Journal of the Thai Society of Agricultural Engineering 20 2 2557 (Volume 20 No. 2 July December 2014) ISSN 1685-408X
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. . University of California, Davis Pictiaw Chen, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus David C. Slaughter, Ph.D., Professor University of Tsukuba Masayuki Koike, D.Agr., Professor Emeritus Tomohiro Takigawa, Ph.D., Professor Mie University Nobutaka Ito, D.Agr., Professor Emeritus Kansas State University Dirk E. Maier, Ph.D., Professor Purdue University Klein E. Ililiji, Ph.D., Associate Professor
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Prof. Dr. Vilas M SalokheProf. Dr. Gajendra Singh Prof. Dr. Chin Chen Hsieh .
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15(1), 2630. Perez-Mendoza, J., Hagstrum, D.W., Dover, B.A., Hopkins, T.L., Baker, J.E. 1999. Flight response, body weight, and
lipid content of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) as influenced by strain, season and phenotype. Journal of Stored Products Research 38, 183195.
(Edited book) Mettam, G.R., Adams, L.B. 1994. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones, B.S., Smith, R.Z.
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Winks, R.G., Hyne, E.A. 1994. Measurement of resistance to grain fumigants with particular reference to phosphine. In: Highley, E., Wright, E.J., Banks, H.J., Champ, B.R. (Eds). Proceedings of the Sixth International Working Conference on Stored-product Protection, 244249. Oxford, UK: CAB International. 1723 April 1994, Canberra, Australia.
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: , . Chayaprasert, W. 2007. Development of CFD models and an automatic monitoring and decision support system
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. 2550. . : http://220.127.116.11/stat_search/frame.asp.
14 2550. United Nations Environment Programme. 2000. The Montreal protocol on substances that deplete the ozone
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1 The Effects of Drying Temperatures and Oil Contents on Properties of Biodegradable Film from Konjac Flour Prayoon Jomlapeeratikul1*, Nattapol Poomsa-ad2, Lamul Wiset2, Chaleeda Borompichaichartkul38 2 1*15 1*, 2, 224 Quantification of the Severity of Brown Leaf Spot Disease in Cassava using Image Analysis Wanrat Abdullakasim1*, Kittipong Powbunthorn1, Jintana Unartngam233 : 1*, 243 1, 2*, 1, 2, 1, 2
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Thai Society of Agricultural Engineering Journal Research PaperVolume 20 No. 2 (2514) 1-7
ISSN 1685-408X Available online at www.tsae.asia
The Effects of Drying Temperatures and Oil Contents on Properties of Biodegradable Film from Konjac Flour Prayoon Jomlapeeratikul1*, Nattapol Poomsa-ad2, Lamul Wiset2, Chaleeda Borompichaichartkul3
1Faculty of Engineering, Rajamangala University of Technology Isan Khonkaen Campus, Khonkaen, Thailand, 40000 2Faculty of Engineering, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham, Thailand, 44150 3Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, 10330 *Corresponding author: Tel: +68-95-547-049, E-mail: [email protected]
Abstract Biodegradable film is material made of biopolymer that can degrade naturally. Konjac flour is a soluble
dietary fiber obtained from the root of the konjac plant (Amorphophallus konjac). The objective of this research was to study the effects of drying temperatures and olive oil concentrations on physical and mechanical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP) and solubility of biodegradable film from Konjac flour. The concentrations of olive oil were varied from 0, 1 to 3% in the experiment. The film drying was performed using a heat pump dryer at drying temperatures of 45 and 55C. The results showed that tensile strength and solubility of film were significantly decreased (p 0.05) when the olive oil concentration and drying temperature were increased. Percentage of elongation and thickness of the film were significantly increased (p 0.05) when olive oil concentrations and drying temperatures were raised. In addition, water vapor permeability of the film was significantly increased (p 0.05) when the olive oil concentrations and drying temperatures were increased. Keywords: Biodegradable film, Drying, Konjac flour, Mechanical properties, Water vapor permeability
1 Introduction Packaging is part of marketing tool and acting as
a silent salesman for consumer information purposes. It places a physical barrier between food products and the outside environment, especially those susceptible to oxidative and microbiological deterioration. The most common materials used for packaging are paper, fiberboard, plastic, glass, steel, and aluminum. Oil-derived synthetic plastics are commonly used. It is because of their advantages over other packaging materials in terms of sturdiness and low weight (Gomez-Guille et al., 2009). However, they pose a serious global environmental problem by generating large volumes of non-biodegradable waste (Kirwan and Strawbridge, 2003). In addition to safety and
environmental issues, recycling of plastics is complicated for technical and economic reasons (Aguado and Serrano, 1999). Thus, new biodegradable films made from edible biopolymers from renewable sources could become an important factor in reducing the environmental impact of plastic waste (Tharanathan, 2003). Proteins, lipids and polysaccharides are the main biopolymers employed to make edible films. The type of biopolymer to use in the film determines the properties of the material as a barrier to water vapour, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and lipid transfer in food systems. Films composed primarily of proteins or polysaccharides have suitable overall mechanical and optical properties but are highly sensitive to moisture and exhibit poor water
Thai Society of Agricultural Engineering Journal Vol. 20 No. 2 (2014), 1-7
vapour barrier properties (Guilbert et al., 1996). This may represent a drawback when they are applied to food products with high moisture contents, because the films may swell, dissolve, or disintegrate upon contact with the water. However, the concept of biopolymers only is valid if the oil utilization life-cycle is shorter for biopolymers than for synthetic polymers (Scott, 2000).
Konjac glucomannan (KGM) is the main polymer which are from agricultural product, readily available, biodegradable and highly safe. They possess special nutritional and good film-forming properties (Cheng et al., 2008). For instance, KGM is found to have functions such as has the ability to lower blood cholesterol and sugar level, help with weight loss, promote intestinal activity and immune function etc (Zhang et al., 2005)
Edible films from biodegradable material can be formed by two main processes, i.e., casting and extrusion (Hernandez and Krochta, 2008). The film formation process most often reported in the scientific literature is the casting m