Teaching and Teacher Education 23
The purpose of this study was to explore Turkish preservice science teachers science teaching efcacy and classroom
Teacher efcacy has emerged as one of the few and motivation (Midgley, Feldlaufer, & Eccles, 1989;
devote more time to teach science and are mostcapable of activity-based science teaching with
ARTICLE IN PRESS
Corresponding author. Tel.: +90 312 210 4051;fax: +90312 210 1180.regard to teachers with a low sense of efcacy(Enochs & Riggs, 1990; Riggs & Enochs, 1990).
0742-051X/$ - see front matter r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
E-mail addresses: email@example.com (A.S. Gencer),
firstname.lastname@example.org (J. Cakiroglu).teacher characteristics that consistently relates toteaching and learning over the past 25 years.Tschannen-Moran and Woolfolk Hoy (2001) de-ned teacher efcacy as a teachers judgment of hisor her capabilities to bring about desired outcomesof student engagement and learning, even amongthose students who may be difcult or unmoti-vated (p. 783).Researchers have shown that teacher efcacy has
been linked to a variety of teaching behaviors and
Woolfolk, Rosoff, & Hoy, 1990). Teachers efcacyjudgments are highly correlated with persistence at atask and exhibiting a greater academic focus (Gibson& Dembo, 1984), teachers enjoyment of teaching(Watters & Ginns, 1995), and greater degrees of risktaking (Ashton & Webb, 1986). Further, extensiveresearch on efcacy of teachers suggests that teacherswith a high sense of efcacy are more willing toimplement instructional innovations and competentteaching methods to be effective teacher (Czerniak &Lumpe, 1996; Guskey, 1988; Stein & Wang, 1988),Science Teaching Efcacy Belief Instrument and the attitudes and beliefs on classroom control (ABCC) inventory. Data
analysis indicated that preservice science teachers generally expressed positive efcacy beliefs regarding science teaching. In
addition, results revealed that participants were interventionist on the instructional management dimension, whereas they
favored non-interventionist style on the people management dimension of the ABCC inventory.
r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Preservice science teachers; Self-efcacy beliefs; Classroom management beliefs
1. Introduction student outcomes such as achievement (Ashton &Webb, 1986; Gibson & Dembo, 1984; Ross, 1992)management beliefs. Data in this study were collected from a total number of 584 preservice science teachers utilizing theTurkish preservice science teascience teaching and their belie
Ayse Savran GencaDepartment of Secondary Science & Mathematics Education,
bDepartment of Elementary Education, Faculty of Educat
Received 9 September 200
ers efcacy beliefs regardingabout classroom management
ty of Education, Pamukkale University, 20020-Denizli, Turkey
iddle East Technical University, 06531-Ankara, Turkey
epted 28 September 2005
ARTICLE IN PRESSA.S. Gencer, J. Cakiroglu / Teaching and Teacher Education 23 (2007) 664675 665Teacher efcacy would also be related withteachers classroom management approaches (Hen-son, 2001; Woolfolk & Hoy, 1990). Doyle (1986)suggested that one of the major tasks of teaching isto establish and maintain order in the classroom.Within the difculty of this task, establishingclassroom discipline and motivating students wereperceived as the greatest concern of preserviceteachers (Evans & Tribble, 1986) and beginningteachers (Veenman, 1984). For example, Ingersoll(2001) studied approximately 6700 teachers in theUS and states that approximately 30% of theteachers or so who chose to leave the professionidentify student discipline as one of the reasons thatcaused them to give up teaching. Since that task ismore problematic for beginning and preserviceteachers, Henson postulated that the relationshipsbetween teachers classroom management and self-efcacy beliefs may provide ways in which anindividuals expectation for success impacts class-room management behavior. Conversely, Woolfolkand Hoy suggested that beliefs about how tomanage and motivate students as well as initialsuccess in acting on these beliefs may be related tothe development of a sense of efcacy for beginningteachers. Teachers with a higher sense of efcacytended to favor more humanistic and less control-ling classroom management orientations in howthey handle their students behaviors (Enochs,Scharmann, & Riggs, 1995; Henson, 2001; Wool-folk & Hoy, 1990; Woolfolk et al., 1990), used morepositive behavior management strategies (Emmer &Hickman, 1991; Saklofske, Michayluk, & Randha-wa, 1988) and had more preventative, rather thanrestorative beliefs with regard to behavior problems(Jordan, Kircaali-Iftar, & Diamond, 1993). Ingeneral, teachers who believe they can successfullyinstruct students who have learning or behavioralproblems are more likely to include such students intheir classroom than are teachers who doubt theirability to instruct or motivate these students(Ashton & Webb, 1986).Some researchers argue that beliefs about teach-
ing and learning are well established by the timeprospective teachers enter teacher preparationprograms (Kagan, 1992; Pajares, 1992; Richardson,1996). Over a decade ago, Pintrich (1990) suggestedthat beliefs will ultimately prove to be the mostvaluable psychological construct to teacher educa-tion. The development of teacher efcacy beliefs,e.g., among prospective teachers has generated a
great deal of research interest because once efcacybeliefs are established they appear to be somewhatresistant to change.In an effort to improve science teaching in
Turkish schools, it would be useful to betterunderstand preservice science teachers beliefs re-garding science teaching and classroom manage-ment. The purpose of this study was to examineTurkish preservice science teachers efcacy andclassroom management beliefs. Specically, thestudy explored the interrelationships between tea-cher efcacy beliefs and classroom managementbeliefs of preservice science teachers. In addition,gender and years in university differences in theperception of efcacy and classroom managementbeliefs also were questioned.
2. Theoretical framework
2.1. The construct and measurement of teacher
The conceptualization of teacher efcacy hasbeen based on Banduras (1977, 1997) socialcognitive theory and his construct of self-efcacy.Bandura described perceived self-efcacy as beliefsin ones capabilities to organize and execute thecourses of action required to produce given attain-ments (p. 3). He postulated that efcacy beliefswere powerful predictors of behavior because theywere ultimately self-referent in nature and directedtoward perceived abilities given specic task.Such beliefs inuence the courses of actionpeople choose to pursue, how much effort theywill expended in given endeavors, how long theywill persist in the face of obstacles and failures. Inhis theory, Bandura theorized that behavior is basedon two sources: outcome expectations andself-efcacy expectations. He dened outcomeexpectancy as a persons estimate that a givenbehavior will lead to certain outcomes whereas anefcacy expectation is the conviction that onecan successfully execute the behavior required toproduce the outcomes.Many researchers have applied Banduras (1977)
social cognitive theory and his construct of self-efcacy to teachers. Based on Banduras construct,Ashton and Webb (1986) were among the rstresearchers to develop a multi-dimensional model ofteacher efcacy for assessing two dimensions ofteacher efcacy. Following Ashton and Webbswork, in attempt to further development of teacher
efcacy belief instrument, Gibson and Dembo
ARTICLE IN PRESSA.S. Gencer, J. Cakiroglu / Teaching and Teacher Education 23 (2007) 664675666(1984) developed a 30-item Likert-type teacherefcacy scale to measure two dimensions of teacherefcacy. Factor analysis of the items yielded a two-factor structure, one that Gibson and Dembo calledpersonal teaching efcacy assumed to reect self-efcacy, and another called general teaching efcacyassumed to capture outcome expectancy. Gibsonand Dembo concluded that teacher efcacy is multi-dimensional, consisting of at least two dimensionsand may inuence certain patterns of classroombehavior.Reinforcing Banduras denition of self-efcacy
as a situation-specic construct, Riggs and Enochs(1990) developed an instrument to measure efcacyof teaching sciencethe Science Teaching EfcacyBelief Instrument (STEBI). Consistent with Gibsonand Dembo, they have found two distinct dimen-sions, the rst one was named as personal scienceteaching efcacy (PSTE) belief scale which reectselementary science teachers condence in theirability to teach science and the second was namedas science teaching outcome expectancy (STOE)scale which reects elementary science teachersbeliefs that student learning can be inuenced bygiven effective instruction.The construct of teacher efcacy has been
explored by a number of researchers in recent years.In response to the confusion how to best measureteacher efcacy, Tschannen-Moran, Woolfolk Hoy,and Hoy (1998) and Tschannen-Moran and Wool-folk Hoy (2001) proposed an integrated model ofefcacy development in the cyclical nature ofteacher efcacy that emerged from two interrelatedfactors of teaching task analysis for the givencontext and assessment of competence in thiscontext. The model postulates that teachers drawinformation to make these assessments from foursources as suggested by Bandura (1997); enactivemastery experiences, vicarious ex