Tool Use in Computer Learning Environments: Enhancing Learning?

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<ul><li> 1. Tool Use inComputer LearningEnvironments: EnhancingLearning?Norma A. Juarez Collazo, Jan Elen,Geraldine Clarebout</li></ul> <p> 2. IntroductionComputer learning environments Supportlearning (Dillon and Jobst, 2005) Supportdevices: Tools (Zidney 2008, Viau &amp; Larivee, 1993) 3. Support devices: ToolsGlossaries, lesson outlines, adjunctquestions, concept maps, study guides,among others. 4. ProblematicLearner Toolcharacteristics characteristicsTool use 5. Types of toolsClassification is based on the kind of supportthe tool offers (Lust et al., 2012)Information tools. Give information to belearned or used (lessons outlines). Cognitive tools. Enhance, extend or augmentthinking (Adjunct questions, concept maps). Scaffold tools. Guide learning efforts on whatto consider, how to think (Study guides). 6. Tool presentation/embeddedness Forced or optional (Schnotz &amp; Heiss, 2009) embedded or non-embedded (Clarebout &amp; Elen,2006) 7. Tool interventionsTool interventions increase,encourage or enhance tool use (Clarebout &amp;Elen, 2010; Lee &amp; Lehman, 1993) Advice (Clarebout &amp; Elen, 2008), Instructional cuing (Lee &amp; Lehman, 1993) , Agents (Moreno, 2005) Explanation of tool functionality (Juarez Collazo et al, 2012) among others. 8. Self-regulation skills Self-regulation knowledgeability learnershave about their learning needs, the learningtask, the functionalities of the tools and therelationships between the tools and learning(Elen &amp; Clarebout, 2006; Elen, Lowyck, &amp; Proost, 1996;Perkins, 1985). Self-regulators perform better than not self-regulated learners (Schunk &amp; Zimmerman, 2006) research has focused on increasing self-regulation ( e.g. Lenne et al., 2008). What about the influence of the self-regulationskills on tool use? 9. Self-regulation skillsRelationship between the tool usage andlearners self-regulated learning skills (J. A.Greene &amp; Azevedo, 2007). When tools are used, self-regulatorsobtain significant higher learning gains vs.non-self-regulators (Lajoie &amp; Azevedo, 2006;Pressley, Snyder, Levin, Murray, &amp; Ghatala, 1987).High self-regulators and more quality tooluse (Clarebout, et al., 2010). 10. Tool use &amp; learningQuantity of tool use: The frequencylearners access tools and/or the time theyspend on the tools (Zumbach, 2009; Clarebout,et al., 2010).Quality of tool use: How students use thetools and whether the usage is in line withthe instructional intentions of particulartools (Zumbach, 2009; Jiang &amp; Elen 2011) 11. ProblematicLearnercharacteristics? Toolcharacteristics Tool use 12. Research questionsCondition RQ1ToolembeddednessQuantity (timeLearning(No) ExplanationRQ2&amp; frequency) of tool outcomesand quality of (performance)functionality tool use RQ4RQ3 Self-regulation skills 13. Research questions1. Do the different conditions contribute to learners performance?2. What is the effect of tool embeddedness (embedded vs. non-embedded) and the (no) explanation of tool functionality on quantity and quality tool use?3. What is the effect of self-regulated learning skills on quantity and quality of tool use?4. Do quantity and quality of tool use influence performance? 14. Participants117 students from a preparatory masterprogram in Educational studies82% female23 years old (SD=4.18) 15. DesignEmbedded/ Non-embedded/Explained Explained FunctionalityFunctionality (N=24) (N=23)Embedded/ Non-embedded/Non-explained Non-explainedfunctionality functionality(N=23)(N=24)Control condition (N=23) 16. Instruments Computer Learning environment Hypertext: Why water is essential (Raes et al 2009) 1, 544 words, two figures, five sections. Five times one cognitive tool five semi structured concepts maps (one after each section) with three blank boxes each. 17. Every concept map will bring up a part ofyour knowledge. By completing the concept map, you will be able to make abetter connection between the information provided and your daily life.You knowledge will also become more meaningful and as a consequence thechances that you will do better in the test will be bigger 18. Instruments Self-regulation skills: selection of the LISTquestionnaire (Wild &amp; Schiefele, 1994). Six out of theeleven elements applicable to individually studyinglearning materials: organization, elaboration, repetition, monitoring/planning, critical thinking and effort6-point Likert scale(1 totally agree; 6 totally disagree) 19. Instruments Organization (=.80) : activities that areperformed to reorganize learning material toperform optimally (e.g., I make tables, figures ordrawings to structure course content better).Elaboration (=.86) : activities that areappointed towards a deeper understanding of thelearning material (e.g., I try to make connections withrelated topics).Critical thinking (=.82) : activities that deepenthe understanding of the material through acritical analysis of statements and justificationcontexts (e.g., What I learn, I examine critically). 20. Instruments Repetition (=.71) : the memorization of factsand rules by simply repeating (e.g. I memorize thetext content by repeating). Monitoring/planning (=.73) : "planning" and"monitoring" that serve to control the current self-regulation learning processes (e.g., Before I start tostudy my learning material, I think about how I canproceed most effectively). Effort (=.77) : The extent to which increasedefforts will be actively used to achieve academicand learning goals (e.g., I dont give up, even if thematerial is complex). 21. Instruments Pre-test: learners differences among conditionsregarding prior knowledge. Multiple-choice-question test, max. 10 points.Post test: performance. 16 items: seven multiple-choice items, three fill-in-the-blank sentences sixitems true or false statements, max.16 points. 22. InstrumentsQuantity of tool use (log files):Frequency. Clicks to access tools (non-embedded conditions only).Time. The proportional time (in seconds) on thetool (all conditions).Quality of tool use (text files):Answers in the blank boxes (3 per semistructured concept map) per concept map(N=5), max. 15 points. 23. Procedure First session: Self-regulation skills questionnaireSecond session: Pre-test Computer learning environment Post-test 24. Results Nodifferencein relationto priorknowledgeF(4,112)1.20 p =.32=.04. 25. RQ1: Conditions and performance Nodifference inrelation toperformanceF(4,112) 1.38p =.25 =.05. 26. RQ2: Tool embeddedness and (no)explained tool functionality on tool use Time on tool: F(3,89) 8.94 p</p>