Traditional Actors and Other Actors

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Traditional Actors and Other Actors. Lsns 7, 8, and 9. Agenda. Classical International System (1648-1789) Transitional International System (1789-1945) Post- World War II International System (1946-1991) Post- Cold War International System (1992-present). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Traditional Actors and Other Actors

  • Traditional Actors and Other ActorsLsns 7, 8, and 9

  • AgendaClassical International System (1648-1789)Transitional International System (1789-1945)Post- World War II International System (1946-1991)Post- Cold War International System (1992-present)

  • Classical International System (1648-1789)

    Zealous efforts of the Catholic Church to stamp out Protestantism led to bitter religious wars in the late 16th and early 17th CenturiesThe growing tensions erupted in the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) which eventually involved every major European power and expanded from a religious to a political characterFerdinand II, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire

  • Classical International System (1648-1789)

    The war was the most destructive European conflict prior to the 20th CenturyUndisciplined soldiers committed acts of violence and brutalityEconomic and social life was disruptedOne-third of the German population was killedIn an effort to avoid tearing their societies apart, the European powers ended the war with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648

  • Classical International System (1648-1789)

    The Peace of Westphalia:Laid the foundations for a system of independent, competing statesEuropean states would henceforth regard each other as sovereign and equalEach state had the right to organize its own domestic and religious affairsPolitical and diplomatic affairs would be conducted by states acting in their own interests

  • Classical International System (1648-1789)

    Sovereignty does not necessarily mean that the state is able to control all the actions of its members at all timesIt does mean the state internally can claim a monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force as a possible tool in seeking to compel obedience and externally can claim a monopoly right to act vis--vis other statesMax Weber famously defined the state as that organization that claims a monopoly over the legitimate use of violence

  • Classical International System (1648-1789)

    With the Peace of Westphalia, nation-states emerged as the worlds primary political organizationsNation-states have a single central government exercising sovereignty over a relatively fixed population within a relatively defined territoryA nation refers to a a cultural or social entity whose members have some sense of a shared historical experience as well as shared destinyState and nation-state have come to be used interchangeablyThe former state of Yugoslavia has divided into several new states that reflect the national identities of their members

  • Classical International System (1648-1789)

    During the classical era of international relations there were a relatively small number of actors involved in international politicsRoyal families of the European nation-states along with their aristocratic elitesKing Louis XIV is credited with saying, L'tat, c'est moi (I am the State).

  • Classical International System (1648-1789)

    While other nation-states existed, international politics was essentially European politicsPower distributed among England, France, Austria, Sweden, Spain, Turkey, and later Prussia and RussiaAggressively minded states were deterred from seeking hegemony by the balance of power represented by the prospect of coming up against a coalition of states having equal or superior powerFrance was often perceived as the major threat to the systems stability with England serving as the chief balancer

  • Classical International System (1648-1789)

    The first half of the 17th Century ushered in the age of absolutism in which ultimate authority rested in the hands of a monarch who claimed to rule by divine right and was therefore responsible only to GodThe fact that decision-making rested in the hands of a few rulers who did not have any vast ideological cleavages (all were conservative and many were related by marriage) helped maintain stabilityA minimum number of minimally different nation-states

  • Classical International System (1648-1789)

    The combination of multiple power systems and flexibility of alignments made for a multipolar environmentThe classical era was not an era of peace, but one in which the violent international conflicts that did occur were relatively small affairs between monarchs rather than the total wars between societies that would follow in subsequent eras

  • Case StudySeven Years War

  • Seven Years War: CausesAfter the explorations of the 15th, 16th, and 17th Centuries, the European powers protected their interests by building a series of fortified trading posts throughout the maritime regionsBoundaries in the new colonies were disputedCommercial competition ultimately generated violenceIn 1746 French forces seized the English trading post at Madras, IndiaIn the Caribbean English pirates attacked Spanish vessels and French and English forces fought over the sugar islandsThe violence culminated in the Seven Years War (1756-1763)

  • Seven Years War: CausesA global warIn Europe, Britain and Prussia fought against France, Austria, and RussiaIn India, British and French allied with local rulers and fought each otherIn the Caribbean, the Spanish and French fought the BritishIn North America, the Seven Years War merged with the on-going French and Indian War (1754-1763) which pitted the British and French against each other

  • Seven Years War: Frederick the Great Became king of Prussia in 1740 when he was 28Had spent much of his life training as a soldier, visiting battlefields, and studying political history and politicsBelieved every man had an obligation to serve his state and that it was the kings particular duty to develop policies that increased the power and standing of the stateStrong lust for military gloryHis success lay in his purposeful use of authority and unwavering determination to make Prussia a European power

  • Seven Years War: Frederick the GreatFrederick used the period of peace after the War of Austrian Succession to prepare his country and army for another warIn August 1756, Frederick launched a preemptive attack against Saxony and Austria, hoping to force them to sue for peace before another country could interveneWas unable to achieve a quick, decisive victory and was now faced with fighting a coalition of powerful statesFrench, Russian, and Austria forces began converging on Prussia

  • Seven Years War: Frederick the GreatFrederick used his central position to defeat French, German, and Austrian armies in his Nov-Dec 1757 Rossbach-Leuthen campaign, secure Prussias boundaries of 1756, and gain a satisfactory negotiated peaceIn the process, he benefited greatly from Britains ability to support Prussia by defeating the French at sea and overseas

  • Seven Years War: British NavyThe British had the most powerful fleet and expeditionary forces of any of the combatantsFurthermore, the British could rely on the Prussian army to do most of the fighting on the continentThis allowed the British to bring overwhelming pressure against the French at sea

  • Seven Years War: British NavyThe British Navy blockaded the French ports to contain commerce raiders, intercept forces bound for the colonies, and forestall an invasion of EnglandThey raided the French Atlantic coast to destroy shipping and stores and to divert French forces from GermanyThey defeated the French Navy at Quiberon Bay which freed the British Navy to turn its attention to the French colonies

    The Battle of Quiberon Bay by Nicholas Pocock

  • Seven Years War: French and Indian WarThe British, French, and Spanish all had colonial interests in North America and this competition led to war in 1754The French and Indian War merged with the Seven Years War

  • Seven Years War: French and Indian WarThe French came to place greater emphasis on the war in Europe than in the colonies and the British developed a numerical advantageThe British Navy played an important role in blockading New France which was never a self-sufficient colony and could not survive without a steady stream of support from FranceIn September 1760, the British finally conquered all of Canada when the combined Anglo-American force overwhelmed the French at Montreal

  • Seven Years War: ResultsThe victory in Canada allowed the British to divert thousands of troops elsewhere and ultimately win the Seven Years WarBritain was now in a position to dominate world trade for the foreseeable futureThe Seven Years War paved the way for the establishment of the British Empire of the 19th Century

  • Seven Years WarHow does the Seven Years War represent the era of the classical international system in terms of:States acting according to self-interestEuropean dominanceAbsolute authorityLimited warBalance of powerMultipolar

  • Transitional International System (1789-1945)

    The American and French Revolutions ushered in a period of nationalism that gave the masses a greater voice in the political life of their countryMass democracy meant that the government had to be more sensitive to public opinion in formulating foreign policy, but also that the government could count on the total military and economic capabilities of their societies in pursuing that policyDuring the French Revolution, the levee en masse was used to mobilize the French population and resources

  • Transitional International System (1789-1945)

    Nationalism led to the appearance of new statesFreedom gained from colonial mastersPolitical unification of culturally similar groupsAt the same time, nationalistic impulses touched off a new wave of European imperialism that subjugated people in Africa and elsewhereSimon Bolivar was one of the chief heroes in Latin Americas struggle for independence from Spain

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