Total Company Process Eng Design Manuall

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PROCESS ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

1111

TOTAL

U m l

I

TOTALTEPIDPIEXPtSUR

Revisiot~ 0 :FOREWORD TO REVISION 0Date:

Page Nu. :

2/85I

The purpose of this manual is t o present in a practical way the process design methods to be used by TEP personnel lor quick calculations as well as detailed ones. They have been careluliyselected by the most experienced engineers o the Process and Operations Department f

ITEPlDDPtDiPlEXPlSUR).The physical presentation i s different from that of the other TEP/DDP/DIP manuals i n order toget an easily transportable docurncnt as well as one whlch 1s convenient for photocopies.

I

I

Most methods are illustrated by seleeted examples.

Chapter 15 gives a selection of basic data which

is

sufficient for most calculations.

Chapters 16 and 17 consist of blank calculation sheets and Process data sheets that can easily

I I

be photocopied.

I

Blank pa& :are scattered along the chapters f r personal notes. o

In addition, blank pages are placed a t the end of the manual.

They arc to be used !or comments

regarding the content as well as the typing and prcsentation and should be sent back to TEP/DDP/DIP/EXP/SUR in Paris to be incorporeted in the next rcvislon. Use them plea= : they

will be part of our feedback.The following persons have cooperated to the revlsion 0 of t h t manual : MM. J.L. BAGGIO,

P BERLIN, .

Ph.BOURGEOIS,

JC ..

FORESTIER,

B.K.

MARSHALL,

A.

MINKKINEN,

J.P. LUCIANI, M. LE METAIS, R. ODELLO, B. PERISSE, U. WEBER, Mmc K. COTTIN,

fl. LEGRAND

TOTAL..TEPIDPEXPISUR

urnvision 'I N D E XDate :

Page No. :

I. DESIGN CONDITIONS2. VESSELS (vapwr-liquid separators)

. HorizontaI . Vertical . Tray . Packed

3. COLUMNS

4. HEAT EXCHANGERS

. Air cmlers . Shell + tube

. Plate exchangers

. Furnaces

5 PUMPS

. Centrifugal . Reciprocating6. DRIVERS

.10.

. Gas turbinesElectric drivers

, Steam turblnes

7. COMPRESSORS8. EXPANDERS

9. FLARE SYSTEMS

PIPES VALVES + FITTINGS

. Line sizing

.,

Piplng classes

. A P through valves and and sdection fittings . Control valves - sizing

11. PIPELINESPressure and temperature drops

12. PACKAGE UNITS

. Dehydration , Refrigeration13. UTILITIES

. Gas sweeteningAir , Drainage

. .

Watw Nitrogen

.

10.COMPUTER PROGRAMS15. DATA16. PROCESS CALCULATION SHEETS

L7. PROCESS DATA SHEETS2u

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r u BMLTEPIDPIEXPISUR

r - r t u c t h h r l u b I I u t l r l t l N l r UtSltiN

MANUAL

R~Y~S; OII ~

Pave No :

Date

: 2/85

1. D E S I G N

CONDITIONS

TOTALTEPIDPlXPISUR

Revls~on 0 :

Page No

DEIGN CONDITIONSDate : 2fg5

1.1

I APPLICABILITY .The f~llowingdesign criteria are applicable far both feasibility studies and pre-project studie:.

2. PRESSURESThe design pressure of a vessel shall be taken as of the following ;

Operating pressure bar13 0 - 10 10 50 50)

-

-

Desinn pressure bark MOP + 1 barMOP t 10 %

MOP z Maximum Process Operating

Pressure

I00

MOP + 5 bargMOP+5%

LO0

.

Vesscls subject to

vacuum during operation shall be designed for

the maxlmurn external

operating pressure plus a margin of 0.15 bar.1 the internal pressure Is 0.35 bara or less the vessel will be designed lor full vacuum. 1

.

Deslgn pressure for pump discharges shall be calculated by taking 120 % ofithe nvrmalpump AP)when operating at design conditions.

3-0 DESIGN TEMPERATURES

.

Design vessel temperatures shall be as lollows : Maximum design temperature = Minimum design temperature =max. operating Ternpt

I5 *C

min. operating Temp - 5 "C

or minimum ambient temperature.

.

Consideratian for t l ~ rninlrnurn dcsign temperature must take

lnro a a u n t Wdo~n.&~alhS.

d s @ f s s a u r m 4f Lhe v t s s ~ lthat m a y (Set sectlon on flaring).4.0 MATERIAL OF

GCWE

durLng e m - e r w 9r&t

CONSTRUCTION

..

Details of the required material of c o n s t r ~ t i o n for various tcrnperatures are given inTable I .

Details on corrosion allowances and wall thirkness a r t given i n the vessel design section.

5

TOTALTEPlDPlE>

t R e E a ENGINEERIND DPIGN MANUAL

Revision :Data

Pws No ;

:UR

: 2f85

2,

VESSELS

1

7

TOTAL.TEPIDPIEXPISUR

VAPOUR

- LIQUID SEPARATORS

neuisioh :0Date: 2f85

Page NO. :

2.1

1. APPLICABILITYVirtually sll procers zchernes use phase scpararlan. The deslgn and sizing of a separator with

acceptable accuracy b required for both the feasibility and pre-projet phases.

Consideration is given in this section l o the spccifkatian of vertical and harlzontal separators for vapow-liquid and vapour-llquid-liquid separation. Details are also givenconcerning vessel internals,

Separation of solida from gas or Bquids is not cavcred in this design guide. Gencraliy a vendor will be cmsultcd for details a a proprlctory designed vessel. f2. SEPARATOR APPLICATIONS AND COPWOERATEONS

2.1.

2 PHASE SEPARATORS (uwaly

unless stated)

. . .

Compres~lr d Fwl G u KO drums a

Efficient sepretbn of liquid from vapour rtqulred. Always consider a mlae elimina-. Provide sufficbmtirurge t1me)ll to 2 minutes) between ttte HLL andt r l p p i q the compressor.

R d l d Sr KO drum See =tian ymUdt ~ma#oaumP

-

9 4 F1are Sys%erns

R q h d u p t ~ a mf acid gas ahsorbtrs, glycol conmetors and dcrslcant bed o

dehydratws. Can ba incarporated into base of towcr for weight and spa= saviw.

Always

USE

dcrnuter pads.

Produetian W r a t o r s (Vertical or horizontal)Liquid separation from eas not as critical as compr-lorstpr_t*

KO drum unless aC O ~ ~ W

ewnpreswr is located immediately downstream of separator. Always

--dm

and prvcas slu&swhen d s e-

2.2.

3 P W E -TORS

.

3

production separators are g ~ ~ l hlo r i ~ @ l .If good liquid-vapour dc y

entraimntnt is rqulrad dmisters arc usualjy stated. Oil scparatfon kom the water.must be sufficient s as not to overload water treatment units a Chemkd additives (demulsiflers, anti-Enam, pour point dcprasants) may be addedto aid m a t i o n .

9

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PDTAL,TEPIOPIEXPISUR

YAPOUR LIQUID SEPARATORSDate:

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2.2

3. HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL DESIGN

.H

Vapwr velacity! in a horizontal drum can exceed the llquld scttIlng velocity provided

LID ) 1. Far vertical drums the velocity cannot.

. .

Horizontal drums arc more effective and geometrically more practical for a heavy liquid phase removal than vertical drums.A rising liquid level

y

in a

vertical drum dces not alter the vapaur f k w area.

Cmsqucntly vertical drums are preferred for compresmr and fuel gas KO drums.y

, Vtrtlcal drums utilise a smalkr plot andoccurs.

arc easier to instrument with alarms and

shutdown controls. For (floating installatiom) they are preferred as less "sloshing"

.

Each design case must be evaluated separately but in general the Iollowlng can be u9edas

a guideline :QwtlcaldrumsCm~~pre~sardrum KO

-

Degassing boots

Fuel gas KO drums

Absorber fctd K O drums

FCwtlfq instellatlmm '?

Horizontal drums

P r d u c t h n sqwatars HP 3-pharc separation

Reihrr drums

Flare KO drumsrequire special

.I

Try to avold v e s ~ l s with wall thickness grea#r than 100 m m as th-

fabrication and can prwe expensive.6- CALCULATION THEORY AND EQUATIONS (for use in calcuIation sheets)

(Valid only for pure gravity settlers with no intcrnals to enhance q a r a t i o n )

4.1.

LIQUID-YAPOUR SETTLING VELOCITYs

=K

[ p y0.003616(g) ko.oo3616(ff[

pv- liquid or yap- density kglrn3 V$ - settling velocity m/sKr

(2) K = '

D

la vs

=

P - PJ J

rv

%

- drag cocfficicnt P - vapour viscosity - centipoiseC

- particle diameter -microns

correlating parameter mls

10A

TOTALTEPIOPIEXPISUR

VAPOUR

- LIQUID SEPARATORS

Revisiori :O

Page No. :

Date :

2/g5

23 .

For medium and low pressure with gases af viscosity less than 0.01 cp Figure 1 can be used t o estimate Vs.

(8)

For higher pressures (> 50 bar) or viscosities i n excess of 0.01 cp it i s necessary t ocalculate Vs. The drag coefficient C 1s calculated using Figure 2 (curve 2) wheret

CRe 2

=

f . ~ O ~ ~ , ~ o ~ " - ~ ~ ~ ~ ' ~ ( ~ - ~ v )

Equation 3 1s then used to calculate Vs.

PL

- 2

LIQUID-LIQUID SETTLING VELOCITY(based on Stokes law of terminal settling) The fallowing equation can be used for calculating the settling velocity of water in o i l or the upwards "settling" of o i l i n water. The important fact is to use the viscosity

of the continuous phase 1.e : for oll s e t t l i q upwards throu