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Ulster Scots people 1 Ulster Scots people Ulster Scots John Ballance · Lord Cairns · Francis Hutcheson · Sir James Craig · Lord Kelvin · Ian Paisley · Samuel Ferguson · William Irvine · Total population uncertain Regions with significant populations  United States 3,570,427 [1]  Ulster  Canada  Australia  New Zealand  South Africa Languages English, Scots (especially the Ulster dialects), Irish Religion Presbyterianism, Anglicanism, Methodism Related ethnic groups Scottish · Irish · Welsh · English Ulster Scots are an ethnic group in Ireland, descended from Lowland Scots and English from the border of those two countries, many from the "Border Reivers" culture. These people first began to occupy Ireland in large numbers with the Plantation of Ulster, a planned process of colonization which took place under the auspices of James VI of Scotland and I of England on land confiscated from the Irish nobility, most extensively in the Province of Ulster. The term "Ulster-Scots" refers to both these colonists of the 17th century and, less commonly, to the Gallowglass who began to arrive from what is now northwest Scotland centuries earlier. Ulster-Scots were largely descended from colonists from Galloway, Ayrshire, and the Scottish Borders Country, although some descend from people further north in the Scottish Lowlands and the Highlands. Ulster-Scots emigrated in significant numbers to the United States and all corners of the then-worldwide British Empire Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and to a lesser extent to Argentina and Chile in South America.

Ulster Scots

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Page 1: Ulster Scots

Ulster Scots people 1

Ulster Scots people

Ulster Scots

John Ballance · Lord Cairns · Francis Hutcheson · Sir James

Craig ·Lord Kelvin · Ian Paisley · Samuel Ferguson · William Irvine ·

Total population

uncertain

Regions with significant populations

 United States 3,570,427 [1]

 Ulster

 Canada

 Australia

 New Zealand

 South Africa

Languages

English, Scots (especially the Ulster dialects), Irish

Religion

Presbyterianism, Anglicanism, Methodism

Related ethnic groups

Scottish · Irish · Welsh · English

Ulster Scots are an ethnic group in Ireland, descended from Lowland Scots and English from the border of those twocountries, many from the "Border Reivers" culture. These people first began to occupy Ireland in large numbers withthe Plantation of Ulster, a planned process of colonization which took place under the auspices of James VI ofScotland and I of England on land confiscated from the Irish nobility, most extensively in the Province of Ulster. Theterm "Ulster-Scots" refers to both these colonists of the 17th century and, less commonly, to the Gallowglass whobegan to arrive from what is now northwest Scotland centuries earlier.Ulster-Scots were largely descended from colonists from Galloway, Ayrshire, and the Scottish Borders Country, although some descend from people further north in the Scottish Lowlands and the Highlands. Ulster-Scots emigrated in significant numbers to the United States and all corners of the then-worldwide British Empire — Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa — and to a lesser extent to Argentina and Chile in South America.

Page 2: Ulster Scots

Ulster Scots people 2

Scotch-Irish is a traditional term for Ulster Scots who later emigrated to what is now the United States; "Scots-Irish"is a more recent form of the American term,[2] and is not to be confused with Irish-Scots, i.e., recent Irish immigrantsto Scotland.

History

Early development

Provincial flag of Ulster.

Although population movement of Gaels to and from the northeast ofIreland and the west of Scotland had been on-going since pre-historictimes, a class of warriors from the west of what is now Scotland foughtin significant numbers as mercenaries for Irish kings from the mid-13thcentury to the end of the 16th century. These were known asgallowglass, from the Irish for "foreign gaels", referring to their mixedNorse and Gaelic heritage. Many settled in Ireland at the conclusion oftheir service. The next major influx of Scots was a concentratedmigration of Lowland Scots to Ulster, mainly during the 17th and 18thcenturies.

The first major influx of border English and Lowland Scots into Ulster came in the first two decades of the 17thcentury. Starting in 1609, Scots began arriving into state-sponsored settlements as part of the Plantation of Ulster.This scheme was intended to confiscate all the lands of the Gaelic Irish nobility in Ulster and to settle the provincewith Protestant English and Scottish colonists. Under this scheme, a substantial number of Scots were settled, mostlyin the south and west of Ulster, on confiscated land.At the same time, there was an independent Scottish settlement in the east of the province, which had not beenaffected by the terms of the plantation. In east Down and Antrim, Scottish migration was led by James Hamilton andSir Hugh Montgomery, two Ayrshire lairds. This started in May 1606 and was followed in 1610.During the Irish Rebellion of 1641, the native Irish gentry attempted to expel the English and Scottish settlers,resulting in severe violence, massacres and ultimately leading to the deaths of between four and six thousand settlersover the winter of 1641-42.[3] Native Irish civilians were massacred in kind.[4]

The Ulster-Scottish population in Ireland was further augmented during the subsequent Irish Confederate Wars,when a Scottish Covenanter army was landed in the province to protect the Ulster-Scottish settlers from native Irishlandowners. After the war was over, many of their soldiers settled permanently in eastern Ulster.[5] The war itself,part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, ended in the 1650s, with the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. At the headof the army, Oliver Cromwell re-conquered Ireland. Defeating the native Irish forces on behalf of the EnglishCommonwealth, he and his forces employed methods and inflicted casualties among the civilian Irish population thatwere long commonly considered by historians and the popular culture to be outside of the accepted military ethics ofthe day (see more on the debate here). Under the Act of Settlement 1652, all Catholic-owned land was confiscatedand the Plantations, which had been destroyed by the rebellion of 1641, were restored. However, due to the Scots'enmity to the English Parliament in the final stages of the English Civil War, English settlers rather than Scots werethe main beneficiary of this scheme.There was a generation of calm in Ireland until another war broke out in 1689, again due to political conflict closely aligned with ethnic and religious differences. The Williamite war in Ireland (1689–91) was fought between Jacobites who supported the restoration of the Catholic James II to the throne of England and Williamites who supported the Protestant William of Orange. The Protestant Ulster community, including the Scots, fought on the Williamite side in the war against Irish Catholics and their French allies. The fear of a repeat of the massacres of 1641, religious persecution under a Catholic monarch, as well as their wish to hold onto lands which had been confiscated from

Page 3: Ulster Scots

Ulster Scots people 3

Catholic landowners, were all principal motivating factors.The Williamite forces, composed of British, Dutch and Danish armies as well as troops raised in Ulster, endedJacobite resistance by 1691, confirming the Protestant monopoly on power in Ireland. Their victories at Derry, theBoyne and Aughrim are still commemorated by the Orange Order into the 21st century.Finally, another major influx of Scots into northern Ireland occurred in the late 1690s, when tens of thousands ofpeople fled a famine in Scotland to come to Ulster.[6]

It was only after the 1690s that Scottish settlers and their descendants, the majority of whom were Presbyterian,gained numeric superiority in Ulster. Along with Catholic Irish, they were legally disadvantaged by the Penal Laws,which gave full rights only to members of the state church (the Church of Ireland), who were mainly Anglo-Irish andconverts or the descendants of English settlers. For this reason, up until the 19th century, there was considerabledisharmony between Dissenters and the ruling Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland. With the enforcement of QueenAnne's 1703 Test Act, which caused further discrimination against all who did not participate in the establishedchurch, considerable numbers of Ulster-Scots migrated to the colonies in British America throughout the 18thcentury.Towards the end of the 18th century many Ulster-Scots Presbyterians ignored religious differences and, along withmany Catholic Irish, joined the United Irishmen to participate in the Irish Rebellion of 1798 in support of republicanand egalitarian ideals.

Scotch-Irish / Ulster Scots

Andrew Jackson, seventh President of theUnited States, was the first of Scotch-Irish

extraction.

Just a few generations after arriving in Ulster, considerable numbers ofUlster-Scots emigrated to the North American colonies of Great Britain.Between 1717 and 1775, an estimated 200,000 migrated to what becamethe United States of America.[7] In the United States Census of 2000, 4.3million Americans (1.5% of the population of the United States) claimedScotch-Irish ancestry. The author Jim Webb suggests that the true numberof people with some Scotch-Irish heritage in the United States is more inthe region of 27 million, possibly because contemporary Americans withsome Scotch-Irish heritage may regard themselves as either Irish orScottish.[8] [9] [10]

Culture

Because of the large scale intermingling of the Ulster Scots populationwith the Irish, it is difficult to define distinct aspects of Ulster Scots thatwould distinguish it from either. An example of this being that the UlsterScots Agency itself points to many of its cultural icons as being from either the Scottish lowlands or from Ireland.

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Ulster Scots people 4

LanguageUlster Scots, the local dialect of Lowland Scots, which has, since the 1980s, also been called 'Ullans', a portmanteauneologism popularized by the physician, amateur historian and politician Dr Ian Adamson,[11] merging Ulster andLallans - the Scots for Lowlands[12] - but also an acronym for "Ulster-Scots language in literature and nativespeech".[13]

MusicIn music, there is believed to be a distinguishable line between the cultures of the native Irish and the Ulster-Scotsliving in Ireland. In Ireland the traditional music is focused around the 19th century 'session' or until the 1990s,'kitchen session'. This is a regular meeting, often weekly, and is marked by informal arrangement of both musiciansand audience, although Irish traditional music is one of the most influential types of music known to the modernworld, and can be heard in some of the Ulster Scots music and in Country and Appalachian musics. ProtestantScottish traditional music is sometimes similar to Irish and Scottish Gaelic-centred music, in that it is usuallyinformal. A popular example of Protestant Ulster-Scots musical events is the marching bands. Here a formal andorganised structure is more obvious. Although they play less frequently, these bands meet regularly in communityhalls to tune their instruments and to practice popular tunes and songs. The strong Scottish Unionist roots of theUlster-Scots musical scene is evident through the continuing celebrations during the Marching Season, which hascaused much controversy in Northern Ireland.

Intermingling and intermarriage in UlsterA question that has been raised by many historians about the Ulster-Scots is the question of intermingling and moreimportantly, intermarriage between the native Irish and the incoming Scots. However others contest such claims.Pádraig Ó Snodaigh, author of the book Hidden Ulster, Protestants and the Irish language, states that many of thesettlers came from Gaelic speaking areas in Scotland and thus would have culturally meshed well with their newneighbours. Also he states that church records show that by 1716 close to ten percent of ministers in Ulster preachedin Gaelic. He claims that such cultural and geographic affinity would have produced numerous conversions and alsomarriages.[14] In addition James G. Leyburn, author of The Scotch-Irish: A social history, quotes James Reid, ahistorian of the Irish Presbyterian Church in 1853, that when the marriage ban was lifted in 1610 that it was a "greatjoy to all parties". However Professor Leyburn examines both sides of the intermixture debate in Chapter 10"Intermarriage with the Irish" where after examination of both viewpoints, ends the chapter by giving his own viewof the matter:

"If one must give his verdict, the weight of evidence seems to be on the side of little intermixture. TheScotch-Irish, as they came to be known in America, were overwhelmingly Scottish in ancestry andPresbyterian in faith. To the extent that occasional intermarriage occurred, the Irish partner seemsalmost invariably to have been absorbed into the Presbyterian element."[15]

James Woodburn holds that the Scots and Irish "commonly intermarried".[16] The Handbook to the Ulster Questionstates that English politicians were quite perturbed how the Scots were ready enough to intermarry with the Irish.

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Ulster Scots people 5

Hereditary diseaseThe North American ancestry of the X-linked form of the genetic disease, congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus,has been traced to Ulster Scots who came to Nova Scotia in 1761 on the ship Hopewell.[17]

References[1] 2009 American Community Survey (http:/ / factfinder. census. gov/ servlet/ ADPTable?_bm=y& -qr_name=ACS_2009_1YR_G00_DP2&

-geo_id=01000US& -ds_name=ACS_2009_1YR_G00_& -_lang=en& -redoLog=false& -format=)[2] The term has usually been Scotch-Irish in America, as evident in Merriam-Webster dictionaries, where the term Scotch-Irish is recorded from

1744, while Scots-Irish is not recorded until 1972. See http:/ / www. merriam-webster. com/ dictionary/ scotch-irish, and http:/ / www.merriam-webster. com/ dictionary/ scots-irish

[3] Patrick Macrory, The Siege of Derry, Oxford University Press, 1980, pp. 97-98.[4] Jane Kenyon, Jane Ohlmeyer, The Civil Wars, A military History of England, Scotland and Ireland 1638-1660, p. 74.[5] Nicholas Canny, Making Ireland British, p. 562.[6] (http:/ / search. aol. co. uk/ aol/ redir?src=eu_websearch& requestId=null& clickedItemRank=2& userQuery=scotland+ famine+ 1690s&

clickedItemURN=http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ history/ british/ plantation/ ulsterscots/ index. shtml& title=BBC+ -+ History+ -+ Wars+ and+Conflicts+ -+ Plantation+ of+ Ulster+ -+ Ulster+ <b>. . . </ b>& moduleId=matchingsites_uk. jsp. M& clickedItemPageRanking=-8&clickedItemPage=2& clickedItemDescription=WebResults) (http:/ / search. aol. co. uk/ aol/ redir?src=eu_websearch& requestId=null&clickedItemRank=9& userQuery=scottish+ migration+ ulster+ 1690s& clickedItemURN=http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ history/ british/ plantation/transcripts/ es11_t01. shtml& title=BBC+ -+ History+ -+ Wars+ and+ Conflicts+ -+ Plantation+ of+ <b>Ulster</ b>+ <b>. . . </ b>&moduleId=matchingsites_uk. jsp. M& clickedItemPageRanking=9& clickedItemPage=1& clickedItemDescription=WebResults)

[7] Fischer, David Hackett, Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America Oxford University Press, USA (March 14, 1989), p. 606; Rouse,Parke Jr., The Great Wagon Road, Dietz Press, 2004, p. 32, and Leyburn, James G., The Scotch-Irish: A Social History, Univ of NC Press,1962, p. 180.

[8] Why You Need To Know The Scotch-Irish (http:/ / www. parade. com/ articles/ editions/ 2004/ edition_10-03-2004/ featured_0).[9] Born Fighting: How the Scots-Irish Shaped America (http:/ / www. powells. com/ biblio/ 1-9780767916899-1).[10] Scots-Irish By Alister McReynolds, writer and lecturer in Ulster-Scots studies (http:/ / www. nitakeacloserlook. gov. uk/ index/

american-connections/ scots-irish. htm).[11] Falconer G. (2006) The Scots Tradition in Ulster, Scottish studies review, Vol. 7, Nº 2. p. 97.[12] Hickey R. (2004) A Sound Atlas of Irish English. Walter de Gruyter. p. 156.[13] Tymoczko M. & Ireland C.A. (2003) Language and Tradition in Ireland: Continuities and Displacements, Univ of Massachusetts Press. p.

159.[14] Padraigh O'Snodaigh. Hidden Ulster, Protestants and the Irish language, Lagan Press, Belfast (1995).[15] Leyburn, James G. The Scotch-Irish, A social history University of North Carolina Press, (1962).[16] Woodburn, James Barkley. 1915. The Ulster-Scot: His history and Religion. H. R. Allenson.[17] Bichet et al, X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus mutations in North America and the Hopewell hypothesis (http:/ / www. ncbi. nlm. nih.

gov/ pmc/ articles/ PMC288266/ ?tool=pubmed), J Clin Invest. 1993 September; 92(3): 1262–1268. doi: 10.1172/JCI116698 Unité deRecherche Clinique, Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

External links• BBC Ulster-Scots Voices (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ northernireland/ learning/ voices/ ulsterscots/ )• The Scot in Ulster: Sketch of the History of the Scottish Population in Ulster (by John Harrison, 1888) (http:/ /

www. libraryireland. com/ Scot-Ulster/ Contents. php/ )• Immigrant Servants Database (http:/ / www. immigrantservants. com/ )• ElectricScotland.com Ulster-Scots (http:/ / www. electricscotland. com/ history/ ulster_scots/ )• Ulster-Scots Online (http:/ / www. ulster-scots. co. uk/ )• The Institute of Ulster-Scots Studies (http:/ / www. arts. ulster. ac. uk/ ulsterscots/ )• The Ulster-Scots Society of America (http:/ / www. ulsterscotssociety. com/ )• Ulster-Scots Agency (http:/ / www. ulsterscotsagency. com)• Inconvenient Peripheries Ethnic Identity and the United Kingdom Estate (http:/ / www. psa. ac. uk/ cps/ 1996/

payt. pdf) The cases of “Protestant Ulster” and 'Cornwall’ by Prof Philip Payton• Hidden Ulster, Protestants and the Irish language. (http:/ / www. hartford-hwp. com/ archives/ 61/ 297. html)

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Article Sources and Contributors 6

Article Sources and ContributorsUlster Scots people  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=426136232  Contributors: Afn, Ahoerstemeier, AllanHainey, Amalas, Andrewsthistle, Angusmclellan, Arditbido, Asarlaí,Aughavey, AussieScottishpride, BSveen, Badagnani, Barliner, Barticus88, Bastin, Batmanand, Beano ni, Billlund, Biruitorul, Bjmullan, Blisco, Blowdart, Bms4880, Boothy443, Brian Boru25,Cactus.man, Cafzal, Cameron, CanisRufus, CantStandYa, Castravalva, Ceartas, CelticSeimi, CharlesMartel, Chris the speller, Cjthellama, Closedmouth, CommonsDelinker, Conscious,ContagiousTruth, Damnbutter, David Schaich, Deacon of Pndapetzim, Doopa, Dreadpiratetif, Dumme kopf, Eastcote, El C, Engineer Bob, Eoghanacht, Epf, Er Komandante, Euchiasmus,Evercat, Evertype, Falls Orangeman, Filastin, Fingers-of-Pyrex, Flyte35, Fmercury1980, Gaius Cornelius, Georgemcat, Giraffedata, Gr8opinionater, Graham87, GrahamN, Granpuff, GreyPoint,Ground Zero, Gtoba, Henrygb, Hmains, Hroðulf, Hughcharlesparker, Iridescent, Irvine22, JW1805, JaGa, Jamiemaloneyscoreg, Jammarcar, Jdorney, John, John of Lancaster, JohnCD, Johnnyvst,Joseph Solis in Australia, Jperrylsu, Jwissick, Jza84, Keallaigh, Keithgreer, Kittybrewster, Kizor, Kolja21, Kwamikagami, Lapsed Pacifist, Laughingyet, Ledenierhomme, Ljkitson, Lucky Mitch,Lughlamhfhada, LukeM212, M.V.E.i., M5891, Mabuska, MacRusgail, Mais oui!, Man vyi, Manticore126, Matthew Fennell, Mayumashu, MitchHebner, Mlaffs, Mooretwin, Morgan Wright,Mythyval, NIwebber, Natalie Erin, NeilTarrant, Nonexistant User, Northman69, Nurg, O Fenian, Owenreagh, Paddyman1989, Padraig, Parkwells, Pigman, Platypus222, Polly, Ponox,ProhibitOnions, Puertorico1, Quebec99, R'n'B, Rannpháirtí anaithnid (old), RashersTierney, Red King, Red blaze, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Rmhermen, RobNS, Roguer, S,Sandmountainslim, Sardanaphalus, Scottishlover, Sellyme, Setanta747 (locked), Sgtpepper6344, Shoreranger, Snappy, Snowded, The Ogre, The Person Who Is Strange, Theelf29, Trasman,Trevdogreid54, Trilobitealive, Ulidia, Ulsterman299, Uris, Vanished188, Varlaam, Vegaswikian, Wally1227, Wesley M. Curtus, WhiskyWhiskers, Whitejay251, Willi-willi, Wobble,Woohookitty, Yolgnu, Yorkshirian, 299 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and ContributorsImage:John Ballance.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:John_Ballance.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Vardion at en.wikipediaImage:1st Earl Cairns.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:1st_Earl_Cairns.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Ugen64 at en.wikipediaImage:Francis Hutcheson.gif  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Francis_Hutcheson.gif  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User Magnus Manske on en.wikipediaImage:James Craig Viscount Craigavon.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:James_Craig_Viscount_Craigavon.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Ardfern,Rcbutcher, Wo st 01Image:Lord Kelvin photograph.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Lord_Kelvin_photograph.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Fastfission, Kalki, LobStoR,Pieter Kuiper, QuibikImage:DrIanPaisley.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:DrIanPaisley.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: User:AlisonImage:Samuel.Ferguson.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Samuel.Ferguson.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Mary Catharine FergusonImage:21Williamirvine.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:21Williamirvine.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: unknownFile:Flag of the United States.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_United_States.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Dbenbenn,User:Indolences, User:Jacobolus, User:Technion, User:Zscout370File:Flag of Ulster.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Ulster.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Caomhan27File:Flag of Canada.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Canada.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:E Pluribus Anthony, User:MzajacFile:Flag of Australia.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Australia.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Ian FieggenFile:Flag of New Zealand.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_New_Zealand.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Adambro, Arria Belli, Avenue,Bawolff, Bjankuloski06en, ButterStick, Denelson83, Donk, Duduziq, EugeneZelenko, Fred J, Fry1989, Hugh Jass, Ibagli, Jusjih, Klemen Kocjancic, Mamndassan, Mattes, Nightstallion, O,Peeperman, Poromiami, Reisio, Rfc1394, Shizhao, Tabasco, Transparent Blue, Väsk, Xufanc, Zscout370, 35 anonymous editsFile:Flag of South Africa.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_South_Africa.svg  License: unknown  Contributors: Adriaan, Anime Addict AA, AnonMoos,BRUTE, Daemonic Kangaroo, Dnik, Duduziq, Dzordzm, Fry1989, Homo lupus, Jappalang, Juliancolton, Kam Solusar, Klemen Kocjancic, Klymene, Lexxyy, Mahahahaneapneap, Manuelt15,Moviedefender, NeverDoING, Ninane, Poznaniak, SKopp, ThePCKid, ThomasPusch, Tvdm, Ultratomio, Vzb83, Zscout370, 33 anonymous editsImage:Flag of Ulster.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Ulster.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Caomhan27Image:Andrew Jackson.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Andrew_Jackson.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Thomas Sully

LicenseCreative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unportedhttp:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/