2
117 toast was " Prosperity to the Essex and Herts Benevolent Society,-," when the chairman referred in eloquent terms to the usefulness of this and all other local institutions of a similar character, and remarked that it was the duty of all members of the profession, who have the means, to contribute according to their ability towards sustaining them in full activity. The chairman then proceeded to eulogise the more recently-esta- blished general societies, called the Medical Benevolent Fund and the Medical Benevolent College, and stated that it must not be supposed that these general societies militate against the interests of the local institutions, for it was unfortunately proved that the number of cases of extreme distress amongst the families of deceased medical men far exceeded the means placed at the disposal of the directors, and it was rather to be wished that every county in the kingdom possessed a local institution similar to the one whose foundation they were then met to commemorate. Several other toasts were drunk, including the health of Mr. Wormald, of St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, and thanks to him for his donation to the society. THE CHOLERA IN AMERICA.—The cholera has been very fatal in Canada, but is said to be now declining. It has spread into nearly all parts of the United States. The follow- ing is the account from Chicago on the 12th ult. :-" The cholera has been raging in this city with the greatest violence for the past two or three weeks, and people have been dying off like sheep. From the 3rd to the 9th of this month the deaths by cholera have averaged over 100 per day, and the carts conveying the dead to their last resting-place have been traversing the streets day and night for the last two weeks, some of them containing three and four bodies. A great many are buried before they have been dead half an hour. The emigrants appear to have suffered most. The number of deaths has been so great that the undertakers were unable to furnish coffins, and great numbers of the dead bodies were put in rough boxes, hastily constructed, and so buried. Indeed, it became so bad at one time that a great mwny were only wrapped up in the sheets on which they lay, or were buried in the clothes they had on them. As you may suppose, every one whose business has not kept him here has fled the city. The weather for the last two weeks has been the hottest-to continue for two weeks--that I have ever experienced. On Saturday there was a change in the weather, since which time it has been much cooler. With the change in the weathei came a change in the cholera cases, and the number of deaths has considerably decreased." " ABATEMENT OF INCOME-TAX ON Livrs AsSUIZED.-On Monday, the 24th ult., an Act received the royal assent, to continue the Act of the last session of Parliament, for extend- ing, for a limited time, the provisions portion of income-tax in respect of assurance on lives. The Act is continued until the 5th of July, 1855, and is applicable with respect to the double rate of Is. 2d. in the pound. CITY SANITARY IMPROVEMENTS.—From last Tuesday, all the offals from slaughter-houses in the City must, by order of the authorities, be removed between six P.m. and six A.M., under a penalty not exceeding forty shillings and not less than ten shillings. HEALTH OF LONDON DURING THE WEEK ENDING SATURDAY, JULY 29. -From 1008 in the preceding week, the deaths in London rose to 1219 in the week that ended last Saturday. In the ten weeks corresponding to last week of the years 1844-53, the average number was 1072, which, if raised in proportion to increase of population, becomes 1179. The present return is therefore in excess of the estimated amount. The zymotic class of diseases, which numbered 293 deaths in the previous week, rose last week to 422. The in- crease is caused by cholera, which has made considerable progress since the 26 deaths occurred which were announced in last report. It was fatal last week to 133 persona-namely, to 42 children under 15 years of age, 78 men and women between that age and 60 years, and to 13 persons 60 years old and upwards. Seventy-one, or more than half the number of cases, occurred on the south side of the river, 35 in the east districts, and the remainder in various other parts of the metropolis, as far as its western extremity. Diarrhoea in- creased from 58 to 84 in the last two weeks. Last week, the births of 768 boys and 750 girls, in all 1518 children, were registered in London. In the nine correspond- ing weeks of the years 1845-53, the average number was 1361. At the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, the mean height of the barometer in the week was 29 ’990 in. The mean daily reading was above 30 in. on Sunday, Friday, and Saturday. Obituary. Mr. GEORGE FREDERICK JoxES, aged thirty-four, at his residence, 31, Edward’s-terrace, Caledonian-road, Islington, on the 17th ult. The deceased gentleman destroyed himself, during an attack of delirium tremens, by swallowing nearly half-an-ounce of hydrocyanic acid in the presence of his wife. What is remarkable in the case is, that whilst his wife ran for medical assistance, after his informing her what he had done, he managed to walk up stairs to the second-floor landing, where he was found lying quite dead when the surgeon arrived. At Belmont, Shrewsbury, on July 22nd, Mr. HENRY EDWARD BURD, Surgeon, aged sixty-four. TO CORRESPONDENTS. The University of London Medieal Gradecates) Bill.-The Bill for conferring the promised equality with Oxford and Cambridge on the University of Lon- don is not, it seems, to be carried without formidable opposition. The triumph of justice and of free education will be all the more signal. In the House of Commons the representatives of the old monopolists were igno- miniously beaten. In the House of Lords the contest was more closely drawn. On Tuesday last the Bill was carried through committee by a narrow majority of Two, the numbers being-contents, 17; non-contents, 15. It is gratifying, however, to observe the uniform testimony borne by all parties to the high position the Medical Faculty of the metropolitan University has attained in the scientific world. Even Lord Derby admitted its superiority in this respect to the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. He also stated that the concession of equality in civil privileges was regarded with no jealousy by the old Universities. Avowing these sentiments, it is a little surprising that he should oppose the only measure by which it is possible to give to the new University those privileges to which it is admitted to be entitled. In the House of Lords, the University of Durham has been struck out. The clause restricting the London Graduates from practising in Scot- land has also been expunged. These alterations will bring the measure again before the House of Commons. Neither of the provisions referred to : constitute an essential feature of the Bill. One was introduced by the friends of the University of Durham; the second was inserted to conciliate the Scotch Members in the Commons. By a strange perversity of policy the

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toast was " Prosperity to the Essex and Herts BenevolentSociety,-," when the chairman referred in eloquent terms to theusefulness of this and all other local institutions of a similarcharacter, and remarked that it was the duty of all members ofthe profession, who have the means, to contribute according totheir ability towards sustaining them in full activity. Thechairman then proceeded to eulogise the more recently-esta-blished general societies, called the Medical Benevolent Fundand the Medical Benevolent College, and stated that it mustnot be supposed that these general societies militate against theinterests of the local institutions, for it was unfortunatelyproved that the number of cases of extreme distress amongst thefamilies of deceased medical men far exceeded the means placedat the disposal of the directors, and it was rather to be wishedthat every county in the kingdom possessed a local institutionsimilar to the one whose foundation they were then met tocommemorate. Several other toasts were drunk, including thehealth of Mr. Wormald, of St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, andthanks to him for his donation to the society.THE CHOLERA IN AMERICA.—The cholera has been

very fatal in Canada, but is said to be now declining. It hasspread into nearly all parts of the United States. The follow-ing is the account from Chicago on the 12th ult. :-" Thecholera has been raging in this city with the greatest violencefor the past two or three weeks, and people have been dyingoff like sheep. From the 3rd to the 9th of this month thedeaths by cholera have averaged over 100 per day, and thecarts conveying the dead to their last resting-place have beentraversing the streets day and night for the last two weeks,some of them containing three and four bodies. A great manyare buried before they have been dead half an hour. Theemigrants appear to have suffered most. The number ofdeaths has been so great that the undertakers were unable tofurnish coffins, and great numbers of the dead bodies were putin rough boxes, hastily constructed, and so buried. Indeed,it became so bad at one time that a great mwny were onlywrapped up in the sheets on which they lay, or were buried inthe clothes they had on them. As you may suppose, everyone whose business has not kept him here has fled the city.The weather for the last two weeks has been the hottest-tocontinue for two weeks--that I have ever experienced. On

Saturday there was a change in the weather, since which timeit has been much cooler. With the change in the weatheicame a change in the cholera cases, and the number of deathshas considerably decreased." "

ABATEMENT OF INCOME-TAX ON Livrs AsSUIZED.-OnMonday, the 24th ult., an Act received the royal assent, tocontinue the Act of the last session of Parliament, for extend-ing, for a limited time, the provisions portion of income-tax inrespect of assurance on lives. The Act is continued until the5th of July, 1855, and is applicable with respect to the doublerate of Is. 2d. in the pound.

CITY SANITARY IMPROVEMENTS.—From last Tuesday,all the offals from slaughter-houses in the City must, by orderof the authorities, be removed between six P.m. and six A.M.,under a penalty not exceeding forty shillings and not less thanten shillings.HEALTH OF LONDON DURING THE WEEK ENDING

SATURDAY, JULY 29. -From 1008 in the preceding week, thedeaths in London rose to 1219 in the week that ended lastSaturday. In the ten weeks corresponding to last week ofthe years 1844-53, the average number was 1072, which, ifraised in proportion to increase of population, becomes 1179.The present return is therefore in excess of the estimatedamount. The zymotic class of diseases, which numbered 293deaths in the previous week, rose last week to 422. The in-crease is caused by cholera, which has made considerableprogress since the 26 deaths occurred which were announced inlast report. It was fatal last week to 133 persona-namely,to 42 children under 15 years of age, 78 men and womenbetween that age and 60 years, and to 13 persons 60 years oldand upwards. Seventy-one, or more than half the number ofcases, occurred on the south side of the river, 35 in the eastdistricts, and the remainder in various other parts of themetropolis, as far as its western extremity. Diarrhoea in-creased from 58 to 84 in the last two weeks.

Last week, the births of 768 boys and 750 girls, in all 1518children, were registered in London. In the nine correspond-ing weeks of the years 1845-53, the average number was 1361.At the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, the mean height of

the barometer in the week was 29 ’990 in. The mean dailyreading was above 30 in. on Sunday, Friday, and Saturday.

Obituary.Mr. GEORGE FREDERICK JoxES, aged thirty-four, at his

residence, 31, Edward’s-terrace, Caledonian-road, Islington, onthe 17th ult. The deceased gentleman destroyed himself,during an attack of delirium tremens, by swallowing nearlyhalf-an-ounce of hydrocyanic acid in the presence of his wife.What is remarkable in the case is, that whilst his wife ran formedical assistance, after his informing her what he had done,he managed to walk up stairs to the second-floor landing, wherehe was found lying quite dead when the surgeon arrived.At Belmont, Shrewsbury, on July 22nd, Mr. HENRY EDWARD

BURD, Surgeon, aged sixty-four.

TO CORRESPONDENTS.

The University of London Medieal Gradecates) Bill.-The Bill for conferringthe promised equality with Oxford and Cambridge on the University of Lon-don is not, it seems, to be carried without formidable opposition. The

triumph of justice and of free education will be all the more signal. In the

House of Commons the representatives of the old monopolists were igno-miniously beaten. In the House of Lords the contest was more closely drawn.On Tuesday last the Bill was carried through committee by a narrowmajority of Two, the numbers being-contents, 17; non-contents, 15. It is

gratifying, however, to observe the uniform testimony borne by all partiesto the high position the Medical Faculty of the metropolitan University hasattained in the scientific world. Even Lord Derby admitted its superiorityin this respect to the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. He also statedthat the concession of equality in civil privileges was regarded with nojealousy by the old Universities. Avowing these sentiments, it is a little

surprising that he should oppose the only measure by which it is possible togive to the new University those privileges to which it is admitted to beentitled. In the House of Lords, the University of Durham has been struckout. The clause restricting the London Graduates from practising in Scot-land has also been expunged. These alterations will bring the measureagain before the House of Commons. Neither of the provisions referred to

: constitute an essential feature of the Bill. One was introduced by thefriends of the University of Durham; the second was inserted to conciliatethe Scotch Members in the Commons. By a strange perversity of policy the

Page 2: TO CORRESPONDENTS

118

Scotch Lords have struck it out. Let it be so. The conduct of the Scotch

party, in making common cause with the bigoted monopolists of our oldcorporations in this contest, reflects as little credit upon their boasted

liberality as upon their national discernment. Whatever be the fate of theBill this session-and we still cherish the most confident expectations ofsuccess-the speedy installation of the University of London into all itsrights and privileges is certain.

A T’oiee from the Crystal Palace.-A correspondent is astonished to find thebust offrederick Carpenter Skeyamongst those oftheworthies in the CrystalPalace. The occasion for his astonishment is small. Not very far from thefaultless surgeon is the bust of the arelrimpostor, Hahnemann. If we wereinclined to criticise the judgment or the taste of the directors, we mightalso refer to their omissions. But the vitreous nature of the dwellingselected for the effigy of the faultless surgeon might have suggested cautionin throwing stones.

A. B., (blanchester.)-At the proper time the subject shall be noticed.2f}’. H., (Finsbury.)-A candidate for the appointment of assistant-surgeon inthe Royal Navy has to undergo an examination before a board, consisting ofSir John Liddell, Sir John Richardson, and Dr. Bryson, at Sir W. Burnett’soffice. He has also to be examined at the College of Surgeons, and, if resi-dent in Ireland or Scotland, at the Royal College of.Surgeons of Edinburghor Dublin; he has also to be examined at the College in London again onobtaining his promotion of full surgeon, whether.he is a member of thatCollege or not. ,

TREATMENT OF CHOLERA. ’i

To the Editor of THE LANCET. ,

Sm,-As I perceive that occasionally there are accounts of the cholerabreaking out in various places, particularly on board ship, permit me, throughthe medium of THE LANCET, to state to my medical brethren the practice I

’’

have invariably found to be successful in the first stages of this complaint. IPresuming that, in a great majority of cases, some offending material is irri-tating the bowels, I have generally given from twelve to fifteen grains ofrhubarb, with one grain of ipecacuanha, five of mercury with chalk, and, insome cases of severe cramp, about fifteen grains of aromatic powder. In allcases I have restricted the diet to farinaceous food, and have covered theabdomen with a mustard poultice, to which have been sometimes added acouple of drachms of tincture of cantharides. This plan of treatment hasnever once failed me, and I may add that the cases I have seen in which theopposite system, of giving brandy and opium, with large doses of calomel, hasbeen pursued, have terminated fatally. In the last stage of cholera, ether andcapsicum may be tried; but, in my opinion, aperients, whatever may be theamourzt of purgation, are infinitely preferable in the first stage.

Your very obedient servant,July, 1854. A SURGEON BOTH AFLOAT AND ASHORE.

Fiat Jitstilia.-At present there is no Registration Bill before Parliament. Itis probable that in the Medical Reform Bill, which is expected to be broughtforward by Government next session, most of the anomalies which at presentexist will be remedied. The one mentioned will, no doubt, be included inthe list.

C)iiriergo.-The suggestion shall not be neglected..Mr. Bic7ia2-d C. Á, Hamilton,-We have examined the specimens of patentprepared corium, or lamb-skin; they appear well adapted for the purposesintended.

3f.jB.C’.)S’. Ezzg.-There is no such provision in the Act.A Subseriber.-No difficulty can be experienced by any reasonable person in

giving an answer in the negative.Chard.-Alum acts as an astringent. As an external application it is quite

harmless. It may be used in the proportion of a drachm to two quarts ofwater.

A Fi-iend.-The statements were made at a public meeting, and ample oppor-tunity was given for their contradiction, or for any questions to be put witha view of proving their correctness. If we are not mistaken, the writer ofthe letter was present; but whether or not, we have more important dutiesto perform than to answer such questions proceeding from such a quarter.

An E7aquireo^.-It is necessary that a "surgeon" to an emigrant ship shouldbe "qualified." A law is in existence which prevents unqualified personsfrom taking the medical charge of emigrants.

gzzstitia must authenticate his letter, in confidence.An Old Sitbecriber, (Sheffield.) -There is "no law in England to prevent a

licentiate of Apothecaries’ Hall recovering a debt for surgical attendance."Retention of urine, requiring the use of the catheter, is a case in which anapothecary can recover for attendance.

An Bssistant.-RTe regret to state that no such institution exists. The caseis a hard one, but we fear by no means singular. There are one or two

hospitals in London-the Charing-cross, for instance-at which there arefree seholarships. "An Assistant" appears to be a person peculiarly fittedfor the reception of such a bounty.

.F.R.C.S. is thanked for his note. Will he allow ns to attach his name to it ? PThere is no occasion, of course, to mention the names of the surgeons towhom he alludes.

31. J.’s valuable communication shall be commenced in an early number.-To the last question, Yes.

Dr-. Sextoiz.-The page is always bound np. The omission is caused by theodd number of pages of advertisements.

A S’u,feri,zg TVor7c;ng Man, (Bath.)-We have no recollection of any suchpaper. Careful search has been made in THE LANCET for the last fouryears, but without success.

THE trial of Aldrich and Harris v. Seaber shall appear next week.

Poisoning zrith Pottel.,Ifeats.-The Analytical Sanitary Commission of THELANCET has repeatedly drawn the attention of the authorities and the publicto the great caution which should be used in the various preparations offood, both preserved and otherwise, as so many of the ingredients werelargely adulterated with foreign substances, or imperfectly manufactured.It is to be regretted that the Government does not acknowledge and actupon the necessity which exists for a proper supervision of every articleof diet, from the humble "food" of the London mechanic to the moreluxurious confections of continental artistes. THE LANCET has created foritself no small amount of hostility and undying hatred by its exposure of theextensive and pernicious adulterations which have been found in almostevery article of table consumption now vended by the licensed and unlicensedpurveyors of the metropolis. This hatred and hostility on the part of dis-honest adulterators has gloatingly sprung at every opportunity of displayingitself, and has, we have every reason to believe, even penetrated into thatgreat citadel of justice-that "pure well of English undefiled"-aBritish jury-box, rather than forego the chance of revenge, which promised for themoment to repay its exposures. We will not further illustrate our meaningat present, but content ourselves by saying what has been said of old undersimilar circumstances, and will hold good to the end of time, " Experientiadoeet." Without in any way averring that the foregoing remarks, beyondthe caution with which we set out, apply to what we are about to drawpublic attention to, we reprint the following from the Eastern Cotm.tiesHenrcld of a recent date :-"On Saturday afternoon the inhabitants of Gibson-street, Foundry, were

thrown into a fearful consternation by the report that six or seven familieswere poisoned with having eaten potted-meat, purchased at a shop at thecorner of the street. About five o’clock in the afternoon, so alarmingly illwere those who had partaken of the meat, that Mr. Munroe, surgeon, was sentfor, and found no fewer than twenty persons, comprising men, women, andchildren, all violently sick and purged, with severe cramps, and some of them,who had eaten more than the others, going fast into collapse. The wholeneighbourhood was in great alarm, for it appeared that every one who hadpartaken of this meat was more or less affected. The police, whose exertionsduring the exciting time were exceedingly praiseworthy, at once stopped thesale of any more of the meat, which had been purchased of Mr. Andrews, apork-butcher, in the shambles, who was also the maker. The same afternoonthree or four cases of a similar nature occurred in Paradise-row, and the policeat once stopped the sale of the meat, which had been obtained from the samesource. On account of the alarming symptoms which some of the cases ex-hibited, the Mayor, on Monday morning, caused an investigation to be madein the magistrates’ room as to the cause of the sudden and violent sickness.The meat-inspector deposed that potted flesh-meat, during very hot weather,will undergo a sort of putrefactive fermentation, which, even in that incipientstage, chemical analysis will not be able to detect, and will produce all thosesymptoms of gastric irritation and poisoning exhibited in those persons at theFoundry. He also thought that during the very hot weather, potted-meat, ofthe character of that sold, ought not to be taken, as it was almost impossibleto judge of its soundness save by the effects produced. Some of the worstcases were those of children who had scarcely eaten more than an ounce of themeat. The Mayor showed the great danger to the public health by the sale ofsuch meats during the hot weather, and remarked that similar cases occurredlast year from the same cause. He recommended Mr. Andrews to cease makingpotted-meat during the hot weather-a request with which the latter statedhe would be most happy to comply."In addition to this, we had occasion last week to record the death of a girlthrough eating sweet-meats, which were coloured with some poisonoussubstance.

A Student (Manchester) will perceive a letter on the subject at page 111. Our

correspondent’s communication arrived too late for insertion in the presentnumber.

A. Y. Z. deserves the initials. We will cheerfully adopt his valuable sugges-tion in the BRITISH MEDICAL DIRECTORY for the ensuing year. To hisother inquiry, Most certainly.

A Constant Stibscriber.-We know of no law to prevent a member of theCollege of Surgeons, only, holding such appointment.

W zqu:rer.-Dr. Beaman recommends that great quantities of common saltshould be taken with the food, to prevent an attack of cholera. Dr. Beamanstates that where this course has been adopted, the persons have never beenattacked with the disease.

J. j!f.—We shall notice some portion connected with the case next week..3f/’. W. H. BeZlot.-The fragments of tea forwarded consist of what is known

as lie tea-that is, it is composed of tea dust, made up with sand and guminto little masses, which are afterwaids faced, or black-leaded, in the usuamanner. This is the work of Chinese adulterators.

COMMUNICATIONS, LETTERS, &c., have been received from - Mr. G. Lewis

Cooper; Mr. Edwards, (Cheltenham;) Mr. Tucker; lSZr. James Bamford;Mr. Weedon Cooke; Mr. Everton; A Voice from the Crystal Palace; Mr.

Bedingfield, (Needham-market, Suffolk;) Mr. F. H. Harris, (bIilden-hall,Suffolk;) Mr. R. H. Bakewell, (Stafford;) Mr. J. Parrish, (Iiingswinford, withenclosure;) Mr. E. A. Howard; Mr. J. Ody, (Market Harbro’, with enclo-sure ;) air. J. E. Jennings, (Coleford, with enclosure ;) Mr. Burd, (Shrews-bury ;) A Student, (Manchester;) J. M.; Dr. Furlonge, (Antigua;) Mr. J. P.Wilding, (Montgomery;) Jl1.R.C,S. Eng.; Mr. W. H. Hobkirk, (CharlotteTown, Prince Edward’s Island;) A Subscriber; Chard; J. F. W.; Amicus,(Aberdeen;) Mr. E. Steele; M.B.; Charing-cross Hospital; Dr. Aston

Lewis; Dr. M. J. Rae, (Carlisle;) Mr. Masters, (Ilminster;) Mr. Elliot;Dr. Sleete, (Dublin;) Mr. Wieland; A Suffering Working Man, (Bath;) Mr.Edwards; A Twenty Years’ Reader; Dr. Sexton; A. B., (Manchester ;)A Foreigner; Mr. W. H. Bellot, (Stockport;) Pater Falnilias; Fiat Justitia;Mr. R. C. Hamilton; Mr. C. Hogg; J. F. W.; F.R.C.S.; An Enquirer; AnOld Subscriber; Justitia; Mr. H., (Finsbury;) Chirurgo; A Friend; AnAssistant; F,RC,S.; A. Y, Z.; A Constant Subscriber; &c. &e.