Click here to load reader

ULANGKAJI SECTIONN A.doc

  • View
    58

  • Download
    1

Embed Size (px)

Text of ULANGKAJI SECTIONN A.doc

1

SMK DR MEGAT KHAS

CHEMISTRY

Paper 2/SECTION ATime :

Class :Marks :

Section ABahagianA

[60marks][60markah]

Answerallquestions in this section.Jawabsemuasoalan dalam bahagian ini.

1.(a)

Diagrambelow shows the electron arrangement of a compound formed between magnesium and oxygen through ionic bond.Rajahdi bawahmenunjukkan susunan elektron bagi sebatian yang terbentuk antara magnesium dan oksigen melalui ikatan ionik.

Diagram/Rajah

(i)

How are a magnesium ion and an oxygen ion formed from their respective atoms?Bagaimana ion magnesium dan ion oksigen terbentuk dari atom masing-masing?

Magnesium ion: ___________________________________________________________________Ion magnesium:

Oxygen ion: ______________________________________________________________________Ion oksigen:

[2 marks/2markah]

(ii)

Name the force that exists between these ions in the compounds.Namakan daya tarikan yang terbentuk antara dua ion ini di dalam sebatian?

__________________________________________________________________________________

[1 mark/1markah]

(iii)

This compound was found to have a high melting point. Give a reason for this.Sebatian ini didapati mempunyai takat lebur yang tinggi. Berikan alasan bagi sebab yang berikut.

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

[2 marks/2markah]

(b)

Diagrambelow shows the proton number and the nucleon number of two elements of X and Y. The letters used is not the actual symbols of the elements.Rajahdi bawahmenunjukkan nombor proton dan nombor nukleon bagi unsurXdanY.Huruf yang digunakan adalah bukan simbol sebenar bagi unsur.

Diagram/Rajah

(i)

Write the electron arrangements for both compounds.Tuliskan susunan elektron bagi kedua-dua sebatian.

X: ______________________________________________________________________________

Y: ______________________________________________________________________________

[2 marks/2markah]

(ii)

What is the type of bond that is formed between X and Y?Apakah jenis ikatan antaraXdanY?

__________________________________________________________________________________

[1 mark/1markah]

(iii)

Draw a diagram to show the bonding formed between elements X and Y.Lukiskan rajah untuk menunjukkan ikatan yang terbentuk antaraXdanY.

[3 marks/3markah]

2.The diagrambelow shows the apparatus set up to study the electrolysis of 0.5 mol dm-3potassium iodidesolution.

Rajahdi bawahmenunjukkan susunan radas untuk mengkaji elektrolisis 0.5 mol dm-3larutan kalium iodida.

DIAGRAM/RAJAH

(a)

What is meant by electrolysis?Apakah maksud elektrolisis?

_____________________________________________________________________________________[1 mark/1markah]

(b)

Stateallthe ions present in the potassium iodide solution.Nyatakansemuaion hadir dalam larutan kalium iodida.

_____________________________________________________________________________________[1 mark/1markah]

(c)

i.

Name the product at the anode.Namakan hasil tindak balas di anod.

__________________________________________________________________________________[1 mark/1markah]

ii.

Write a balanced equation for the half reaction at the anode.Tulis satu persamaan setengah seimbang di anod.

__________________________________________________________________________________[1 mark/1markah]

iii.

State a confirmatory test for the product at the anode.Nyatakan ujian pengesahan bagi hasil tindak balas di anod.

__________________________________________________________________________________[1 mark/1markah]

(d)

i.

What can be observed at the cathode?Apakah boleh diperhatikan di katod?

__________________________________________________________________________________[1 mark/1markah]

ii.

Write an equation to represent the half reaction that occurs in (d)(i).Tulis persamaan setengah untuk mewakili tindak balas di (d)(i).

__________________________________________________________________________________[1 mark/1markah]

(e)

The electrolysis is then repeated by replacing the 0.5 mol dm-3potassium iodide solution with a 2.0 mol dm-3potassium iodide solution.Elektrolisis tersebut kemudian diulangi dengan menggantikan 0.5 mol dm-3larutan kalium iodida dengan larutan 2.0 mol dm-3kalium iodida.i.

Name the product collected at the anode.Namakan hasil tindak balas di anod.

__________________________________________________________________________________[1 mark/1markah]

ii.

Compare the products collected at the anode in (c)(i) and (e)(i) and give a reason for this.Banding hasil tindak balas terkumpul di anod dalam (c)(i) dan (e)(i) dan berikan satu sebab.

__________________________________________________________________________________[2 marks/2markah]

3.Table shows the proton numbers of element W, X, Y and Z (which are not the real symbols of the elements).Jadual menunjukkan nombor proton bagi unsur W, X, Y dan Z ( yang mana bukan simbol sebanar bagi unsur - unsur itu).ElementUnsurProton numberNombor protonW

10

X

11

Y

17

Z

18

Table/Jadual

(a)

Write the electronic configurations of W, X, Y and Z.Tuliskan konfigurasi elektron bagi unsur - unusr W, X, Y dan Z.i.

Element W:Unsur W : ________________________________________________________________________ii.

Element X:Unsur X :________________________________________________________________________iii.

Element Y:Unsur Y :________________________________________________________________________iv.

Element Z:Unsur Z :________________________________________________________________________[ 2 mark/markah]

(b)

Which of the elements have the stable electronic structures? Explain your answers.Unsur yang manakah mempunyai struktur elektron yang stabil? Terangkan jawapan anda.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________[ 3 mark/markah]

(c)

Element X reacts with element Y to form a compound.Unsur X bertindak balas dengan unsur Y untuk membentuk satu sebatian.(i)

Give the molecular formula of the compound formed by X and Y.Berikan formula molekul bagi sebatian yang terbentuk oleh unsur X dan unsur Y.

__________________________________________________________________________________[ 1 mark/markah]

(ii)

State the type of bonding in the compound formed in (c) i.Nyatakan jenis ikatan di dalam sebatian yang terbentuk di( c ) i.

__________________________________________________________________________________[ 1 mark/markah]

(iii)

Giveonephysical property of the compound.Berikansatusifat fizikal bagi sebatian itu.

__________________________________________________________________________________[ 1 mark/markah]

(iv)

Draw the electronic structures of the particles present in the compound.Lukiskan struktur elektron bagi zarah - zarah yang hadir di dalam sebatian itu.

[ 2 mark/markah]

4.Diagrambelow shows part of the Periodic Table of Elements. P, Q, R, S, T, U and V are not the actual symbols of the elements.Rajahdi bawahmenunjukkan sebahagian daripada Jadual Berkala Unsur. P, Q, R, S, T, UdanVtidak mewakili simbol yang sebenar unsur.

Diagram /Rajah

Answer the following questions, using only the elements shown in the diagram.

Jawab soalan-soalan berikut menggunakan hanya unsur yang ditunjukkan pada rajah di atas.(a)

Write the symbol for an element which...Tuliskan simbol bagi unsur yang...(i)

is a transition element.merupakan unsur peralihan

______________________________________________________________________(ii)

forms an acidic oxide.membentuk oksida asid

_______________________________________________________________________________(iii)

has four electrons in its outer shell.mempunyai empat elektron pada petala terluar.

_________________________________________________________________________________[3marks/markah]

(b)

Compare the melting points of elementsP, Q andR.Bandingkan takat lebur antara unsur-unsurP, Q,danR.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

[1mark/markah]

(c)

Why does elementR react more vigorously with water than element Q?Mengapakah unsurRmenunjukkan tindak balas yang lebih cergas dengan air berbanding unsurQ?

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

[2marks/markah]

(d)

Why doS andT not react chemically?MengapakahSdanTtidak bertindak balas secara kimia?

______________________________________________________________________________________________________

[1mark/markah]

(e)

Write the electronic structure of ion U.Tulis struktur elektron bagi ionU.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________[2 marks/markah]

(f)

Giveoneuse of element V in industry.Nyatakansatukegunaan unsurVdalam industri.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________

[1mark/markah]

5.Tablebelow shows the proton numbers and nucleon numbers of the atoms of five elements, P, Q, R, S and T. Use the information given in the table to answer the following questions.Jadualdi bawahmenunjukkan nombor proton dan nombor nukleon bagi atom-atomP, Q, R, SdanT.Gunakan maklumat yang diberikan dalam jadual untuk menjawab soalan-soalan berikut.

Table/Jadual

(a)

Nameallthe subatomic particles in an atom.Namakansemuazarah sub-atom dalam satu atom.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________[1mark/markah]

(b)

(i)

What is meant by nucleon number?Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan nombor nukleon?

_________________________________________________________________________________________________[1mark/markah]

(ii)

How many neutrons are there in an atom of element S?Berapakah bilangan neutron terdapat di dalam satu atom unsurS?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________[1mark/markah]

(c)

(i)

Which element has chemical properties which are similar to those of sodium?Atom unsur yang manakah mempunyai sifat kimia yang serupa dengan natrium?

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

[1mark/markah]

(ii)

Giveonereason for your answers in (c)(i).Berikansatusebab bagi jawapan kamu di(c)(i).

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

[1mark/markah]

(d)

(i)

What is the meaning of isotopes?Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan isotop?

___________________________________________________________________________________________________[1mark/markah]

(ii)

Which two elements are isotopes?Dua unsur yang manakah merupakah isotop?

___________________________________________________________________________________________________[1mark/markah]

(e)

Which element exists as monatomic particles at room temperature? Give a reason for your answer.Unsur yang manakah wujud sebagai monoatom pada suhu dan tekanan bilik?Berikan alasan bagi jawapan kamu.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________[2marks/markah]

(f)

State a physical property of the compound formed between P and S.Nyatakan sifat fizikal bagi sebatian yang terbentuk antaraPdanS.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

[1mark/markah]

6.Tablebelow shows the number of protons and neutrons in atoms P, Q, R and S.Jadualdi bawahmenunjukkan bilangan proton dan neutrons bagi tiga atom.

Table/Jadual

(a)

What is meant by the nucleon number of an atom?Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan nombor nukleon bagi atom?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

[1 mark/1markah]

(b)

Write atom R in the form of X .Tuliskan atomRdengan perwakilan atom unsurX.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

[1 mark/1markah]

(c)

(i)

State the number of electrons in ion R.Nyatakan bilangan elektron dalam ionR.

__________________________________________________________________________________

[1 mark/1markah]

(ii)

Based on (c) (i), draw the electronic structure of ion R.Berdasarkan(c)(i),lukis struktur elektron untuk menunjukkan ionR.

[2 marks/2markah]

(d)

(i)

Which of the atoms are isotopes?Atom-atom yang manakah isotop?

__________________________________________________________________________________

[1 mark/1markah]

(ii)

State a reason for your answer in (c)(i)Nyatakan alasan bagi jawapan anda di(c)(i)

__________________________________________________________________________________

[1 mark/1markah]

(e)

R and another element, T, are placed in the same group in The Periodic Table of Elements. R is in the gas state whereas T is in the solid state at room temperature.Rdan satu unsurTterletak dalam kumpulan yang sama dalam Jadual Berkala Unsur.Radalah gas manakalaTadalah pepejal pada suhu bilik.

(i)

Predict the number of valence electrons in atom T.Ramal bilangan elektron valen bagi atomT.

__________________________________________________________________________________

[1 mark/1markah]

(ii)

Explain why R and T exist in different states at room temperature.Terangkan mengapaRdanTwujud dalam keadaan yang berlainan pada suhu bilik.

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

[2 marks/2markah]

7.Diagrambelow shows the apparatus set up in an experiment to determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide.Rajahdi bawahmenunjukkan set alat radas dalam satu eksperimen untuk menentukan formula empirik bagi magnesium oksida.

Diagram/Rajah(a)

(i)

What do empirical formula and molecular formula mean?Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan formula empirik dan formula molekul?

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

[2 marks/2markah]

(ii)

Write the formula which is used in the calculation of the number of moles of the elements in magnesium oxide.Tuliskan persamaan yang diperlukan di dalam pengiraan bilangan mol di dalam magnesium oksida.

[1 mark/1markah]

(iii)

When carrying out the experiment shown above, why is it neccessary to lift the crucible lid once in a while?Semasa menjalankan eksperimen di atas, kenapa penutup perlu dibuka dari masa ke semasa?

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

[2 marks/2markah]

(b)

The information below shows the results of an experiment to determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide.Maklumat di bawah menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen untuk menentukan formula empirik bagi magnesium oksida.

Based on the results shown above, determine the values of the following:

Berdasarkan keputusan dalam rajah, tentukan nilai bagi yang berikut:

(i)

Mass of magnesium used: ____________________________________________________________ gJisim magnesium yang digunakan[1 mark/1markah]

(ii)

Mass of oxygen that has combined with the magnesium ____________________________________gJisim oksigen yang bergabung dengan magnesium[1 mark/1markah]

(iii)

Number of moles of magnesium ______________________________________________________gBilangan mol magnesium[1 mark/1markah]

(iv)

Number of moles of oxygen_________________________________________________________gBilangan mol oksigen[1 mark/1markah]

8.Empirical formula of magnesium oxide can be determined by burning magnesium ribbon in excess of oxygen.Formula empirik magnesium oksida boleh ditentukan dengan pembakaran pita magnesium dalam oksigen berlebihan.The results obtained are as follows.Keputusan diperolehi adalah seperti berikut:

Table /Jadual

(a)

Draw a labelled diagram to show the apparatus set-up for this reaction.Lukis rajah berlabel untuk menunjukkan susunan radas bagi tindak balas ini.

[2marks/markah]

(b)

What must be done to the magnesium ribbon before it is placed in the crucible? Give a reason for your answer.Apakah yang perlu dilakukan pada pita magnesium sebelum dimasukkan ke dalam mangkuk pijar? Berikan satu sebab bagi jawapan anda.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

[2marks/markah]

(c)

The lid is opened and closed once in a while during the experiment.Explain why this is necessary.Penutup dibuka dan ditutup selang seli semasa eksperimen.Terangkan mengapa ini perlu.

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________

[2marks/markah]

(d)

How will you ensure that all the magnesium has burnt?Bagaimana anda memastikan bahawa semua magnesium sudah dibakar [1mark/markah]

(e)

Based on the above results, determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide.[Relative atomic mass: O =16; Mg =24]Berdasarkan keputusan di atas, tentukan formula empirik magnesium oksida.[Jisim atom relatif: O =16; Mg =24]

[3marks/markah]

(f)

Why is the empirical formula of copper(II) oxide not determined in the same way?Mengapakah formula empirik kuprum(II)oksida tidak ditentukan dengan cara yang sama?

[1mark/markah]

9.(a)

An experiment of the reaction between copper oxide and hydrogen to determine the empirical formula of the metal is carried out in the laboratory. The data collected is recorded in Table A.Satu eksperimen tindak balas antara oksida kuprum dengan hidrogen untuk menentukan formula empirik logam itu telah dijalankan di dalam makmal. Data yang dikumpulkan dicatatkan dalam Jadual A.

Table A/Jadual A

(i)

What is meant by empirical formula?Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan formula empirik?

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________[1 mark/1markah]

(ii)

Determine the empirical formula of copper oxide.Hitungkan formula empirik bagi oksida kuprum.[Relative atomic mass: O,16; Cu,64][Jisim atom relatif: O, 16; Cu, 64]

[1 mark/1markah]

(b)

A reaction is represented by the following equation:Satu tindak balas diwakili oleh persamaan berikut:

NaO + H2O 2NaOH

Based on the equation above, give

Berdasarkan persamaan di atas, berikan(i)

qualitative information.maklumat secara kualitatif.

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

[1 mark/1markah]

(ii)

quantitative information.maklumat secara kuantitatif.

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

[1 mark/1markah]

(c)

TableB shows the name of substances and their symbols.JadualB menunjukkan nama bahan dan simbolnya.

Table B/Jadual B

(i)

Write the symbol for iron(III) oxide.Tuliskan simbol bagi ferum(III)oksida.

________________________________________________________________________________ [1 mark/1markah]

(ii)

Iron(II) oxide is reduced by carbon to form carbon dioxide and iron. Write the equation of the reaction that takes place.Ferum(II)oksida diturunkan oleh karbon membentuk karbon dioksida dan ferum. Tuliskan persamaan tindak balas yang berlaku.

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

[1 mark/1markah]

(iii)

If 4 g of iron(II) oxide reacts completely with excess carbon powder, calculate the mass of iron produced.Jika 4 g ferum(II)oksida bertindak balas sempurna dengan serbuk karbon berlebihan, hitungkan jisim ferum yang terhasil.[Relative atomic mass: O,16; Fe,56][Jisim atom relatif: O 16; Fe, 56] [2 marks/2markah]

10.Diagrambelow shows the apparatus set up to determine the empirical formula of oxide X.Rajahdi bawahmenunjukkan susunan radas untuk menentukan formula empirikal bagi oksidaX..

Diagram/Rajah

Dry hydrogen gas is passed through the combustion tube for a few minutes. A black powder of oxide X is then heated until no change is observed. Th e following results are recorded.

Gas hidrogen kering dialirkan melalui tiub pembakaran beberapa minit. Satu serbuk hitam oksidaXkemudian dipanaskan sehingga tiada perubahan kelihatan. Berikut adalah keputusan diperolehi.

Mass of combustion tube + asbestos paper = 23.30 gJisim tiub pembakaran+kertas asbestos

Mass of combustion tube + asbestos paper + oxide X before heating = 31.30 gJisim tiub pembakaran+kertas asbestos+oksidaXsebelum pembakaran

Mass of combustion tube + asbestos paper + oxide X aft er heating = 29.70 gJisim tiub pembakaran+kertas asbestos+oksidaXselepas pembakaran

[Relative atomic mass: O, 16; X = 64][Jisim atom relatif: O, 16; X = 64]

(a)

Write a balanced chemical equation to show how hydrogen is prepared.Tulissatupersamaan kimia seimbang untuk menunjukkan penyediaan hidrogen gas.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

[1 mark/1markah]

(b)

State the reason why dry hydrogen gas must be passed through the combustion tube for a few minutes before heating?Nyatakan sebab mengapa gas hidrogen kering mesti dialirkan melalui tiub pembakaran beberapa minit?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

[1 mark/1markah]

(c)

Suggest one other chemical which can replace anhydrous calcium chloride.Cadangkansatubahan lain bagi menggantikan kalsium klorida.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

[1 mark/1markah]

(d)

Explain how you can be sure of that all of oxide X completely reacted in this experiment.Terangkan bagaimana untuk memastikan semua oksidaXbertindakbalas lengkap dalam eksperimen ini.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

[1 mark/1markah]

(e)

Based on results of the experiment, calculate empirical formula of oxide X.Berdasarkan keputusan eksperimen, hitung formula empirikal oksidaX.

[4 marks/4markah]

(f)

The experiment is repeated using oxide Y and oxide Z. Th e table shows the observation for the reactions.Eksperimen ini diulangi dengan menggunakan oksidaYdan oksidaZ. Jadual berikut menunjukkan pemerhatian bagi tindak balas tersebut.

(i)

Based on the observation, arrange the reactivity of metals X, Y and Z in descending order.Berdasarkan pemerhatian, susun logamX, YdanZdalam kereaktifan menurun.

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

[1 mark/1markah]

(ii)

Suggest a method to determine the empirical formula of oxide Y.Cadangkansatukaedah untuk menentukan formula empirikal bagi oksidaY.

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

[1 mark/1markah]

11.An activity is carried out in the laboratory to determine the end point of the reaction between 25.0 cm3of potassium hydroxide solution and 1.0 mol dm3of sulphuric acid. The diagram shows the apparatus set-up for the activity.Satu aktiviti telah dijalankan dalam makmal sains untuk menentukan takat akhir bagi tindak balas antara25.0 cm3kalium hidroksida dan1.0moldm3asid sulfurik. Rajah menunjukkan susun radas bagi aktiviti ini.

The volumes of sulphuric acid added and the changes in the colour of the potassium hydroxide solution are shown in Table below.

Isipadu sulfurik asid ditambah dan perubahan warna larutan kalium hidroksida ditunjukkan dalam jadual berikut.

Table/Jadual

(a)

State the function of phenolphthalein which is added to the potassium hydroxide solution.Nyatakan fungsi fenolftalein ditambah dalam larutan kalium hidroksida.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

[1 mark/1markah]

(b)

Name the chemical reaction between the potassium hydroxide solution and the sulphuric acid.Namakan tindak balas kimia antara larutan kalium hidroksida dengan asid sulfurik.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

[1 mark/1markah]

(c)

Write a chemical equation for the reaction.Tulis persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas ini.

_____________________________________________________________________________________[1 mark/1markah]

(d)

How much sulphuric acid is required to neutralise 25.0 cm3of the potassium hydroxide solution?Bagaimana asid sulfurik yang diperlukan untuk meneutralkan25.0 cm3larutan kalium hidroksida?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

[1 mark/1markah]

(e)

Calculate the concentration of the potassium hydroxide solution used in the above activity.Hitung kepekatan larutan kalium hidroksida yang digunakan dalam aktiviti di atas.

[3 marks/3markah]

(f)

If sulphuric acid is replaced with 1.0 mol dm-3hydrochloric acid, predict the volume of hydrochloric acid required to neutralize 25.0 cm3of the potassium hydroxide solution. Explain why.Jika asid sulfurik diulang dengan1.0moldm-3dengan hidroklorik asid, ramal isipadu hidroklorik asid yang diperlukan untuk menetral25.0 cm3larutan kalium hidroksida.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

[2 marks/2markah]

12.25.0 cm3of sulphuric acid of unknown concentration was titrated with 0.15 mol dm-3sodium hydroxide using phenolphthalein as indicator. The final reading on the burette is shown in the Diagram below.25.0 cm3asid sulfurik yang tidak diketahui kepekatannya dititratkan dengan0.15moldm-3natrium hidroksida menggunakan fenolftalein sebagai penunjuk. Bacaan akhir buret ditunjukkan seperti di dalam Rajah di bawah.

DIAGRAM /RAJAH

TABLE /JADUAL

(a)

Complete the following above table.Lengkapkan jadual di atas.[2 marks/2markah]

(b)

Write a balanced equation which occurred during the titration.Tuliskan persamaan seimbang yang berlaku di dalam pentitratan ini.

_____________________________________________________________________________________[1 mark/1markah]

(c)

State the change in colour at the end point.Nyatakan perubahan warna pada takat akhir.

_____________________________________________________________________________________[1 mark/1markah]

(d)

Calculate the concentration of sulphuric acid in mol dm-3.Hitungkan kepekatan asid sulfurik di dalam moldm-3.

[2 marks/2markah]

(e)

During the titration, the solution in the conical flask becomes warm. Explain.Semasa pentitratan, larutan di dalam kelalang kon menjadi panas. Terangkan.

_____________________________________________________________________________________[1 mark/1markah]

(f)

Draw an energy level diagram for the reaction.Lukiskan gambar rajah aras tenaga bagi tindak balas ini.

[2 marks/2markah]

12.Diagrambelow shows the apparatus set-up for two types of cells, P and Q.Rajahdi bawahmenunjukkan susunan radas bagi dua jenis sel, PdanQ.

(a)

What is the colour of copper(II) sulphate solution?Apakah warna larutan kuprum(II)sulfat?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

[1mark][1markah]

(b)

State all the anions present in copper(II) sulphate solution.Nyatakan semua anion yang hadir dalam larutan kuprum(II)sulfat.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

[1mark][1markah]

(c)

Which electrode is the negative terminal in cell Q?Elektrod manakah yang merupakan terminal negatif dalam selQ?

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

[1mark][1markah]

(d)

Write the half equation for the discharge of the anion in cell P.Tulis setengah persamaan bagi anion yang dinyahcas dalam selP.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

[2marks][2markah]

(e)

Cell P and cell Q are combined as shown in Diagram below.SelPdan selQdigabungkan seperti ditunjukkan dalam Rajah di bawah.

DiagramRajah

(i)

In Diagram above, mark () in the box provided to show which electrode is the anode in cell P.Explain your answer.Dalam Rajah di atas, tanda()dalam petak yang disediakan untuk menunjukkan elektrod yang manakah adalah anod dalam selP.Jelaskan jawapan anda.

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

[2marks][2markah]

(ii)

The observation for the electrolyte in cell P and cell Q is the same.State the observation and explain your answer.Pemerhatian bagi elektrolit dalam selPdan selQadalah sama.Nyatakan pemerhatian tersebut dan jelaskan jawapan anda.

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

[2marks][2markah]

(iii)

Copper(II) sulphate solution in cell P is replaced with dilute sulphuric acid. A colourless gas is produced at the cathode and the gas is collected.Describeonechemical test to identify the gas produced.Larutan kuprum(II)sulfat dalam selPdigantikan dengan asid sulfurik cair. Gas tak berwarna dihasil pada katod dan dikumpulkan.Huraikansatuujian kimia untuk mengenalpasti gas yang dihasilkan.

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

[2marks][2markah]

1.Diagrambelow shows the changing series regarding solid W.Rajahdi bawahmenunjukkan siri perubahan yang berkaitan dengan pepejalW.

Diagram/Rajah

(a)

(i)

Name gas Y, gas Z and solid X.Namakan gasY, gasZ, dan pepejalX.

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

[3 marks/3markah]

(ii)

Explainonechemical test to determine the anion in solution W.Terangkansatuujian kimia untuk mengenal anion dalam larutanW.

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

[2 marks/2markah]

(b)

(i)

Name the cation in solution W.Namakan kation dalam larutanW.

__________________________________________________________________________________

[1 mark/1markah]

(ii)

Write down the ionic equation for the reaction between solution W and sodium iodide solution.Tuliskan persamaan ion bagi tindak balas antara larutanWdengan natrium iodida.

__________________________________________________________________________________

[1 mark/1markah]

(iii)

Name the white precipitate R.Namakan mendakan putihR.

__________________________________________________________________________________

[1 mark/1markah]

(c)

In another experiment, potassium sulphate solution is mixed with solution W.Dalam satu eksperimen lain, larutan kalium sulfat dicampur dengan larutanW.

(i)

State the observation.Nyatakan apa yang dapat diperhatikan.

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

[1 mark/1markah]

(ii)

Name the product in (c)i.Namakan hasil di(c)i

__________________________________________________________________________________

[1 mark/1markah]

3.Diagram shows the flow chart for the manufacture of nitrogen fertilisers.Rajah menunjukkan carta alir untuk pembuatan baja nitrogen.

Diagram/Rajah

(a)

Name Process I.Namakan prosesI.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

[1 mark/markah]

(b)

State the conditions required for Process I.Nyatakan syarat yang diperlukan untuk ProsesI.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________

[3 marks/markah]

(c)

Write a balance chemical equation for Process I.Tuliskan persamaan kimia yang seimbang untuk ProsesI.

_____________________________________________________________________________________[2 marks/markah]

(d)

Name the type of reaction that occurs in Process II.Namakan jenis tindak balas yang berlaku dalam ProsesII.

_____________________________________________________________________________________

[1 mark/markah]

(e)

Give the chemical formula of fertiliser P.Berikan formula kimia bagi bajaP.

_____________________________________________________________________________________[1 mark/markah]

(f)

Calculate the maximum mass of fertiliser Q that can be obtained by reacting 96 000 dm3of ammonia gas with an excess of nitric acid.Hitungkan jisim maksimum bagi bajaQyang dapat diperolehi melalui tindak balas96000 dm3gas ammonia dengan asid nitrik berlebihan.[Relative atomic mass; H, 1; N, 14; O, 16][Jisim atom relatif; H, 1; N, 14; O, 16]

[3 marks/markah]

SECTION B

1(a)What methods can be used to prepare magnesium chloride?Apakah kaedah-kaedah yang boleh digunakan dalam penyediaan magnesium klorida?

[3marks/markah]

(b)Based on your answer in (a), choose one of the methods and explain how magnesium chloride can beprepared.Pilih salah satu kaedah yang dinyatakan dalam(a),terangkan dengan bantuan gambar rajah berlabel prosedur untuk menyediakan garam kuprum(II)sulfat.

[9marks/markah]

(c)Diagrambelow is an incomplete flow chart which shows the qualitative analysis of a salt.Rajahdi bawahialah carta alir yang tidak lengkap yang menunjukkan analisis kualitatif garam.

Diagram /Rajah

You are given the following reagents:-

Anda dibekalkan dengan reagen-reagen berikut:-

(i)

Describe a chemical test to verify the cation.Huraikan satu ujian kimia untuk mengesahkan kehadiran kation.

[5marks/markah]

(ii)

Describe chemical tests to verify the anion.Huraikan ujian-ujian kimia untuk mengesahkan kehadiran anion.

[3marks/markah]

2.(a)

The following are three examples of sulphate salts that can be prepared in the laboratory.Berikut adalah tiga contoh garam sulfat yang boleh disediakan di dalam makmal.

Potassium sulphate, K2SO4Kalium sulfat, K2SO4

Lead(II) sulphate, PbSO4Plumbum(II)sulfat, PbSO4

Zinc sulphate, ZnSO4Zink sulfat, ZnSO4(i)

From these examples, identify the soluble and insoluble salts.Daripada contoh-contoh ini, kenal pasti garam terlarutkan dan garam tak larut.

[2marks][2markah]

(ii)

State the reactants for the preparation of the insoluble salt in (a)(i).Nyatakan bahan tindak balas bagi penyediaan garam tak larut di(a)(i).

[2marks][2markah]

(b)

With the aid of a lebelled diagram, explain the crystallisation method for preparing an insoluble salt from its saturated solution.Dengan bantuan gambar rajah berlabel, terangkan kaedah penghabluran untuk menyediakan garam tak larut daripada larutan tepu garam itu.[6marks][6markah]

(c)

Tablebelow shows the observations from some tests carried out on salt X.Jadualdi bawahmenunjukkan pemerhatian ke atas ujian yang dijalankan ke atas garamX.

TableJadual

Based on the information in Table above:

Berdasarkan maklumat dalam Jadual di atas:

(i)

Identify an anion that is present in Test I and describe a chemical test to verify the anoin.Kenal pasti satu anion yang hadir dalam UjianIdan huraikan satu ujian kimia untuk menentusahkan anion itu.[4marks][4markah]

(ii)

Identifytwocations that are present in Test II and describe a chemical test to verify the cations.Kenal pastiduakation yang hadir dalam Ujian II dan huraikan satu ujian kimia untuk menentusahkan kation itu.[6marks][6markah]

3.Diagrambelow shows the apparatus set-up for the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution using carbon electrodes.Rajahdi bawahmenunjukkan susunan radas untuk elektrolisis larutan natrium klorida dengan menggunakan elektrod karbon.

(a)

Based on Diagram below, state the factors that determine the products formed at electrode P and electrode Q.Berdasarkan Rajah di bawah, nyatakan faktor yang menentukan hasil yang terbentuk pada elektrodPdan elektrodQ.

[2marks]]

(b)

Explain the reactions at electrodes, P and Q. Include the following in your explanation:Terangkan tindak balas pada elektrod, PdanQ.Penerangan anda perlu mengandungi:

List to ions attracted to each of electrodes, P and QSenarai ion-ion yang tertarik ke setiap elektrod, PdanQ

Names of the ions selectively discharged at each electrodeNama ion-ion yang dipilih untuk dinyahcas di setiap elektrod

The reason why the ions are selectively dischargedSebab ion-ion dipilih untuk dinyahcas

Half equations for each reactionSetengah persamaan bagi setiap tindak balas[10marks]]

4. The table shows the proton number and nucleon number for elements X, Y, chlorine and carbon. Jadual berikut menunjukkan nombor proton dan nombor nekleon bagi unsurX, Ydan karbon.

(i)Write the symbol for atom Y.Tulis simbol bagi atomY.

[1 mark/1markah]

(ii)Determine the position of elements Y in the Periodic Table. Explain.Tentukan kedudukan unsurYdalam Jadual Berkala Unsur.

[3 marks/3markah]

(b)X and carbon react with chlorine to form ionic and covalent compounds respectively.Based on the above statement, explain the formation of the compounds.AtomXdan karbon bertindak balas dengan unsur klorin masing-masing untuk membentuk sebatian kovalen dan sebatian ionik.Berdasarkan penyataan di atas, terangkan pembentukan sebatian itu.[10 marks/10markah]

(c)Compare the reactivity of X and Y towards chlorine. Explain your answer.Bandingkan reaktiviti bagiXdanYterhadap klorin. Terangkan jawapan anda.

[6 marks/6markah]

121