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Translating Policies into Practice: CulturallyAppropriate Practices in an Atayal AboriginalKindergarten Program in TaiwanCecilia Lingfen Chang aa Department of Child Development and Education, Kindergarten Teacher TrainingProgram , Ming Hsin University of Science and Technology , TaiwanPublished online: 05 Sep 2012.
To cite this article: Cecilia Lingfen Chang (2005) Translating Policies into Practice: Culturally AppropriatePractices in an Atayal Aboriginal Kindergarten Program in Taiwan, Childhood Education, 81:6, 355-359, DOI:10.1080/00094056.2005.10521326
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00094056.2005.10521326
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Cecilia Chang Lingfen
Cecilia Lingfen Chang is Assis- tant Professor, Department of Child Devekment and Educa- tion, KindeGarten Teacher Training Pmgram, Ming Hsin University of Science and Technology, Taiwan.
Translating Policies Into
Culturally Appropriate Practices in an Atayal Aboriginal
Kindergarten Program in Taiwan
M any aboriginal cultures follow their collective wisdom in order to adapt to their living environments. The Atayal natives in Taiwan focus on the natural world, such as the stars, and birds and other animals, as their guide. They have used their cultural heritage to build and exercise knowledge without the help of books and training. Their perceptions and collective knowledge may differ, however, from the information presented in modern textbooks. In addition, ways of learning, doing, and acting in the aboriginal culture also often differ from those followed by the mainstream culture. These cultural conflicts, when not addressed in mainstream schools' curriculum and instruction, may result in aboriginal children's academic and socio-emotional failure.
The Atayal (Taiyal) tribe lives in the northern region of Taiwan, on either side of the Central Mountain range, and includes the Sedolek group and Tseole branches. Most of the Atayal people make their living farming the mountainous hills and hunting animals. The Atayal people are famous for their weaving and knitting skills, their unique Kou-Wa instrument that accompanies dances, and their seashell-decorated clothes, including hats, skirts, and leg wrappers. A unique aspect of their culture is the tattoo face. Traditionally, the tattoo face is an honor for those men who have hunted enemy heads; it represents bravery. Women who have demonstrated weav- ing skills also would earn a tattoo face. No one would like to marry a woman who does not have a tattoo face. The Atayal people believe that the tattoo face is the only way to maintain their identity, and allow their spirits to be recognized after death. Wearing the tattoo face had been prohibited since the Japanese colonial era, however. The only tattoo-faced Atayal people are elders 80 years old or older.
The Atayal group has two beliefs that are very different from other aboriginal groups. One is the "gaga" concept; the other is the "rutux" belief. Gaga concerns social morality, and refers to regulations a member of the community must follow. If anyone offends gaga, then he/she will be punished by rutux, a supernatural spirit. The rutux may scare you into sickness. When Atayal people drink and eat, they drop some food to share with the rutux. When Atayal people leave the mountain, they need to jump over a fire to separate themselves from the rutux.
when not addressed
schools' cu rricu I u m
and instruction, may
result in aboriginal
fa i I ure.
INTERNATIONAL Focus ISSUE 2005 + 355
In recent years, the Taiwan government has realized the importance of aboriginal education, both for the economic advancement of the country and for the fulfillment of its democratic ideals. Taiwans system of compulsory education, which runs from grades 1 through 9, has resulted in a well-educated workforce for the countrys rapidly growing economy. The Tai- wanese government has taken steps to implement improved education planning and policies for chil- dren of all ages. Although the current education policy has increased the amount of resources and funding allocated to meet the demand of compulsory educa- tion, many factors still pose challenges for aboriginal children and communities. Educational resources are not distributed equally between cities and rural areas (urban schools are better equipped). Teacher attrition is higher in aboriginal schools, and the government has not done enough to educate aboriginal parents about the importance of early childhood education. In addition, aboriginal parents cannot afford to send their children to quality preschool and kindergarten programs.
While teaching a course on Designing Kindergarten Curriculum at a teacher-training program in Taiwan, I realized that I had seven aboriginal preservice teach- ers in my class; previously I had none. Those students brought my attention to the Kui-whai kindergarten program of the Atayal tribal natives. During the class discussion on multicultural issues of curriculum de- sign and pedagogy, two of the aboriginal students shared their perception that the Kui-whai kindergarten program is an effective curriculum model for aborigi- nal children. Some of these students also were parents of Kui-whai kindergartners. The Kui-whai kindergar- ten, part of the Kui-whai primary school, is located in Fu-Shin, a village on La-La Mountain in Tau-Yuan county, where the Atayal natives live. The Taiwan Ministry of Education has selected the village as one of its educational priority regions. I conducted an ethno- graphic study in this kindergarten from February through June 2004. During this time, 22 children were enrolled in this kindergarten classroom. My ethno- graphic study shed some light on how government policy affects the curriculum and pedagogical practices of this kindergarten.
The Taiwan Governments Polic Toward
In recent years, the Taiwan government has established policies to support minority education on the island. Critics claim, however, that many factors still pose challenges for aboriginal children and communities. Chang (1997) maintains that the Taiwan governments policy has contributed to both the success and the failure of indigenous education.
the Education of Aboriginal Chi r dren
Since 1998, the Taiwan Ministry of Education has formed and promoted the following five educational goals for educational priority regions:
To establish strategies that facilitate effective use of resources To reduce the existing differences between cities and rural areas by providing a wide range of sup- port services to culturally disadvantaged regions To protect minority ethnic groups educational rights and improve their educational achievement To strive for social justice and ensure equity of educational opportunities To upgrade human resource qualities and levels of education to counter the existing differences among regions.
The educational reform movement in Taiwan fo- cuses on the equitable treatment of aboriginal children in educational institutions and on preparation of ab- original children for future employment. In 1997, the Constitution of the Republic of China (Taiwan) offi- cially acknowledged the countrys responsibility to preserve aboriginal culture and language and stated, Our country confirms the multi-cultural perspectives, to promote and maintain the development of aborigi- nal culture and languages. The Atayal language does not exist in a written format. They have been forced to give up their language and sp