Topology and Design

  • View
    2.423

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

 

Text of Topology and Design

  • 1. CCNA Guide to Cisco Networking
    • Chapter 4:Network Topology And Network Design

2. Objectives

  • Discuss the different physical topologies
  • Describe various network architecture models
  • Determine which types of network media to use given a set of requirements
  • Understand horizontal cabling standards and wiring closets
  • Consider performance requirements and improvements for given situations

3. Objectives (continued)

  • Install a telecommunications connector
  • Wire a patch panel
  • Test network cable
  • Discuss LAN design
  • Describe the function that network-management tools perform on a network

4. Physical Topologies

  • Bus topology
    • Bus topology advantages
      • Inexpensive
      • Easy to design
      • Easy to implement
    • Bus topology disadvantages
      • Difficult to troubleshoot
      • Requires termination

5. Physical Topologies (continued) 6. Physical Topologies (continued)

  • Star topology
    • Star topology advantages
      • Break in one cable does not affect other devices (except up links)
      • Easy to locate problems
      • Easy to install
      • Does not require termination like bus topology
    • Star topology disadvantages
      • Center of star topology device (hub) can be expensive
      • Hub failure can affect entire topology
      • Amount of cable is expensive

7. Physical Topologies (continued) 8. Physical Topologies (continued)

  • Ring topology
    • Ring topology advantages
      • Prevents network collisions
      • Each station acts like a repeater
    • Ring topology disadvantages
      • Cable break can affect all devices
      • Temporarily shut down network to add a new station
      • Maintenance and monitoring is difficult

9. Influence Of The 5-4-3 Rule On Topologies 10. Influence Of The 5-4-3 Rule On Topologies (continued) 11. Network Architecture

  • IEEE 802
    • Logical Link Control (IEEE 802.2)
    • CSMA/CD (802.3)
    • Token Ring (802.5)
    • Wireless Technologies (802.11)
    • FDDI

12. Network Architecture (continued) 13. Media

  • Twisted-Pair cabling have the following in common
    • Copper based data transmission
    • Copper wires come in pairs
    • Each Wire of a pair is twisted around each other
    • Copper wires are enclosed in a sheath
    • All wire pairs are enclosed in a sheath

14. Media (continued)

  • Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP)
    • Advantages of UTP cable
      • Thin and flexible
      • Easy to install
      • Many modern buildings come with CAT 5 installed
      • Small size does not fill up wiring ducts fast
      • Inexpensive per foot
    • Disadvantages of UTP cable
      • Susceptible to interference
      • Cable length is 100 meters or 328 feet
  • Register Jacks (RJ)
    • RJ-45

15. Media (continued) 16. Media (continued)

  • Shielded twisted-pair (STP)
    • Advantages of STP cable
      • Greater protection from interference
      • Thin and flexible
      • Overall it is easy to install
    • Disadvantages of STP cable
      • Inexpensive per foot but more than UTP
      • STP must be grounded, problems exists if not grounded properly
      • More difficult to install than UTP
      • Small size but does fill up wiring ducts faster than UTP

17. Media (continued)

  • Coaxial cabling (Thicknet and Thinnet)
    • Advantages of coaxial cabling
      • Cable lengths are longer than UTP/STP
      • Less susceptible to interference than UTP
      • Hubs are not required, direct connection
    • Disadvantages of coaxial cabling
      • Thicknet is very difficult to install
      • More expensive than UTP
      • Difficult to troubleshoot

18. Media (continued) 19. Media (continued) 20. Media (continued)

  • Thinnet and Thicknet Connectors
    • RG-58 cabling
    • BNC
    • Attachment unit interface (AUI)
    • Barrel connectors
    • T-connectors
    • Terminators

21. Media (continued) 22. Media (continued)

  • Fiber-Optic cable
    • Advantages of fiber-optic cabling
      • Transmit data over long distances
      • Not susceptible to EMI
      • High transmission rates
      • Not susceptible to eavesdropping
      • Small cable size
    • Disadvantages of fiber-optic cabling
      • Expensive
      • Cable can be easily damaged during install making installations more difficult
      • Manual termination of ends is time consuming

23. Media (continued) 24. Media (continued) 25. Media (continued) 26. Signal Degradation

  • Three internal factors of attenuation
    • Resistance
    • Inductive reactance
    • Capacitive reactance
  • All three combined are called impedance
  • External signal degradation
    • Electromagnetic interference (EMI)
    • Radio frequency interference (RFI)

27. Signal Degradation (continued)

  • Reduce EMI/RFI
    • Do not place copper media next to
      • Fluorescent lights
      • Generators/motors
      • High-voltage electrical wire
    • Proper installation
    • Use quality cable
    • Use shielded cabling
    • Use repeaters to strengthen signal on long cable runs

28. Horizontal Cabling Standards

  • Twisted-pair or fiber-optic connections between wiring closets
  • Electronic Industries Alliance and Telecommunications Industry Association (EIA/TIA)
  • EIA/TIA-568
    • UTP horizontal cable run max: 90 meters
    • Horizontal cross connect max: 6 meters
    • Workstation to horizontal drop max: 3 meters

29. Horizontal Cabling Standards (continued) 30. Wiring Closets

  • Wiring closets
  • EIA/TIA-568 and EIA/TIA-569
  • Catchment area
  • Main distribution facility (MDF)
  • Intermediat