Tribal Governmental Gaming Law - Carolina .Tribal Governmental Gaming Law ... Some Past and Present

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  • Tribal GovernmentalGaming Law

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  • Carolina Academic PressLaw Casebook Series

    Advisory Board

    Gary J. Simson, ChairmanDean, Case Western Reserve University School of Law

    Raj BhalaUniversity of Kansas School of Law

    John C. Coffee, Jr.Columbia University Law School

    Randall CoyneUniversity of Oklahoma College of Law

    John S. DzienkowskiUniversity of Texas School of Law

    Paul FinkelmanAlbany Law School

    Robert M. JarvisShepard Broad Law Center

    Nova Southeastern University

    Vincent R. JohnsonSt. Marys University School of Law

    Michael A. OlivasUniversity of Houston Law Center

    Kenneth PortWilliam Mitchell College of Law

    Michael P. ScharfCase Western Reserve University School of Law

    Peter M. ShaneMichael E. Moritz College of Law

    The Ohio State University

    Emily L. SherwinCornell Law School

    John F. Sutton, Jr.Emeritus, University of Texas School of Law

    David B. WexlerJohn E. Rogers College of Law

    University of Arizona

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  • Tribal GovernmentalGaming Law

    Cases and Materials

    G. William RiceAssociate Professor of Law

    Co-Director, Native American Law CenterUniversity of Tulsa College of Law

    Carolina Academic Press

    Durham, North Carolina

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  • Copyright 2006G. William Rice

    All rights Reserved.

    ISBN-10: 1-59460-208-5ISBN-13: 978-1-59460-208-5

    LCCN: 2006936991

    Carolina Academic Press

    700 Kent StreetDurham, North Carolina 27701

    Telephone: (919) 489-7486Fax (919) 493-5668www.cap-press.com

    Printed in the United States of America.

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  • To young warriorswho spend their lives promoting

    Self-Determination for Indian Peoplesand earn the title Elder.

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  • Summary of Contents

    Some Past and Present Indian Tribal Governmental Gaming Facilities xviiTable of Cases xxiPreface xxvii

    Introduction and Glossary xxix

    Chapter One The Early Development of Indian Gaming 3

    Chapter Two The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act 59Part One: An Act of Compromise 71Part Two: Legislative History 96Part Three: Tribal Gaming Facilities as Tribal Entities 127

    Chapter Three Management Contracts and Related Issues 131Part One: Early Gaming Management Contracts 132Part Two: The Problem of Managers and Consultants 155Part Three: Managers against Managers 209

    Chapter Four Class II or Class III 223Part One: Of Grandfathers, Johnsons, and Artichokes 224Part Two: Long Distance Gaming and the Internet 248Part Three: Bingo Played in a Slot Box 257

    Chapter Five Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compacts 311Part One: The Compromise is Broken 311Part Two: Good Faith Class III Compact Negotiations 335Part Three: Miscellaneous Compact Issues 355

    Chapter Six Indian Land and its Acquisition 379Part One: Off Reservation Acquisition of Indian Lands 379Part Two: Restored Tribes and Restoration of Lands 401Part Three: Tribe vs. Tribe 414

    Chapter Seven Miscellaneous Gaming Issues 425Part One: Post IGRA State Attempts to Regulate and Tax 426Part Two: Post IGRA Tribal Authorities 445Part Three: NIGC Chairmans Closing Orders and Other Enforcement 465Part Four: Federal Criminal Sanctions 480Part Five: Federal Taxation 493

    vii

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  • Part Six: Employee Suits 505Part Seven: Public Relations 513

    Appendix 523

    Index 825

    viii SUMMARY OF CONTENTS

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  • Contents

    Some Past and Present Indian Tribal Governmental Gaming Facilities xviiTable of Cases xxiPreface xxvii

    Introduction and Glossary xxixAllotment xxixAllotment Policy xxxCitizenship Act of 1924 xxxThe Dawes Act xxxiDependent Indian Community xxxiFederal Indian Law xxxiiiFederally recognized Tribe xxxivGeneral Allotment Act xxxivIndian xxxivIndian Allotment xxxviiiIndian Citizens xxxviiiIndian Civil Rights Act xxxixIndian Country xxxixIndian Financing Act xliIndian Law xliIndian Removal Act xliiIndian Removal Policy xliiIndian Reorganization Act xliiiIndian Reservation xliiiIndian Self-Determination Act xlivIndian Self-Governance Act xlivIndian Tribe, Band, or Nation xlivPublic Law No. 83-280 xlvRestricted Allotment xlviTermination Policy xlviTribal Government xlviTribal Government Tax Status Act xlviiiTrust Allotment xlviii

    Chapter One The Early Development of Indian Gaming 3U.S. v. Sosseur 4Notes 7U.S. v. Farris 7

    ix

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  • Notes 16Seminole Tribe of Florida v. Butterworth 17Notes 22The Barona Group of the Capitan Grande Band of Mission Indians

    v. Duffy 23Notes 27Langley v. Ryder 27Notes 30Iowa Tribe of Indians of Kansas and Nebraska v. Kansas 30Notes 33U.S. v. Dakota 33Notes 37Indian Country, U.S.A., Inc. v. Oklahoma Tax Commission 37Notes 46California v. Cabazon Band of Mission Indians 47Notes 57

    Chapter Two The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act 59Note: Bringing Balance To Indian Gaming 59

    Part One: An Act of Compromise 71An Act to Regulate Gaming on Indian Lands 71Sec. 1. Short Title 72Sec. 2. 25 U.S.C. 2701 Findings 72Sec. 3. 25 U.S.C. 2702 Declaration of Policy 72Sec. 4. 25 U.S.C. 2703 Definitions 72Sec. 5. 25 U.S.C. 2704 National Indian Gaming Commission 74Sec. 6. 25 U.S.C. 2705 Powers of the Chairman 76Sec. 7. 25 U.S.C. 2706 Powers of the Commission 76Sec. 8. 25 U.S.C. 2707 Commission Staffing 77Sec. 9. 25 U.S.C. 2708 Commission Access to Information 78Sec. 10. 25 U.S.C. 2709 Interim Authority to Regulate Gaming 78Sec. 11. 25 U.S.C. 2710 Tribal Gaming Ordinances 78Sec. 12. 25 U.S.C. 2711 Management Contracts 86Sec. 13. 25 U.S.C. 2712 Review of Existing Ordinances and

    Contracts 88Sec. 14. 25 U.S.C. 2713 Civil Penalties 89Sec. 15. 25 U.S.C. 2714 Judicial Review 90Sec. 16. 25 U.S.C. 2715 Subpoena and Deposition Authority 90Sec. 17. 25 U.S.C. 2716 Investigative Powers 91Sec. 18. 25 U.S.C. 2717 Commission Funding 9125 U.S.C. 2717a. Availability of class II gaming activity fees to

    carry out duties of Commission 92Sec. 19. 25 U.S.C. 2718 Authorization of Appropriations 92Sec. 20. 25 U.S.C. 2719 Gaming on Lands Acquired after

    Enactment of this Act 92Sec. 21. 25 U.S.C. 2720 Dissemination of Information 94Sec. 22. 25 U.S.C. 2721 Severability 94Sec. 23. Criminal Penalties 94Section 1166. Gambling in Indian country 94

    x CONTENTS

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  • Section 1167. Theft from gaming establishments on Indian lands 95Section 1168. Theft by officers or employees of gaming

    establishments on Indian lands 95Sec. 24. Conforming Amendment 95

    Part Two: Legislative History 96INDIAN GAMING REGULATORY ACT 96

    Part Three: Tribal Gaming Facilities as Tribal Entities 127Allen v. Gold Country Casino 127

    Chapter Three Management Contracts and Related Issues 131Part One: Early Gaming Management Contracts 132

    Wisconsin Winnebago Business Committee v. Koberstein 132Notes 138A. K. Management Company v. San Manuel Band

    of Mission Indians 138Barona Group of the Capitan Grande Band of Mission Indians

    v. American Management & Amusement, Inc. 141U.S. ex rel. The Citizen Band Potawatomi Indian Tribe of

    Oklahoma v. Enterprise Management Consultants, Inc. 148Enterprise Management Consultants, Inc. v. U.S. 151Notes 154

    Part Two: The Problem of Managers and Consultants 155The Eleventh Circuit: 155

    Tamiami Partners, Ltd v. Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida 155Notes 158Tamiami Partners, Ltd. v. Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida 159Notes 167Tamiami Partners, Ltd. v. Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida 167

    The Tenth Circuit: 173Bank of Oklahoma v. Muscogee (Creek) Nation 173Notes 176

    The Ninth Circuit: 177American Vantage Companies, Inc. v. Table Mountain Rancheria 177Notes 183

    The Eighth Circuit: 184Bruce H. Lien Company v. Three Affiliated Tribes 184U.S. ex rel. Bernard v. Casino Magic Corp. 190Notes 195Turn Key Gaming Inc v. Oglala Sioux Tribe 195Notes 198

    The Seventh Circuit: 199U.S. ex rel. Mosay v. Buffalo Brothers Management, Inc. 199Notes 203

    The Second Circuit: 203Basil Cook Enterprises, Inc. v. St. Regis Mohawk Tribe 203Notes 209

    Part Three: Managers against Managers 209Schmit v. International Finance Management Co. 209Casino Resource Corporation v. Harrahs Entertainment, Inc. 209

    CONTENTS xi

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  • First American Kickapoo Operations, L.L.C. v. Multimedia Games, Inc. 213

    Notes 221

    Chapter Four Class II or Class III 223Part One: Of Grandfathers, Johnsons, and Artichokes 224

    U.S. v. Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribe 224Citizen Band Potawatomi Indian Tribe of Oklahoma v. Green 233Artichoke Joes California Grand Casino v. Norton 235

    Part Two: Long Distance Gaming and the Internet 248State ex rel. Nixon v. Coeur dAlene Tribe 248AT & T Corporation v. Coeur dAlene Tribe 251

    Part Three: Bingo Played in a Slot Box 257D.C. Circuit: 257

    Cabazon Band of Mission Indians v. N.I.G.C. 257Diamond Game Enterprises, Inc. v. Reno 260

    Tenth Circuit: 264U.S. v. 162 Megamania Gambling Devices 264Notes 271Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma v. N.I.G.C. 271

    Ninth Circuit: 283Spokane Indian Tribe v. U.S. 283U.S. v. 103 Electronic Gambling Devices 286

    Eighth Circuit: 295Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community v. Hope 295U.S. v. Santee Sioux Tribe of Nebraska 297

    Seventh Circuit: 303Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin v. Wisconsin 303Notes 307

    Chapter Five Tribal-State