TQM With Quality Circle and Quality Assurance

  • Published on

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)


TQM WITH QUALITY CIRCLE AND QUALITY ASSURANCEThe project is presented by Name Tejal Darde Smita Gujar Aruna Gujarathi Kavita Jadhav Sonal Jethi Roll No. 4 10 11 14 15

Praneela Patil



16. 17. 18. 19.



Total Quality Management (or TQM) is a management concept coined by W. Edwards Deming. TQM can be defined as follows: TQM is a management approach that place emphasis on continuous improvement in quality, in the interest of the organization and that of its customers. The basis of TQM is to reduce the errors produced during the manufacturing or service process, increase customer satisfaction, streamline supply chain management, aim for modernization of equipment and ensure workers have the highest level of training. The application of TQM can vary tremendously from business to business, even across the same industry. TQM is not a remedial procedure for better products. It is a march towards excellence and perfection. TQM is a management strategy aimed at embedding awareness of quality in all organizational processes. TQM has been widely used in manufacturing, education, government and service industries, as well as NASA space and science programs. TQM is a strategic approach that focuses on production of best possible

product or service through constant innovation and timely action. It places emphasis on prevention of errors rather than of its customers.

What is TQM? What is Quality? Quality is generally defined as conformance to requirements. It is also conformance to a standard that is required. However, many consider that quality need not just be conformance to requirements but should be an assurance of being the best in the world of that type. In addition, it should also keep a constancy of purpose.

What is Total Quality?

Total quality refers not only to the product but also to the way the product is made as well as presented to the customer. Total quality asks for customer orientation, process orientation, people management and leadership. All these are continuous processes.

What is TQM?

TQM is a people driven process. It involves changes in peoples attitudes primarily. In addition, it deals with process orientation and continuous improvement of the process. It strives for empowerment and autonomy of the people involved in using processes of production. It asks people to continuously look for new ways to adapt to the changing environment. It is a continuous improvement plan, with an effort to bring out the best for the stakeholders as well as for the institution.

FEATURES OF TQM Customer focus:TQM places emphasis in meeting the requirements of both the internal and the external customer. In order to meet the requirements of the external customer, it is necessary to meet the needs of the internal customer. If the internal customers requirements are agreed and met, then it is possible to meet the requirements of the external customers. Continuous process:TQM is a continuous process. Constant and continuous efforts are made to improve the quality, and to reduce internal costs. Quality improvements help the organization to face the challenges of the

competitors and to meet the requirements of the customers. Reduction in costs helps to generate higher returns to the organization. TQM is a process which goes on forever, because at no time quality can be 100% right. There is always a possibility for new and better way of doing things. Defect-free approach:TQM place emphasis on the defect free work most of the time. The defect free approach is phrased in various ways as right first time, working smarter or zero defects. The idea is to strive for perfection in the work, the way a footballer aims to shoot the penalty kick or an archer aims for the bulls eye on a target. Employees involvement:In TQM everyone is involved in the process from the managing director to the junior clerk or worker in the organization. It is not just manufacturing people, but also the accounting, finance, marketing, and even the canteen people are involved in TQM process. Recognition and rewards:Recognition and rewards is an integral part of companys TQM programme. Positive reinforcement through recognition and reward is essential to maintain achievement and continuous improvement in quality. Recognition is a means of encouraging individuals and groups by acknowledging their achievements. Some examples of recognition

are a letter of thanks, award of merit certificates, hosting of lunches or dinners, presentation of achievement at management reviews, etc. Rewards are in the form of financial benefits linked to performance. This includes merit pay, promotion with higher status and pay, etc. Synergy in team work:The Japanese are great believers in synergy (to work together). Engineers, technicians, and workers look upon themselves as equals and communicate easily as, they work side by side. Techniques:TQM can take place by following various techniques such as quality circles, value engineering, statistical process control, etc. it is also possible to reduce time-consuming low value activities. System approach:TQM is a systems approach to managing business and improving performance. The systems approach starts with the commitment and leadership of the chief executive officer. Without the total commitment on the part of chief executive officer & his senior executives, TQM cannot take off to a good start.

NEED OF TQM Customer satisfaction:TQM stresses the need to satisfy both the internal as well as the external customer. ( internal customer refers to the person within the company who receives the work of another and then adds his or her contribution to the product or service before passing it on to someone else. For example, in a restaurant, the chef has the waiters as internal

customers and the chef must meet their requirements if they are to please the guests.) TQM must, focus on the customers, the eventual buyer of the product or service. To do so, the initial focus should be on meeting the needs of internal customer before all attempt is made to meet the requirements of the external customer. Helps to face completion:A proper emphasis on TQM enables a company to face competition in the market. The company may even come out as a winner or a leader. This is because of high quality product, at the lowest possible cost, produced by a dedicated team of work force. Goodwill:TQM generates name and reputation to the company in the market. This is because of its constant efforts in bringing the improvement in the products- design, variety, shape, size, colour, shade and other features. Highly motivated personnel:TQM develops a sense of dedication and discipline in the employees. There is willingness on the part of the employees to identify quality improvements and waste elimination opportunities. The employees become aware of their importance in the companys performance and progress. This leads to greater involvement and participation of the employees.

The employees receive recognition and rewards for their services, those who perform exceptionally well or who provide valuable suggestions are recognized with appreciation, and are rewarded with promotion and monetary incentives. This results in enhanced job ownership of employees. Lower rejection rate:Internal rejection rate gets reduced considerably over a period of time. Various initiatives such as quality circles, process control, right first time approach, just in time approach, etc., enables the company to reduce rejection rate. The goods are produced at acceptable quality levels (AQL) or with zero defects. Since TQM is widely followed in Japan, they are in a position not only to manufacture the goods at acceptable quality levels but with zero defects. Reduction in customer complaints:TQM results in less or no customer complaints. This is because the products are built to specification with zero defects. Again, efforts are made to improve upon the customer specification so as to provide complete satisfaction.

Better facilitates to employees:TQM results in higher benefits to the organsation in terms of increased profits. This is because of higher sales, and cost reduction

efforts on the part of the company. The higher profits are utilized in a way to provide better facilities to the employees in terms of training, salary, working conditions, amenities like canteen facilities, transport facilities, recreation facilities, and so on. Expansion and diversification:TQM generates a good name in the market. It also brings in higher returns. This enables a company to expand and diversify. The company may be in a better position to introduce more brands or product lines.


The customer is the ultimate determiner of quality. Services and programs should be designed, with the needs of the customer in mind. Therefore, it is important to determine who the customers are and define their specific needs.

Quality should be built into the process from the beginning, and not simply derive from customer complaints. All levels of an organization must be involved in producing a quality product and not just try to modify it before delivery. Achieving quality requires continuous improvements. Expectations of customer are always changing and continue rising as quality management begins to yield results. It is important to remember that when customers are assessing quality, they are not simply comparing us to our performance last year, but to every other organizations that is servicing their needs. Quality management requires the involvement of all staff and partners. Since improved quality comes from improvements during the processes leading up to the delivery of the product or service, all levels and divisions of an organization must be involved in developing quality.

BENEFITS OF TQMA popular myth among military managers holds that increased quality results in increased costs and decreased productivity. In reality, improved quality ultimately results in decreased costs and increased productivity. How can this be? A focus on quality extends the time between failures on equipment and improves the efficiency of our operations. It reduces rework requirements as well as the need for special waivers of standards. It also reduces mistakes and produces monetary savings through more efficient use of scarce resources. Direct benefits of TQM are as follows: Increased pride of workmanship among individual workers. Increased readiness. Improved sustainability caused by extended time between equipment failures. Greater mission survivability. Better justification for budgets because of more efficient operations. Streamlined maintenance and production processes.

ELEMENTS OF TQM1. Customer Focus:It is important to focus on the customer, both internal and external i.e., the employees and the users of the end product - the students. In TQM parlance, the customer is the next process and not just a person who pays for the product or service. This concept helps to strengthen the co-operation within the organization, eliminate internal competition and drives away fear.

2. Employee involvement:People at all levels make up an organization and their full involvement enables their abilities to be used for an institution's benefit.

3. Continuous Improvement:There is a beginning to the process of TQM, but there is no end. Checking, rechecking, valuation, revaluation, engineering and re-engineering are essential to ensure continuous improvement. 4. Universal Responsibility:-

A TQM leader has to learn that inspection is not a means to achieve quality. One eliminates the need for inspection by building quality into the product in the first place. TQM helps us to recognize the fact that it is we ourselves who are responsible for quality work, not someone else who will check it after it is done. 5. A Sustained Management Commitment to Quality:An organizations performance and culture will ultimately reflect its senior management's values. If an organizations serious about implementing TQM, the commitment to do so has to start at the top, and the organizations senior management has to be unwavering in its commitment to quality. 6. Addressing Deficiencies:TQM is a management philosophy that seeks to prevent poor quality in products and services, rather than simply to detect and sort out defects. "An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure". 7. Quality Measurement:"If you do not know where you are going, you will probably end up somewhere" is a saying particularly relevant to TQM. The quality measurement aspect of TQM asks the question: where are we and where are we going? A basic TQM concept is that quality is a measurable commodity, and in order to improve, we need to know where we are (or stated differently, what the current quality levels are), and we need to have some idea of where we are going (or what quality levels we aspire to reach).

8. Benchmarking:Benchmarking consists of identifying other organizations that perform well and incorporating their wisdom into one's organization. This TQM philosophy consists of defining the competitors' best features from both internal and customer perspectives, and then adapting the best practices of these organizations to one's functioning.

INTRODUCTION OF QUALITY CIRCLEA quality circle is a volunteer group composed of workers (or even students), usually under the leadership of their supervisor (but they can elect a team leader), who are trained to identify, analyze and solve work-related problems and present their solutions to management in order to improve the performance of the organization, and motivate and enrich the work of employees. When matured, true quality circles become self-managing, having gained the confidence of management. Quality circles are an alternative to the dehumanising concept of the division of labour, where workers or individuals are treated like robots. They bring back the concept of craftsmanship, which when operated on an individual basis is uneconomic, but when used in group form (as is the case with quality circles), it can be devastatingly powerful and enables the enrichment of the lives of the workers or students and creates harmony and high performance in the workplace.

Typical topics are improving occupational safety and health, improving product design...