UDDEHOLM TOOL STEELS FOR COLD WORK TOOL STEELS FOR COLD WORK TOOLING. ... Roof bow. 6 STEEL FOR COLD WORK ... ties that are critical for good resistance to adhe

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  • STEEL FOR COLD WORK TOOLING 1

    UDDEHOLM TOOL STEELS FOR

    COLD WORKTOOLING

  • STEEL FOR COLD WORK TOOLING2

    This information is based on our present state of knowledge and is intended to provide generalnotes on our products and their uses. It should not therefore be construed as a warranty ofspecific properties of the products described or a warranty for fitness for a particular purpose.

    Classified according to EU Directive 1999/45/ECFor further information see our Material Safety Data Sheets.

    Edition: 13, 08.2016

    UDDEHOLMS ABNo part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted for commercial purposeswithout permission of the copyright holder.

  • STEEL FOR COLD WORK TOOLING 3

    Selecting a tool steel supplier is a key decision for all parties, including the tool maker,

    the tool user and the end user. Thanks to superior material properties, Uddeholms

    customers get reliable tools and components. Our products are always state-of-the-

    art. Consequently, we have built a reputation as the most innovative tool steel

    producer in the world.

    Uddeholm produce and deliver high quality Swedish tool steel to more than 100,000

    customers in over 100 countries. We secure our position as a world-leading supplier

    of tool steel.

    Wherever you are in the manufacturing chain, trust Uddeholm to be your number

    one partner and tool steel provider for optimal tooling and production economy.

    Quite simply, it pays to go for a better steel.

    CONTENTS

    Introduction 4

    Tool steel fundamentals 5

    Tool steel selection 12

    Tool making 15

    Surface treatment 19

    Product programme 21

    The Uddeholm tool steel grades for cold work tooling 23

    Executions and products 25

    Chemical composition 26

  • STEEL FOR COLD WORK TOOLING4

    IntroductionRows of presses continuously producing the samecomponents were a common sight in earliertimes. Unplanned production halts due to toolingproblems were not so serious because high levelsof work in progress were held. Repairs or newtools could be quickly made by dedicated in-house tool rooms from stocks of one or twosteel.

    On the whole, work materials were simplerand the operating speeds of presses were slower.Thus major tool failures did not occur so often.

    Production technology has, however, advancedvery considerably. Equipment and plant are beingscrutinised these days because greater accuracyand higher productivity are a must. Much greateremphasis has been placed on profit and reducingproduction costs. High speed presses producingcomponents just-in-time from more difficult workmaterials on tools manufactured off-site is be-coming more common.

    Tool design, the method of tool manufacturing,the tooling material and the work material are allpart of the package in trying to optimize produc-tivity and to reduce costs.

    Tools are the final link in the hardware chain.To obtain optimum productivity, tool steel thatcan meet todays demands and a knowledge oftool steel selection are necessary.

    UdUdde

    Uddeholm VUddeh

    Uddeho

    Uddeholm CaldieUddeholm Vanadis 4 ExtraUddeholm Vanadis 8Uddeholm Vancron 40

    Uddeholm CaldieUddeholm SleipnerUddeholm Vanadis 4 ExtraUddeholm Vanadis 8Uddeholm Vancron 40

    Uddeholm CaldieUddeholm SleipnerUddeholm Vanadis 4 ExtraUddeholm Vanadis 8Uddeholm Vancron 40

    Uddeholm CaldieUddeholm SleipnerUddeholm Vanadis 4 ExtraUddeholm Vanadis 8Uddeholm Vancron 40

    Uddeholm CaldieUddeholm SleipnerUddeholm Vanadis 4 ExtraUddeholm Vanadis 8Uddeholm Vancron 40

    Uddeholm CaldieUddeholm SleipnerUddeholm Vanadis 4 ExtraUddeholm Vanadis 8Uddeholm Vancron 40

    Sill re

    Roof rail

    A-pillar

    Door beams

    Crash box

    Front side member

    Bumper reinforcement

  • STEEL FOR COLD WORK TOOLING 5

    Tool steel fundamentalsWe at Uddeholm can help the tool user in anumber of very important ways.

    Our world wide marketing organization is ableto provide a well balanced programme of highquality tool steel. This programme not onlyincludes a number of standard grades but alsogrades specifically designed to meet the highrequirements now placed on much cold worktooling.

    We can help the tool user to choose the righttool steel for the application. We do this byselecting the tool steel grade after identifying thereasons for the tool failure. A selection made inthis way will result in lower tooling costs, lowermaintenance costs and a less downtime.

    DEMANDS ON COLD WORK TOOLING

    Choosing the right tool steel for the applicationbecomes more and more important as thedemands on the tool increase. What are thesedemands?

    The tool must have sufficient wear resistance. The tool must perform reliably and not fail due

    to premature chipping, cracking or plasticdeformation.

    An optimal tooling economythe lowestpossible tooling cost (including maintenance) perpart producedcan only be achieved if thecorrect tool steel for the application in questionis used.

    Uddeholm CaldieUddeholm Sleipner

    Uddeholm Vanadis 4 ExtraUddeholm Vanadis 8

    Uddeholm Vancron 40 Uddeholm CaldieUddeholm Sleipner

    Uddeholm Vanadis 4 ExtraUddeholm Vanadis 8

    Uddeholm Vancron 40

    Uddeholm CaldieUddeholm Sleipner

    Uddeholm Vanadis 4 ExtraUddeholm Vanadis 8

    Uddeholm Vancron 40

    Uddeholm CaldieUddeholm Sleipner

    Uddeholm Vanadis 4 Extra

    Uddeholm CaldieUddeholm Sleipner

    Uddeholm Vanadis 4 Extra

    Uddeholm CaldieUddeholm Sleipner

    Uddeholm Vanadis 4 ExtraUddeholm Vanadis 8

    Uddeholm Vancron 40

    Uddeholm CaldieUddeholm Sleipner

    Uddeholm Vanadis 4 ExtraUddeholm Vanadis 8

    Uddeholm Vancron 40

    Uddeholm CaldieUddeholm Sleipner

    Uddeholm Vanadis 4 ExtraUddeholm Vanadis 8

    Uddeholm Vancron 40

    deholm Caldieeholm SleipnerVanadis 4 Extraholm Vanadis 8lm Vancron 40

    inforcement

    Seat track

    Seat frame

    Recliner

    Cross member

    Waist reinforcement

    B-pillar

    C-pillar

    Roof bow

  • STEEL FOR COLD WORK TOOLING6

    Figure 1. Factors inf luencing tool life in cold work applications.

    HEAT TREATMENTTOOL MATERIAL

    PRODUCTION CONDITIONS

    TOOL DESIGN

    TOOL MAINTENANCE

    WORK MATERIAL

    TOOL PRODUCTION

    Cutting particle

    Wear

    Direction of movement

    Workmaterial

    RELATIONSHIP BETWEENFAILURE MECHANISMS AND TOOLSTEEL PROPERTIES

    In recent years a lot of work has been carriedout in this field, especially for the cold work toolsteel. A better understanding of the importantrelationship between failure mechanisms and thetool steel properties has been attained and ourknowledge of this is reviewed as follows.

    Figure 2. Schematic representation of abrasive wear.

    Tool

    ABRASIVE WEAR

    This type of wear dominates when the workmaterial is hard and/or contains hard particlessuch as oxides or carbides.

    These hard particles scour the tool surface asshown schematically in Figure 2. An example ofa punch worn by abrasive wear is shown inPhoto 1 on page 8.

    Abrasive wear is dominant with such workmaterials as hardened steel, ceramics and wood.

    The tool steel properties that are importantfor good resistance to abrasive wear are: high hardness high volume of carbides high hardness of the carbides large carbide size

    TOOL PERFORMANCE

    The performance of a cold work tool depends onmany factors. These are shown in Figure 1.

    The performance of a tool is often monitoredby examining the quality of the parts it produces.In most applications, there are special require-ments on surface finish and dimensional toler-ances etc. for the parts being produced. A worndown or damaged tool usually results in rejectionof the parts and the tool must be reconditionedor replaced.

    The work material itself has a fundamentalinfluence on the failure mechanisms. The mostfrequent failure mechanisms in cold work toolingare shown in Figure 3.

  • STEEL FOR COLD WORK TOOLING 7

    Wear

    Cracking/total failure

    Plastic deformation

    Chipping

    Figure 3. The most frequent failure mechanismsin cold work tooling.

    Direction of movement

    Tool

    Figure 4. Schematic representation of adhesive wear.

    ADHESIVE WEAR AND GALLING

    Adhesive wear or galling is a material transferfrom one metallic surface to another when theyslide over each other and is caused by the proc-ess of micro-welding (solid phase welding).

    The metallic surfaces are never absolutelysmooththey consist of microscopic asperities.Bonding can occur between the two surfaces atthese asperities and this may be stronger thanthe basic strength of the weaker of the twomaterials in contact. If there is a relative motionbetween these two surfaces, the weaker of thetwo materials in contact will fail and materialfrom it will be transferred to the other contact-ing surface.

    The situation for a tool and production ma-terials is shown in Figure 4. If the microweldfractures on the tool side, small fragments of thetool steel will be torn out of the tool surface andthis leads to adhesive wear. If the microweldsbreak on the production material side, the frag-ments of production material will gall onto thetool surface.

    Adhesive wear may also be the origin of chipp-ing. A fatigue mechanism gradually takes overfrom the adhesive wear dominant in the earlystages.

    Microcracks start to nucleate and these willstart to deepen and spread. The cracks can theninitiate a large scale spalling (chipping) or evenlead to a catastrophic failure. An example of apunch worn by adhesive wear is shown in Photo 2on page 8. Fatigue cracks can be clearly seen.

    Adhesive wear and galling are normally associ-ated wi