STRUCTURE AND WRITEN EXPRESSION
APPETIZER FOR TOEFL (PBT)BYCB(COACH BARANS)TEST OF ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGETHESE LESSONS ARE ONLY ABOUT STRUCTURES, TIPS, AND TRICKS. THEY WILL BE USELESS, IF YOU DO NOT MASTER VOCABULARIES BAD SCENARIO IN TOEFLSECTION 1: LISTENING COMPREHENSION GROGI
SECTION 2: STRUCTURE AND WRITTEN EXPRESSION PUSING
SECTION 3: READING COMPREHENSION NGANTUK
+ BOLAK BALIK KE TOILET.
STRUCTURE AND WRITEN EXPRESSIONSTRUCTUREWORDPHRASECLAUSESENTENCEWORDSNOUNVERBADJECTIVEADVERBPREPOSITIONCONNECTORNOUNSPLACESPERSONSNAMESTHINGSTaken from Longman
Taken from Longman
NOUNSFUNCTIONS:AS A SUBJECTAS AN OBJECTVERBSACTION VERBSAUXILLIARY VERBSACTION VERBSVERB 1 VERB 2VERB 3VERB INGWALK (S)
WALKEDWALKEDWALKINGWRITE (S)WROTEWRITTENWRITINGTHINK(S)THOUGHTTHOUGHTTHINKINGTaken from Longman
AUXILLIARY VERBS1. TO BE (AM , IS, ARE, WAS, WERE, BE, BEEN)2. PERFECT ASPECT (HAS, HAVE, HAD)3. MODALS(WILL, WOULD, CAN, COULD, MAY, MIGHT, SHALL, SHOULD, MUST, etc.)4. DO, DOES, DIDADJECTIVESOSIASCOMPOPINIONSIZEAGESHAPECOLORORIGINMATERIALPURPOSETaken from Longman
ADVERBSPREPOSITIONSIN, ON, AT, TO,ETC.IN SEMARANGON THE TABLEAT THE CAMPUSTO THE TOILETCONNECTORSWILL BE EXPLAINED LATER
PHRASES, CLAUSE, SENTENCEEXTREMELY FAST
TO THE TOILET
PAIJO IS RUNNING PAIJO IS RUNNING EXTREMELY FAST TO THE TOILETSTRUCTURE SKILLSRECOGNIZING SUBJECT & VERB (CLAUSE)S + V
Example 1ONE CLAUSE Engineers _____ for the projectnecessaryare neededHopefullyNext monthCONNECTORAND, BUT, OR, BECAUSE, IF, WHO, THAT, WHICH, etc.MULTIPLE CLAUSEShe was pleased with what she had done although she was surprised at the results.
Although she was surprised at the result, she was pleased with what she had done.
EXAMPLE 2AMULTIPLE CLAUSES______ were late, we missed the class
WeBecauseThe trainSince theyShe was pleased with what she had done although she was surprised at the results.She was pleased with what she had done although surprised at the result.Although she was surprised at the result, she was pleased with what she had done.Although surprised at the result, she was pleased with what she had done.
EXAMPLE 2BMULTIPLE CLAUSESWhen______ , you are free to leaveThe finished reportFinished with the reportThe reportIs the reportSUMPELANThe principal is meeting with his staffs.
The principal who is now preparing to give a speech is meeting with his staffs.29EXAMPLE 3The gift ____ selected for her is too expensiveBecauseWasSinceWhich you SUMPELAN [aktif]The principle is meeting with his staffs.The principle who is now preparing to give a speech is meeting with his staffs.The principle now preparing to give a speech is meeting with his staffs.Now preparing to give a speech, The principle is meeting with his staffs.31EXAMPLE 4A______ on several television program, the witness gave conflicting account to what had happened.He appearedWho appearedAppearingAppears
SUMPELAN [pasif]The principals office is very spacious.The principals office which is located near our classroom is very spacious.The principals office located near our classroom is very spacious.Located near our classroom, the principals office is very spacious.33EXAMPLE 4B______ behind government secrecy for nearly half a century, the Hanford plant in central Washington produced plutonium for the nuclear weapons of the Cold War.It is hiddenHiddenWhich is hiddenThe plant is hiding
WRITTEN EXPRESSIONS SKILLS & V MUST AGREELISTEN TO THIS SONGTO BE (AM , IS, ARE, WAS, WERE, BE, BEEN)+V ING (ACTIVE) / V 3 (PASSIVE) / NOUNS / ADJECTIVES / ADVERBS / PREPOSITIONSS & V MUST AGREEEXAMPLE 5The Smiths are build their house on some properties that they own in the desert.S & V MUST AGREEPERFECT ASPECT (HAS, HAVE, HAD)+V 3EXAMPLE 6Linus Pauling has wins two Nobel Prizes: the 1954 Nobel Prize in Chemistry and the 1962 Nobel Peace Prize.S & V MUST AGREEMODALS(WILL, WOULD, CAN, COULD, MAY, MIGHT, SHALL, SHOULD, MUST, etc.)+V 1
The students must took the exam at ten in the morning.PARALLELISMBOTH ANDEITHER ..ORNEITHER ..NORNOT ONLY BUT ALSOV ING, V ING, AND V INGTO , TO, AND TONOUN, NOUN, AND NOUN
Fire extinguishers can contain liquefied gas, dry chemicals, or watery.EXAMPLE 9A bankruptcy may be either voluntary nor involuntary.COMPARATIVE & SUPERLATIVE.er than morethanThe est (in/of/that)The most (in/of/that)
EXAMPLE 10between Europe and Asia is the Caspian sea, which is known as the worlds most big lake.of all students in the school, Ronny is better.
EXAMPLE 11(ADJECTIVE & ADVERB)Based on history, Venus is the goddess Roman of love.
American are destroying rapidly wetlands, faster than an acre every two minutes.
PART AFocus on the last line.Avoid similar sound.Choose synonym.Who, What, & Where.Double negative.Almost Negative.Expression of agreement, uncertainty, suggestion & surprise.Contrary result.Two-and-three partIdioms.
FOCUS ON THE LAST LINE (4 part a)(woman) Are you enjoying your coffee?(man) It tastes extremely bitter this morning!(narrator)WHAT DOES THE MAN MEAN?
- The key word is always on the last line TASTES EXTREMELY BITTER
AVOID SIMILAR SOUND (4 part a)(woman) Are you enjoying your coffee?(man) It tastes extremely bitter this morning!(narrator)WHAT DOES THE MAN MEAN?
The coffee is much BETTER this morningThe coffee TASTES EXTREMELY good.The coffee isnt very good.This morning he DEFINITELY wants some coffee
52CHOOSE SYNONYM (4 part a)(woman) Are you enjoying your coffee?(man) It tastes extremely bitter this morning!(narrator)WHAT DOES THE MAN MEAN?The coffee is much better this morningThe coffee tastes extremely good.The coffee ISNT VERY GOOD.This morning he definitely wants some coffee53WHO, WHAT, & WHERE (30)(woman) Can you tell me what assignments I missed when I was absent from your class?(man) You missed one homework assignment and a quiz.(narrator)WHO IS THE MAN?A newspaper editorA police officerA teacherA student54WHO, WHAT, & WHERE (2)(woman) Are you going to read those books here in the library? (man)I think Id rather check them out now and take them home(narrator)WHAT WILL THE MAN PROBABLY DO?Sit down in the libraryLook for some more booksReturn the books to the shelvesGo to the circulation desk55WHO, WHAT, & WHERE (3)(woman) Are you going into the water, or are you just going to lie there on the sand?(man)I think I need to put some suntan lotion(narrator)WHERE DOES THIS CONVERSATION PROBABLY TAKE PLACE?At a beauty salonA the beachIn a sandboxAt an outdoor restaurant56DOUBLE NEGATIVE (13)(woman) I cant believe the news that I heard about the concert(man)Well, it isnt impossible for the concert to take place(narrator)WHAT DOES THE WOMAN SAY ABOUT THE CONCERT?Theres no possibility that the concert will take placeThe concert will definitely not take placeThe concert might take placeThe concert cant take place57ALMOST NEGATIVE (15)(woman) Were you able to pay the electric bill? (man)I had barely enough money. (narrator) What does the man imply?He had plenty of money for the billHe did not have enough money for the billHe paid the bill but has no money leftHe was unable to pay the bill58ALMOST NEGATIVE Hardly, Nearly, Barely, Scarcely, Only(almost none)Almost, Seldom(almost never) are grouped as Almost negative word. 59AGREEMENT EXPRESSION (21)(man) I think that the hypothesis is indefensible (woman)So do I (narrator) What does the woman mean?She is unsure about the hypothesisThe hippopotamus is behind the fenceShe thinks that the hypothesis can be defendedShe agrees with the man60UNCERTAINITY EXPRESSION (24)(man) Do you know anything about the final exam in physics? (woman)Its going to be rather difficult, isnt it? (narrator) What does the woman mean?The exam is not going to be difficultShes positive thats its going to be hard.She thinks that it might be hardShe has no idea about the exam61SUGGESTION EXPRESSION (25)(man) Ill never have time to type my paper tomorrow(woman)Why not do it now? (narrator) What does the woman suggest?Finishing the paper Not working on the paper nowNever typing the paperTaking time out from the paper now62 EXPRESSION OF SURPRISE (27)(woman) Did you see Paul driving around in his Mustang(man)Then he DID get a new car(narrator) What had the man thought?Paul would definitely get a MustangPaul did not know how to drivePaul did not like mustangsPaul would not get a new car63 CONTRARY (4 tr4)(woman) Its too bad that you have to stay here and work during the school break(man)I really wish I could go with you and the others to Palm springs(narrator) What does the man thought?Maybe he will go with the others on the tripHe is unable to go on the tripHes happy to be going on the tripHes going on the trip, but not with the others64 CONTRARY (6)(man) Do you think that youll be able to go to the party?(woman)If I had time, I would go(narrator) What does the woman say about the party?Maybe shell goShe has time, so shell goShe is going even if she doesnt have timeIts impossible to go65 TWO-AND THREE-PART VERBS (10)(man) What time does the meeting start?(woman)Didnt you hear that it was called off by the director?(narrator) What does the woman say about the meeting?The director called a meeting The director called the meeting to order The director phoned her about the meetingThe director canceled the meeting.66TWO-AND THREE-PART VERBSA. STOP ITF. MANAGEB. GET REVENGE AGAINSTG. ADVANCEC. RECOVER FROMH. THROW AWAYD. DECREASE ITI. STOP THE SUPPLY OFE. BE FRIENDLYJ. IMPLY67TAKEN FROM LONGMANHes been smoking too much. He really needs to cut down.The company had to cut off the electricity because the bill was unpaid.He kept teasing hard because he really wants to get ahead.Sh