Towards Sustainability Achieving Cleaner Production Australia 199812

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    Towards

    SustainabilityAchieving Cleaner Production in

    Australia

    Australia and New Zealand Environment and

    Conservation Council

    16th Meeting, Hobart, Tasmania

    December 1998

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    TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY

    ACHIEVING CLEANER PRODUCTION IN AUSTRALIA

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Preface 6

    Executive Summary 8

    About the Framework 1 1

    The Framework 11

    Stakeholders 11

    Resources and Priorities 12

    Consultation 12

    Implementing Towards Sustainability Achieving Cleaner Production in Australia 12

    1. INTRODUCTION 14

    A. Definition of Cleaner Production 1 4

    Under-pinning principles 14

    B. Cleaner Production in Action 1 5

    (i) How it Works 15

    (ii) Why Practice Cleaner Production? 16

    Environmental NGOs: The Green Perspective 16

    The Industry Perspective: Why Adopt Cleaner Production? 16

    C. Cleaner Production and Ecological ly Sustainable Development 1 9

    2. THE INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE 20

    A. Cleaner Production in the International Community 2 0

    B. United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) 2 0

    C. United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) 2 1

    D. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 2 1

    E. World Business Council for Sustainable Development 2 2

    F. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) 2 2

    3. THE AUSTRALIAN EXPERIENCE 23

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    Towards Sustainability Achieving Cleaner Production in Australia

    3

    A. Working with Industry 2 3

    (i) Demonstration Projects 23

    (ii) Availability of Expertise 24

    B. Providing Information 2 4

    (i) Publications 24

    (ii) Conferences 24

    (iii) Workshops 24

    (iv) Training 25

    (v) Australian Centre for Cleaner Production (ACCP) 25

    C. Policy and Regulatory Instruments 2 5

    (i) Government Policies and Strategies 25

    Australias National Greenhouse Strategy 26

    Australias Greenhouse Challenge 27

    Australias Ozone Protection Strategy 27

    The National Water Quality Management Strategy (NWQMS) 28

    National Strategy for Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals 28

    Waste Minimisation Strategies 28

    (ii) Economic Instruments 29

    (iii) Regulation 29

    (iv) Standards 30

    4. TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY ACHIEVING CLEANER PRODUCTIONIN AUSTRALIA: MEASURES FOR IMPLEMENTING CLEANERPRODUCTION 31

    A. Information and Awareness 3 1

    (i) The Need for Cleaner Production Information 31

    Information Dissemination 35

    (ii) The Demonstration Effect 36

    Demonstration Projects 36

    Best Practice Manuals 37

    (iii) Public Awareness Programs 37

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    Towards Sustainability Achieving Cleaner Production in Australia

    4

    The National Pollutant Inventory 37

    Community and Industry Working Together 38

    Green Consumers 38

    (iv) Award Schemes 39

    B. Tools for Cleaner Production 4 1

    (i) Environment Management Systems (EMS) and Standards 41

    International Environmental Standards 42

    Benefits of International Certification 43

    (ii) Environmental Accounting 43

    (iii) Public Environmental Reporting 45

    (iv) Environmental Labelling 48

    (v) Life Cycle Assessment 50

    (vi) Cleaner Production Training 52

    Training business managers 52

    Reaching Other Staff 53

    Industry training needs 53

    (vii) Measuring Cleaner Production 54

    (vii) Performance Based Contracting 56

    (viii) Design for the Environment 57

    C. Regulation and Self-Regulation 6 0

    (i) Environmental Planning 61

    Geographic Planning 61

    (ii) Regulation and Inputs to Production 62

    Regulating for cleaner production 63

    (iii) Environmental Licensing Schemes 63

    Load-based licensing 64

    Facility-wide permits 65

    Small Enterprises and Pollution Licensing 66

    (iv) Voluntary Agreements, Codes of Practice and Other Self-Regulatory Approaches 67

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    Towards Sustainability Achieving Cleaner Production in Australia

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    The Greenhouse Challenge 68

    Codes of practice 69

    Industry specific environmental accreditation 70

    D. Strengthening the Market 7 1

    (i) Subsidies & Other Forms of Assistance 71

    Subsidies as Barriers: 71

    Providing assistance: 72

    (ii) Taxes, Charges, Tax Deductions and Depreciation Allowances 7 3

    Taxes: 73

    Environmental charges 74

    Tax deductions, including depreciation allowances 75

    (iii) Costs of Cleaner Production and Technology Assessment 75

    Environmental Assessments 76

    The cost of new technology 77

    Technology assessment 77

    (iii) Financial Incentives 77

    (iv) Risk Assessment in the Investment Process 79

    (v) Capacity of the Environment Management Industry 80

    APPENDIX 1 SUMMARY CHART: MEASURES 82

    APPENDIX 2 TERMS OF REFERENCE 92

    APPENDIX 3 CP POLICY INSTRUMENTS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION &UNITED STATES 93

    APPENDIX 4 ACRONYMS USED IN THE TEXT 94APPENDIX 5 MEMBERSHIP OF THE ANZECC CLEANER PRODUCTIONTASKFORCE 96

    APPENDIX 6 PUBLIC SUBMISSIONS 97

    APPENDIX 7 REFERENCES 98

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    Towards Sustainability Achieving Cleaner Production in Australia

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    PREFACE

    In 1987, the United Nations published a document that challenged the economicorthodoxy of the relationship between development and environmental degradation.Called Our Common Future1, it emphasised the concept of sustainable development.In theory, sustainable development simply means meeting the needs of the presentgeneration, without compromising the needs of future generations. The true challengeof sustainable development lies in putting the theory into practice.

    Cleaner production provides a practical way of moving towards sustainabledevelopment. Cleaner production allows the producers of goods and the providersof services to produce more with less less raw material, less energy, less waste,and thus, less environmental impact and greater sustainability. Cleaner productionis the step beyond waste management it deals with the source of the problem,rather than the symptoms.

    Cleaner production is not a new concept. It is a logical extension of our desire toconserve materials and reduce waste. It requires a person to examine what they are

    doing and look for better, more efficient ways to do it ways that result inincreased productivity, reduced resource inputs and reduced waste and mostimportantly reduced risk of environmental impact.

    Cleaner production techniques are dynamic, and although industry has improved itsenvironmental performance over the last two decades, there is continuing room forimprovement. Improvement, which when implemented through cleaner production,leads both to improved economic efficiency and environmental protection.

    Australian governments have worked with industry on promoting cleaner productionfor many years. In November 1996, the Australian and New Zealand Environmentand Conservation Council (ANZECC) decided it was time for Australia to have a

    national strategy for cleaner production. The strategy would examine the extent towhich cleaner production had been adopted by industry; assess the effectiveness ofmeasures to encourage its adoption; consider how that adoption could be increased;and make recommendations to governments, industry and the community on how toincrease the use of this powerful tool for sustainable development.

    As the following diagram developed by the World Business Council for SustainableDevelopment (WBCSD) illustrates, encouraging cleaner production is a multi-facetedprocess. Australia has in varying degrees undertaken all the boxed tasks with theexception of assessing the current system. This document aims to fill in themissing piece, to ensure that the development of cleaner production in Australia is aprocess of continual refinement and improvement.

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    Towards Sustainability Achieving Cleaner Production in Australia

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    Cleaner

    production

    development

    Assess the

    existing system

    Develop cleaner

    production vision

    Start small but think big

    Establish a consensus

    on the need for

    cleaner production

    Establish cleaner

    production programs

    Provide long-term

    finance and technical

    assistance

    Strategy for

    Cleaner Production

    Development

    Source: World Business Council for Sustainable Development and United Nations Environment Programme

    Towards Sustainability Achieving Cleaner Production in Australiadraws on thecollective wisdom of government, industry, academia and community groups. Thefirst meeting of the ANZECC Cleaner Production Taskforce was held in March 1997.Over the next twenty months, the Taskforce and ANZECC Members examined theabove issues