    synapses may disappear.

    When a person takes drugs repeatedly, the experience literally changes the brain. If a person takes drugs

    and then stops, he or she will “crave” the drug. In other words, the individual will have a strong desire to

    take more of the drug. Scientists can actually see evidence of cravings in the brain. For example, if a

    cocaine addict sees pictures of drug paraphernalia: PET scans show that the part of the brain that is

    important for memory (called the amygdala) is activated. If the addict sees a video with mountains, trees,

    and animals, the amygdala is not stimulated. Thus, just seeing pictures of drugs or things associated with

    drugs can trigger an uncontrollable urge for drugs.

    After taking drugs for a period of time, a person may need to take a higher dose to have the same feeling

    or “rush” that he or she did when first taking the drug. This is called tolerance. The brain has adapted to

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    having a certain amount of drug present and does not respond the same way it did initially. For this

    reason, drug abusers and addicts take increasingly higher amounts of an abused drug. Tolerance may

    develop because the body may become more efficient at eliminating the chemical from the body, or

    because the cells of the body and brain become less responsive to the effect of the drug.

    Drugs can also change the structure of the brain. Perhaps one of the most dramatic long-term effects of a

    drug is to kill neurons. Many people have heard that drinking alcohol will kill brain cells, and it’s true. If

    alcohol is abused over a period of time, neurons in the brain can die. Some neurons in the brain are more

    sensitive to alcohol than others. Neurons that make up the mammillary bodies, areas in the brain that are

    important for memory, are more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol than are some other neurons in the

    brain. The neurons in the cerebral cortex, the part of the brain that controls most of our mental functions

    and endows us with consciousness, may also die if a person frequently abuses alcohol in high doses.

    Another drug that is toxic to neurons is an amphetamine derivative called MDMA, or ecstasy. In rats and

    non-human primates, MDMA appears to kill neurons that produce serotonin. In some parts of the brain,

    the axons of some of these neurons may regenerate (or re-grow) after drug use is stopped, but the new

    growth of the neurons is not normal. Some areas are not reinnervated (nerve fibers do not grow back into

    the area) as they were before the drug abuse and some areas have abnormally high regrowth of the

    neurons. Either way, the neurons are not normal. Studies have not yet been able to determine if MDMA

    has this same effect on humans, but some preliminary evidence indicates that MDMA may kill serotonin

    neurons in humans.

    Cocaine also changes the brain in ways that may last for a long period of time. PET scans of human

    brains have shown that glucose metabolism is reduced even three months after the last use of cocaine.

    Remember, that glucose metabolism is an indicator of how active the brain cells are. If the neurons are

    using less glucose, they are not as active. The changes that cocaine causes in the brain last much longer

    than the pleasurable feelings it produces. Other drugs cause similar decreases in brain activity. Even two

    years after the last use of amphetamines, PET images show that the drug abuser’s brain is less active than

    the person who never used drugs.

    While scientific studies have clearly shown that certain drugs can cause dramatic changes in the brain, not

    all questions have been answered. Scientists, for many reasons, don’t know all of the effects that a drug

    may have. First, the brain is such a complicated organ that, despite great scientific advances,

    understanding all that it does, will take many more years. Second, individuals may respond differently to

    drugs due to genetic differences among people. Third, many drug abusers abuse more than one drug.

    Many individuals who take cocaine, for exam

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