Understanding Learning: The Key to Generating Effective Teaching Strategies

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Understanding Learning: The Key to Generating Effective Teaching Strategies. Dr. Michele DiPietro. Executive Director, Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning Kennesaw State University mdipietr@kennesaw.edu http://www.kennesaw.edu/cetl. How Learning Works. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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A Model of Good Teaching

Understanding Learning: The Key to Generating Effective Teaching StrategiesDr. Michele DiPietroExecutive Director, Center for Excellence in Teaching and LearningKennesaw State University

mdipietr@kennesaw.eduhttp://www.kennesaw.edu/cetl

How Learning WorksJoint work with former Carnegie Mellon colleaguesSynthesis of 50 years of researchConstant determinants of learningPrinciples apply cross-culturallyBeing translated in Chinese and Korean

ObjectivesFollowing this session, participants should be able to:1. List and discuss the seven principles of learning2. Describe the connections between the principles and critical thinking 3. Generate pedagogical principles to foster deep learningWhat is learning?Our definition:

Learning is a process that leads to change, which occurs as a result of experience and increases the potential for improved performance and future learning.7 Learning PrinciplesStudents prior knowledge can help or hinder learning. How students organize knowledge influences how they learn and apply what they know. Students motivation determines, directs, and sustains what they do to learn. To develop mastery, students must acquire component skills, practice integrating them, and know when to apply what they have learned. Goal-directed practice coupled with targeted feedback enhances the quality of students learning.Students current level of development interacts with the social, emotional, and intellectual climate of the course to impact learning.To become self-directed learners, students must learn to monitor and adjust their approaches to learning.

1. Prior Knowledge can help or hinder learning

What we owe our students

Learning environments thatValue and engage what students bring to the tableActively confront and challenge misconceptions

2. How students organize knowledge influences how they learn and apply what they know

What we owe our studentsLearning environments that not only transmit knowledge, butHelp students organize their knowledge in productive waysActively monitor students construction of knowledge

3. Students motivation determines, direct, and sustains what they do to learn.Need motivation to seek out extra sources of information and not foreclose the process esp. in the absence of a definite answer.10Effects of value, self-efficacy, & environment on motivationNeed 11What we owe our studentsLearning environments thatStay up-to-date with what students valueEngage multiple goalsBuild self-efficacyAre responsive and helpful

4. To develop mastery, students must acquire component skills, practice integrating them, and know when to apply what they have learned

5. Goal-directed practice coupled with targeted feedback enhances the quality of students learning

The expert blindspotSprague and Stuart (2000)

What we owe our studentsLearning environments where educatorsActively hunt down their expert blindspots

Learning environments that Emphasize both individual skills and their integrationExplicitly teach for transferProvide multiple opportunities for authentic practiceOriented toward clear goalsCoupled with targeted feedback

6. Students current level of development interacts with the social, emotional, and intellectual climate of the course to impact learning

From Morning-Glory to Petersburg (The World Book, 1928)Organized knowledge in story and pictureconfronts through dusty glass an eye grown dubious.I can recall when knowledge still was pure,not contradictory, pleasurableas cutting out a paper doll.You opened up a book and there it was:everything just as promised, fromKurdistan to Mormons, GumArabic to Kumquat, neither more nor less. Facts could be kept separateby a convention; that was whatmade childhood possible.

Now knowledge finds me out;in all its risible untidinessit traces me to each address,dragging in things I never thought about.I dont invite what facts can beheld at arms length; a familyof jeering irresponsibles alwayscomes along gypsy-styleand there you have them allforever on your hands. It never pays.If I could still extrapolatethe morning-glory on the gatefrom Petersburg in historybut its too late.--Adrienne RichDevelopmental TheoriesDescribe how our views of certain concepts (e.g., knowledge, morality, culture, identity) evolve over time from unsophisticated positions to ones that embrace complexityDevelopment is holistic but differential Development is described as a response to intellectual, social, or emotional challenges, where students begin to question values and assumptions inculcated by parents and society, and start to develop their ownDevelopment can be described in stagesIt describes students in the aggregate, not individuallyDevelopment is not always forwardCan be foreclosed or even backwards19Theories of Intellectual DevelopmentDescribe how approaches to knowledge develop over timePerry developmental scheme464 interviews with 140 Harvard (male) students in 50s and 60s -- Perry (1970)Womens ways of knowing135 women (90 students) in late 70s and 80 in the US -- Belenky at al. (1986)Gendered-patters in knowing and reasoning101 students (50 males) at Miami University, followed for 5 years (86-91) -- Baxter-Magolda (1992)20Stages of Intellectual DevelopmentPerryDualismMultiplicityRelativismCommitmentBelenky et al.Silence

Received K.Subjective K.Procedural K.Constructed K.SeparatedConnectedBaxter-MagoldaAbsolute K.Transitional K.Independent K.Contextual K.21Intellectual Development Dualism/Received/Absolute Knowledge

Knowledge: viewed as received TruthWhat matters: factsthings are right or wrongTeacher: has the answersLearning: Memorizing notes for tests, getting the A is what counts

Frustration: Why wont the teacher answer my questions?22Intellectual DevelopmentTransitional Knowledge

Knowledge: partially certain, partially uncertainWhat matters: factsthings are right or wrongTeacher: has the answersLearning: Memorizing notes for tests, getting the A is what counts

Frustration: Why wont the teacher answer my questions?23Intellectual DevelopmentMultiplicity/Subjective/Independent Knowledge

Knowledge: a matter of opinionTeacher: not the authorityjust another opinionLearning: a purely personal exercise

Frustration: How can the teacher evaluate my work?24Intellectual DevelopmentRelativism/Procedural/Contextual Knowledge

Knowledge: based on evidenceWhat matters: supporting your argument with reasonsTeacher: Conversation partner, acts as a guide, shows the directionLearning: depends on the contextwhat we know is colored by perspectives and assumptions

Questions asked: What are more sources of information?25Intellectual DevelopmentCommitment/Constructed Knowledge

Knowledge: leads to personal actions outside the classroomWhat matters: facts, feelings and perspectives and how I will act upon themTeacher: a source among other sourcesLearning: Making choices, acting on and taking responsibilities for these choices

Questions asked: What were the results of my action? What does that mean about my future actions & principles I live by?

Adapted from Perry (1970), Belenky et al. (1986), and Baxter-Magolda (1992)26Intellectual Development by Year

Baxter-Magolda (1992)27What we owe our studentsLearning environments thatUse the tools of the disciplines to engage and embrace complexityAre explicitly inclusive in methods and content

7. To become self-directed learners, students must learn to monitor and adjust their approaches to learning1. Carey and Flowers (1989): half the college students they observed ignored the instructions for a writing assignment and instead used a generic writing-as-knowledge-telling strategy from high school.

1.Hinsley, Hayes, and Simon (1977): students categorized algebra problems after reading only the first few words of the problem. Moreover, once a category was chosen students tended to misread information that did not fit their category (e.g., reading minutes as miles). 2.Dunning (2007): when nursing students were asked about their proficiency in performing several basic procedures (such as inserting an IV), the majority of them overestimated their abilities relative to their actual performance. Replicate in a variety of settings. Problem is diference between declarative and procedural knowledge3. Chi et al. (1989): experts solve problems much quicker than novices but spend more time planning than novices3. Carey et al. (1989): less effective writers plan less appropriately5. NRC (2001): poor problem solvers continue to use a strategy even after it has failedIssues: degree of effectiveness of the old approach, cost of the new approach, activation energy5. Fu & Gray (2004): people will often continue to use a well-honed strategy that works moderately well rather than switch to a new strategy that would work better

29Metacognition: DefinitionsMetacognition refers to ones knowledge concerning ones own cognitive processes or anything related to them, e.g., the learning-relevant properties of information or data. For example, I am engaging in metacognition if I notice that I am having more trouble learning A than B; if it strikes me that I should double check C before accepting it as fact.J. H. Flavell (1976, p. 232).

The process of reflecting and directing ones own thinking.National Research Council (2001, p. 78).

7. To become self-directed learners, students must learn to monitor and adjust their approaches to learning

As we discuss the research, think of Melanie and John

31Evidence from research on metacognition

Students dont!(Carey & Flower 1989; Hinsley et al. 1977)Students overestimate their strengths(Dunning 2007)Students dont plan, or do it poorly(Chi et al. 1989; Carey et al. 1989)Self-explanation effectBut students dont do it!(Chi et al 1989)Students dont!(NRC 2001; Fu & Gray 2004)1. Carey and Flowers (1989): half the college students they observed ignored the instructions for a writing assignment and instead used a generic writing-as-knowledge-telling strategy from high school.

1.Hinsley, Hayes, and Simon (1977): students categorized algebra problems after reading only the first few words of the problem. Moreover, once a category was chosen students tended to misread information that did not fit their category (e.g., reading minutes as miles). 2.Dunning (2007): when nursing students were asked about their proficiency in performing several basic procedures (such as inserting an IV), the majority of them overestimated their abilities relative to their actual performance. Replicate in a variety of settings. Problem is diference between declarative and procedural knowledge3. Chi et al. (1989): experts solve problems much quicker than novices but spend more time planning than novices3. Carey et al. (1989): less effective writers plan less appropriately5. NRC (2001): poor problem solvers continue to use a strategy even after it has failedIssues: degree of effectiveness of the old approach, cost of the new approach, activation energy5. Fu & Gray (2004): people will often continue to use a well-honed strategy that works moderately well rather than switch to a new strategy that would work better

32Research on beliefs about learning

QuickGradualIntelligence Intelligence as Entity Incremental

Beliefs about learning influence effort, persistence, learning and performance (Schommer 1994, Henderson & Dweck, 1990)

Metacognition can be taughtEarly research found it was EXTREMELY hardMore recent research is a little more optimistic

In particular:Students can be taught to monitor their strategies, with greater learning gains as a result (Bielaczyc et al. 1995; Chi et al. 1994; Palinscar & Brown 1984)Students can be taught more productive beliefs about learning and the brain (Aronson et al. 2002)

What we owe our studentsLearning environments that foster metacognitive awarenessa lifelong learning dispositionTeaching principles for developmental transitionsDualism -- > MultiplicityMakes uncertainty safe; resists a single right answer.Multiplicity -- > RelativismDemonstrates that personal opinion alone is insufficient.Relativism -- > CommitmentExplores the values implicit in decisions and the significance of the paradigms they use; requires they take ownership of their thinking.36Teaching principles for the metacognitive cycleModeling Your Metacognitive ProcessesEach part of the cycle is a skill, therefore principles 4 and 5 apply:

Scaffolded practiceClear goalsFeedbackOpportunities to incorporate feedback into further practiceTeaching strategies2 in particular:Guided self-assessment (Appendix A):http://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/teach/examwrappers/ Exam Wrappers (Appendix F):http://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/teach/examwrappers/

See you at the panel!

Susan A. Ambrose Michael W. Bridges | Michele DiPietroMarsha C. Lovett | Marie K. Norman

FOREWORD BY RICHARD E. MAYER

7 Research-Based Principles for Smart Teaching

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