Treatise on Bread

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    CONTENTS.

    HISTORY OF BREAD.

    Primitive food of man. Bruising and grinding grain. Baing. Invention of !eavened

    "read. Bread among t#e $rees and Romans%among t#e He"re&s. Sim'!i(it) of t#e "read

    no& used in man) (ountries. . . *%+,

    -A S OF DIET.

    Reasons ) food in its natura! state &ou!d "e t#e "est. Con(entrated nutriment.

    Interesting e/'eriments on anima!s. 0i/tures of food. -eavened and un!eavened "read.

    1ua!ifi(ations of t#e "est "read +2%34

    0ATERIA- OF BREAD.

    #eat. E/tent of (!imate favora"!e to It. In5ured ") im'ro'er ti!!age. Remova!

    of im'urities. as#ing of grain. Se'aration of t#e "ran from t#e nutrient 'arti(!es

    im'ro'er. An(ient Roman "read. Pu"!i( "aers. 6se of "ad f!oor. Adu!terations.

    Poisonous agents used to disguise t#em 3+%74

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    I8 CONTENTS.

    PROPERTIES OF BREAD.

    Su'erfine f!our in5urious%a 'ro"a"!e (ause of some ... (ommon disorders.

    O"5e(tions to (oarse "read. Its medi(a! 'ro'erties. E/tensive e/'eriments of its use9 : ")

    so!diers and ot#ers. 6se among Euro'ean 'easant%

    r). Se!e(tion9 'reservation and grinding of eat. 7+%2;

    FER0ENTATION.

    C#emi(a! (om'osition of f!our. Yeast%modes of 're% 'aring it. Su"stitutes for it.

    Fermentation< and its 'rodu(ts. 8inous9 a(etous and 'utrefa(tive fermen%

    tation. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23%=,

    PREPARATION OF BREAD.

    I!>fi/ing. .0u(# neading ne(essar). Rising9 or fermen%

    tation. 6se of a!a!ies%sa!eratus and soda. Baing.

    Ovens. A!(o#o! in "read. Preservation of "read. =2%+4;

    HO SHO6-D 0A?E BREAD. .. 0aing "read ") ru!e. Baers.

    Domesti(s. Sour

    "read. An ane(dote. 0rs. 8an in!e. Bad "read need not "e made. maing a

    drudger).Ho& (ae is made. Bread% E/(e!!ent e/am'!e of a mot#er Eating "ad "read .

    Im'ortan(e of #aving good "read . . . . . . +43%+;,

    8 ARIETIES OF BREAD.

    R)e "read. Indian mea! "read. 6se of sour mi! or "uttermi!. A(ids. Fami!)

    grinding +;2%+3+

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    PREFACE.

    THERE are probably few people in civil-.ized life, who-were the qe!tion pt to the" directly-wold .not !ay, that they

    con!iderbread one of the "o!t, - if not the "o!t i"portant article of diet which enter!

    into the food of "an. And yet there i!, in reality, al"o!t a total and niver!al

    carele!!ne!! abot the character

    .of bread. Tho!and! in civic life will, for year!, and perhap! a! lon# a! they

    live, eat the "o!t "i!erable tra!h that can be i"a#ined, in the for" of bread, and never

    !ee" to thin$ that they can po!!ibly have anythin# better, nor even that it i! an evil toeat !ch vile !tff a! they do.

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    %& PREFACE.

    And if there l' occa!ionally an individal who i! trobled with !o"e conviction! that

    hi! bread i! not qite what it !hold be, he $now! not how to re"edy the diffi- clty( for it

    i! a !erio! trth, that, altho#h nearly every h"an bein# in

    civilized life eat! bread of !o"e) $ind or

    other, yet !carcely anyone ha! !fficient ) $nowled#e of the tre principle! and

    proce!!e! concerned in bread-"a$in#, and of

    the actal ca!e! of the bad qalitie! of bread, to $now how, with any de#ree of

    certainty, to avoid bad and !ecre #ood bread.

    & have tho#ht, therefore, that & cold hardl y do !ociety a better !ervice, than to

    pbli!h the followin# treati!e on a !b*ect which, whether people are aware of it or not, i!, in

    reality, of very #reat i"portance to the health arid co"fort of everyone.

    It ha! been prepared for the pre!! with "ore ha!te, nder "ore e"barra!!"ent!

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    PREFACE. vii

    fro" other en#a#e"ent!, and with le!! !everity of revi!ion, than & cold wi!h. +et,

    whatever "ay be it! defect! of arran#e- "ent, "ethod or !tyle, & have ta$en care to ha ve

    the principle! correct, and the in!trction! !ch a!, if attended to, will enable everyone

    who i! heartily devoted to the ob*ect, to "a$e #ood bread.

    & "!t, however, ac$nowled#e, that &

    have very little epectation that proper attention will be paid to thi! !b*ect, !o

    lon# a! the dietetic habit! f !ociety con- tine to be what they are. hile the vario!

    preparation! of ani"al food con- !titte !o i"portant a portion of h"an ali"nt, the

    qality of bread will be #reatly di!re#arded. and ne#lected, and people will contine

    al"o!t niver!ally to be cr!ed with poor bread.

    /everthele!!, & tr!t !o"e #ood will be, done by the little wor$ & now !end ot(

    and & a" not withot hope, that it will be

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    I

    %lll PREFACE.

    the "ean! of a con!iderable i"prove"ent in the qality of bread, and, a! a natral and

    nece!!ary con!eqence, an i"prove- "ent in the h)ealth and happine!! of tho!e who con!"e it.

    That it "ay prove th! beneficial to "y fellow creatre! in a hi#h de#ree, i! "yhearty and fervent de!ire.

    !. 0RAHA1.

    /2RTHAl%&PT2/, APR&3 45, 4678.

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    TREATISE ON BREAD.

    H&'T2R+ 2F 9REA:.

    Pri"itive food of "an. 9ri!in# and #rindin# #rain. 9a$in#. &nvention of leavened bread. 9read a"on# the

    0ree$! and Ro"an!-a"on# the Hebrew!. 'i"plicity of tbe bread now !ed in "any contrie!.

    &/ the En#li!h ver!ion of the !acred !criptre!, the ter" 9read i! freqently !ed to

    !i#nify ve#etable food in #eneral. Th! in 0en. iii, 4;, the 3ord) !ay! to Ada"-< &n the

    !weat of thy face !halt tho eat bread =or food> till tho retrn to the #rond.< 'ee al!o

    0en. viii, ?, and viii, [email protected], and E. ii, [email protected]

    The "o!t etended !en!e of the word, however, accordin# to #eneral !a#e, co"- prehend!

    all farinaceo! ve#etable !b- !tance! which enter into the diet of "an(

    2

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    10 BREAD AND

    !ch a! the farinaceo! !eed! or #rain, nt!, frit, root!, c. And in thi! e-

    tended !en!e, 9read( in. !o"e for" or other, ha! been the principal article in the diet of

    "an$ind, fro" the earlie!t #enera- tion! of the h"an race, to the pre!ent ti"e( ecept

    a"on# the few, !"all and !cattered tribe!, which have, perhap!, ever, !ince the day! of /oah, in different part!

    of the earth, !b!i!ted "ainly on ani"al food.

    It i! nearly certain that the pri"itive

    inhabitant! of the earth, ate their food) with very little, if any artificial prepara-

    tion.

    The vario! frnit!, nt!, !eed!, root!, and other ve#etable !b!tance! on which they

    fed, were eaten by the" in their natral !tate, with no other #rindin# than that which wa!done by the teeth.

    A! the h"an fa"ily increa!ed, and poplation beca"e "ore den!e and e-

    tended., and providential "ea!re! "ore nece!!ary, the condition and circ"!tance! of v!ociety

    #radally led to the invention and adoption of the !i"ple, and, at fir!t,

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    9REA:-1AB&/0. 11

    rde art! of do"e!tic life. A"on# the!e, wa! that of bri!in# the harder article! of

    their food, !ch a! nt! and !eed!, or #rain, on flat !tone!, !elected and $ept for the prpo!e.

    9y con!tant !e, the!e !tone! in ti"e beca"e hollowed ot( and bein# thereby rendered "ore

    convenient, "en at len#th be#an to for" "ortar! and pe!tle! fro" !tone!( arid probably thenet !tep wa! the con!trction of the rde $ind of hand-"ill!, which contined in !e

    for "any centrie!( and indeed, which, with the !tone "ortar!, have, thro#hot all a#e!

    and in al"o!t every portion of the earth, been !ed in the rder !tate! of !ociety.

    hen "en beca"e acqainted with the !e of fire, they probably often parched their

    cor- or #rain before they ponded it( and afterward!, they learned to "i it with water

    into the con!i!tency of do#h, and to ba$e thi!, in an nleavened or nfer"ented !tate,

    on flat !tone! before the fire, or in the hot a!he! or hot earth, or in the rde oven! which

    they for"ed, by di##in# hole! in the earth, into which

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    45 BREAD AND

    they pt heated !tone!, and !li#htly cov- ered the" with leave! or #ra!!, and then laid

    in the article they wi!hed to ba$e, and over thi! !trewed !o"e leave!, and

    then covered the whole with earth. *

    . Thi! $ind of nleavened bread, n-

    dobtedly con!titted. a very i"portant, if not the principal article of artificially pre-

    pared food in the diet of the pri"itive inhabitant! of. the earth, for "any cent- rie!( and

    the !a"e, or very nearly the !a"e $ind of bread contined in #eneral !e down to the

    day! of Abraha"( and it i! probable that the nleavened bread !ed by hi! de!cendant! at

    the fea!t of the Pa!!over, before and after they left E#ypt,. wa! of the !a"e $ind.

    &t i! hardly po!!ible, however, that-it

    .cold have been otherwi!e, than that, at a "ch earlier period, Dlar#er qantitie! of

    thi! do#h were occa!ionally "ade, than

    ee i""ediately ba$ed, and con!eqently

    * &n thi! !a"e "anner the 'and with &!lander! coo$ed all their food, when they were fir!t di!-covered. .

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    .

    9REA:- 1AB&/0. 13

    portion! of it were !ffered to !tand and fer"en t( and by thi! "ean!, "en were in

    proce!! of ti"e learned to "a$e leavened, or rai!ed bread.

    At how early a date, loaf or rai!ed bread ca"e into co""on !e, it i! i"po!- !ible

    n