PROCESS ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL
U m l
Revisiot~ 0 :FOREWORD TO REVISION 0Date:
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The purpose of this manual is t o present in a practical way the process design methods to be used by TEP personnel lor quick calculations as well as detailed ones. They have been careluliyselected by the most experienced engineers o the Process and Operations Department f
ITEPlDDPtDiPlEXPlSUR).The physical presentation i s different from that of the other TEP/DDP/DIP manuals i n order toget an easily transportable docurncnt as well as one whlch 1s convenient for photocopies.
Most methods are illustrated by seleeted examples.
Chapter 15 gives a selection of basic data which
sufficient for most calculations.
Chapters 16 and 17 consist of blank calculation sheets and Process data sheets that can easily
Blank pa& :are scattered along the chapters f r personal notes. o
In addition, blank pages are placed a t the end of the manual.
They arc to be used !or comments
regarding the content as well as the typing and prcsentation and should be sent back to TEP/DDP/DIP/EXP/SUR in Paris to be incorporeted in the next rcvislon. Use them plea= : they
will be part of our feedback.The following persons have cooperated to the revlsion 0 of t h t manual : MM. J.L. BAGGIO,
P BERLIN, .
J.P. LUCIANI, M. LE METAIS, R. ODELLO, B. PERISSE, U. WEBER, Mmc K. COTTIN,
urnvision 'I N D E XDate :
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I. DESIGN CONDITIONS2. VESSELS (vapwr-liquid separators)
. HorizontaI . Vertical . Tray . Packed
4. HEAT EXCHANGERS
. Air cmlers . Shell + tube
. Plate exchangers
. Centrifugal . Reciprocating6. DRIVERS
. Gas turbinesElectric drivers
, Steam turblnes
7. COMPRESSORS8. EXPANDERS
9. FLARE SYSTEMS
PIPES VALVES + FITTINGS
. Line sizing
. A P through valves and and sdection fittings . Control valves - sizing
11. PIPELINESPressure and temperature drops
12. PACKAGE UNITS
. Dehydration , Refrigeration13. UTILITIES
. Gas sweeteningAir , Drainage
10.COMPUTER PROGRAMS15. DATA16. PROCESS CALCULATION SHEETS
L7. PROCESS DATA SHEETS2u
r u BMLTEPIDPIEXPISUR
r - r t u c t h h r l u b I I u t l r l t l N l r UtSltiN
R~Y~S; OII ~
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1. D E S I G N
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DEIGN CONDITIONSDate : 2fg5
I APPLICABILITY .The f~llowingdesign criteria are applicable far both feasibility studies and pre-project studie:.
2. PRESSURESThe design pressure of a vessel shall be taken as of the following ;
Operating pressure bar13 0 - 10 10 50 50)
Desinn pressure bark MOP + 1 barMOP t 10 %
MOP z Maximum Process Operating
MOP + 5 bargMOP+5%
Vesscls subject to
vacuum during operation shall be designed for
the maxlmurn external
operating pressure plus a margin of 0.15 bar.1 the internal pressure Is 0.35 bara or less the vessel will be designed lor full vacuum. 1
Deslgn pressure for pump discharges shall be calculated by taking 120 % ofithe nvrmalpump AP)when operating at design conditions.
3-0 DESIGN TEMPERATURES
Design vessel temperatures shall be as lollows : Maximum design temperature = Minimum design temperature =max. operating Ternpt
min. operating Temp - 5 "C
or minimum ambient temperature.
Consideratian for t l ~ rninlrnurn dcsign temperature must take
lnro a a u n t Wdo~n.&~alhS.
d s @ f s s a u r m 4f Lhe v t s s ~ lthat m a y (Set sectlon on flaring).4.0 MATERIAL OF
durLng e m - e r w 9r&t
Details of the required material of c o n s t r ~ t i o n for various tcrnperatures are given inTable I .
Details on corrosion allowances and wall thirkness a r t given i n the vessel design section.
t R e E a ENGINEERIND DPIGN MANUAL
Pws No ;
- LIQUID SEPARATORS
neuisioh :0Date: 2f85
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1. APPLICABILITYVirtually sll procers zchernes use phase scpararlan. The deslgn and sizing of a separator with
acceptable accuracy b required for both the feasibility and pre-projet phases.
Consideration is given in this section l o the spccifkatian of vertical and harlzontal separators for vapow-liquid and vapour-llquid-liquid separation. Details are also givenconcerning vessel internals,
Separation of solida from gas or Bquids is not cavcred in this design guide. Gencraliy a vendor will be cmsultcd for details a a proprlctory designed vessel. f2. SEPARATOR APPLICATIONS AND COPWOERATEONS
2 PHASE SEPARATORS (uwaly
. . .
Compres~lr d Fwl G u KO drums a
Efficient sepretbn of liquid from vapour rtqulred. Always consider a mlae elimina-. Provide sufficbmtirurge t1me)ll to 2 minutes) between ttte HLL andt r l p p i q the compressor.
R d l d Sr KO drum See =tian ymUdt ~ma#oaumP
9 4 F1are Sys%erns
R q h d u p t ~ a mf acid gas ahsorbtrs, glycol conmetors and dcrslcant bed o
dehydratws. Can ba incarporated into base of towcr for weight and spa= saviw.
Produetian W r a t o r s (Vertical or horizontal)Liquid separation from eas not as critical as compr-lorstpr_t*
KO drum unless aC O ~ ~ W
ewnpreswr is located immediately downstream of separator. Always
and prvcas slu&swhen d s e-
3 P W E -TORS
production separators are g ~ ~ l hlo r i ~ @ l .If good liquid-vapour dc y
entraimntnt is rqulrad dmisters arc usualjy stated. Oil scparatfon kom the water.must be sufficient s as not to overload water treatment units a Chemkd additives (demulsiflers, anti-Enam, pour point dcprasants) may be addedto aid m a t i o n .
YAPOUR LIQUID SEPARATORSDate:
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3. HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL DESIGN
Vapwr velacity! in a horizontal drum can exceed the llquld scttIlng velocity provided
LID ) 1. Far vertical drums the velocity cannot.
Horizontal drums arc more effective and geometrically more practical for a heavy liquid phase removal than vertical drums.A rising liquid level
vertical drum dces not alter the vapaur f k w area.
Cmsqucntly vertical drums are preferred for compresmr and fuel gas KO drums.y
, Vtrtlcal drums utilise a smalkr plot andoccurs.
arc easier to instrument with alarms and
shutdown controls. For (floating installatiom) they are preferred as less "sloshing"
Each design case must be evaluated separately but in general the Iollowlng can be u9edas
a guideline :QwtlcaldrumsCm~~pre~sardrum KO
Fuel gas KO drums
Absorber fctd K O drums
FCwtlfq instellatlmm '?
P r d u c t h n sqwatars HP 3-pharc separation
Flare KO drumsrequire special
Try to avold v e s ~ l s with wall thickness grea#r than 100 m m as th-
fabrication and can prwe expensive.6- CALCULATION THEORY AND EQUATIONS (for use in calcuIation sheets)
(Valid only for pure gravity settlers with no intcrnals to enhance q a r a t i o n )
LIQUID-YAPOUR SETTLING VELOCITYs
[ p y0.003616(g) ko.oo3616(ff[
pv- liquid or yap- density kglrn3 V$ - settling velocity m/sKr
(2) K = '
P - PJ J
- drag cocfficicnt P - vapour viscosity - centipoiseC
- particle diameter -microns
correlating parameter mls
- LIQUID SEPARATORS
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For medium and low pressure with gases af viscosity less than 0.01 cp Figure 1 can be used t o estimate Vs.
For higher pressures (> 50 bar) or viscosities i n excess of 0.01 cp it i s necessary t ocalculate Vs. The drag coefficient C 1s calculated using Figure 2 (curve 2) wheret
f . ~ O ~ ~ , ~ o ~ " - ~ ~ ~ ~ ' ~ ( ~ - ~ v )
Equation 3 1s then used to calculate Vs.
LIQUID-LIQUID SETTLING VELOCITY(based on Stokes law of terminal settling) The fallowing equation can be used for calculating the settling velocity of water in o i l or the upwards "settling" of o i l i n water. The important fact is to use the viscosity
of the continuous phase 1.e : for oll s e t t l i q upwards throu