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106 To Correspondents. Pater.-Such facts are of the greatest importance; but the proper place fOI stating them will be at the special general meeting to be held shortly. It is not desirable for the interest of the College that any further discussion should take place at present. Tyro.-The " .Marshall Hall or Ready’ Method of Treatment in Cases oi Asphyxia from Drowning," is fully described by Dr. Hall himself in THE LANCET of October 25th, 1856, page 458. Medicus.-We do not recommend particular practitioners. a Student, (Newcastle-on-Tyne.) Full particulars will be found in the Students’ Number of THE LANCET. Graduate of St. Andrew’s.-Sufficient has been said to show he ground- lessness of the charges advanced. A Secretary in Mr. Griffin’s Movement; Bfr. Morgan.-The indignybtion of all good men is excited by the late proceedings in the Romsey Unioyt. A Constant Reader.-Little difference exists between them on the second point. MEDICAL ASSISTANTS. To the Editor of TraE LANCET. SIR, -In your periodical of Dec. 27th I observe a letter from " An Assistant," dated Congleton, in which he states he cannot help making certain sugges- tions as to the moral and professional feeling of any man who would offer an assistant L40 per annum, and in London, too, where, generally speaking, living is twenty per cent more expensive than in the country, &c." He then goes on to say=‘The unfortunate wight compelled by adversity to accept such terms deserves much sympathy, &e." Now, Mr. Editor, I fully concur in the remarks of the writer of this letter; but how are assistants to demand better wages ? I say wages, for such sums can be called nothing else. Who can answer this serious question? The case of these unfortunates is daily becoming more aggravated. In one week recently no less than twenty-six gentlemen entered our honourable profession, either as members of the College or licentiates of the Hall, many, I fear, to earn less than £40 a year, and many to starve or go to America as ship-surgeons, to save board and lodgings at home. THE LANCET, as a great Reformer, might offer some suggestions for the amelioration of this class of our profession. The assistant-surgeons of the navy, following- the advice of the more able of the profession in London, struck and gained their point. Why then do not civil assistants call a meeting, and demand their rights as gentlemen, if such they be? Salaries will ever remain low as long as the supply exceeds the demand. At the conclusion of the war, about 100 medical men, who either by brilliant promises, whith turned out most veritable pieerust, or by the amor patriœ, or I might say nummi, (in the shape of 10s. per diem,) had been induced to enter her Majesty’s service, were in a very gentlemanly manner informed that " in the course of a few days their services would be no longer required," and at the expiration of these " few days" were politely informed that Sir John Kirkland would pay them, as a gratuity fi’om Government for their arduous duties during two winters in an enemy’s country, the sum of ;/;28 9s. Having pocketed this, provided they escape Mr. Buckmaster’s or Mr. Linney’s duns, these gentlemen vegetate to the end of the 9s., and then where are they ? We often see the following advertisement := A gentleman, &c. &c., would be happy to give his services to a medical practitioner for certain hours daily, in return for board and comfortable home." With these gentlemen already in the field, I can only say that as long as grocers, bakers, and cheesemongers, wishing to elevate their social position by means of making their favourite sons M.R.C.S.L.’s or M.D.’s, without knowing the requisites for keeping up such titles, either by money or address, or in utter ignorance of the difficulties of these Neposes getting into practice, but simply considering the honour and glory conferred on their respective families by the diplomas, (for which often the £ 2Z has been with difficulty scraped together,) so long will the position of assistants-y es, and of the profession also-be at a very low ebb! I can only offer a friendly word of advice to parents. 1st. They ought not to allow their sons to enter the medical profession, unless they can give them £ 150 per annum for the first ten years after they have obtained their diplomas. 2ndly. They ought to consider and study well the constitutions and health of their sons, as relating to the arduous duties they may have to perform when they commence the profession. 3rdly. Sons ought not to be led away by flaming advertisements of medical schools. If these three points were borne in mind, we should then not have an over- stocked market, and we should have a better class of men, who, I am sure, would not degrade themselves by accepting " footmen’s wages." I am, Sir, your obedient servant, M.R.C.S.L., a SUBSCRIBER WHO DOES NOT PRACTISE. London, January, 1S57. Dr. Edward 3foore, (Plymoutli.)-The letter and enclosure will be noticed next week. , J. J.-Noticed in Medical Annotations. 3fedicits, (Nottingham.)-The paper alluded to, entitled "Historical Notes concerning the Disease, Death, and Disinterment o60Uver Cromwell," formed an article in the " Dublin Quarterly Journal of Medical Science" for May, 1848.-It never appeared as a separate publication. .Dr. Black, (Chesterfield.)-The time named will suit. Dr. Black’s paper on "Ovariotomy’’ shall appear shortly. Bir Fretful had better consult some respectable surgeon. PAYMENT OP F P 0 0 R - LAW SURGEONS. To the Editor of THE LANCET. SIR,-I congratulate Mr. Fox on the liberal salary he receives for attending the sick poor of the Romsey Union. I attend the sick poor in a population of 1939, over an area of 10,355 aeres, for the munificent sum of 10s. O;d. per week, in the St. Faith’s Union. I am, Sir, yours, &c., Norfolk. Jan. 1S57. T. A. Observer, (paddington.)-We could not form an opinion of the placard con- demned by our correspondent unless we were to see it. Provided the state- ment of "Observer" be correct, it is a very unusual course for the authorities of any hospital to adopt for the purpose of raising funds. A Student, (University College.)-Unless the statement was authenticated, we could not publish it. Forward your name and address in confidence. C. B., (King’s College.)-Mr. Liston performed the operation, but the patient only lived six hours afterwards. Dr. A. Legat’s communication arrived too late for insertion in the present number. Enqxfirer.-Yes. The gentleman named is preparing another edition for the press. M. B.-The disease is curable. It is produced by mental excitement. THE TUBULAR TREATMENT OF STRICTURES OF THE URETHRA. To the Editor of THE LANCET. SIR,-Having read in THE LANCET of the 10th instant a discussion upon the "Tubular Treatment of Strictures of the Urethra,," in which you say you are "quite at a loss to understand how it has happened that strictures of the urethra have ever been cured by such instruments" as have been sent you by Dr. Hutton. I can with confidence say that your difficulty would speedily be removed had you the opportunity fairly of trying the experiment. For I have not only frequently seen most obstinate cases of close stricture cured by these said instruments by Dr. Hutton himself, but in many parts of the world similar success has attended my own practice in this disease. I have invariably pursued the same plan as inculcated and so successfully pursued by Dr. Hutton, in my student days, now upwards of twenty years ago. I can, moreover, declare that I have seldom seen cases in which this safe and simple contrivance failed. Your very obedient servant, Limerick, January, 1857. W. RUTHERFORD, M.D., Staff Surgeon. *** Dr. Rutherford cannot have seen THE LANCET of the 17th instant. The flexible catheters and bougies used by Dr. Hutton were used successfully in cases of " closed stricture" by Desault almost half a century ago. Medicus.-Yes, if it had been his duty to attend the patient in the hospital. We should like to have the particulars of the case referred to before entering upon the question of redress." X. X.-The highest fee on such occasions is jE3 3s. If there are fifty adjourn- ments, it is only one inquest. The coroner himself has only one fee. A Visitor.-Apply to Dr. Bachoffner at the Colosseum. Dr. David Johnson, (Dudley.)-Next week. THE E l’ 0 B A C C 0 - S M 0 X I N QUESTION. To the Editor of THE LANCET. SIR,-Much having been said against tobacco-smoking, may I beg the favour of answers to the following questions:- lst. Has the habit of smoking tobacco increased within the last fifty years ? 2nd. Has the duration of life increased or diminished within the same period ? 3rd. Did the Analytical Sanitary Commissioners of THE LANCET find many of the samples of tobacco examined adulterated ? I am, Sir, your obedient servant, ’, Hereford-square, Brompton, Jan. 1857. W. B. T., M.D. *** 1. Yes. 2. Increased. 3. Out of forty samples of manufactured tobacco examined by our Commissioners, not one was adulterated with any foreign leaf, or with any solid extraneous substance of any description. Our Com- missioners also analyzed fifty-seven samples of cigars, purchased at different shops; no adulteration was discovered. Some cheap ones bought of hawkers were found to consist chiefly of hay and brown paper. COMMUNICATIONS, LETTERS, &c., have been received from - Dr. Dnndas Thomson; Dr. Marshall Hall ; Nlr.Tucker; Dr. Graily Hewitt; Dr. Budd, Bristol; Dr. C. Black, Chesterfield; Mr. Morgan; Dr. W. Shortliff, Maylay; Dr. J. C. Hall, Sheffield; Mr. Chavasse, Sutton Coldfield; Mr. W. Cadge, Norwich; Mr. Joshua Adkins ; Mr. Barron ; Dr. Thos. Hillier; Mr. White Cooper; Mr. BIenkins; Mr. J. Hussey, Hindley; Dr. H. Thomson, Glasgow; Dr. W. H. Arthur, Knaresborough ; Dr. L egat ; Dr. David Johnson, Dudley; Mr. Seaman ; Dr. F. J. Brown, Chatham; Dr. Alexander, Halifax; Mr. J. L. Levison; Dr. Marris Wilson; Mr. Bishop, Devonport ; Mr. Wootton, Can- terbury ; Mr. Davies, Leamington; Mr. Turing, Wilton; Mr. Woodward, Tenbury; Mr. Kerr, Winchelsea; Mr. Waller, Fleg-g Burgh, (with enclo- sure ;) Mr. Taylor, Bilsby Hall; Dr. Wilme, Dublin; Mr. Partridge, Belper, (with enclosure;) Dr. Nuttall, Little Sutton, (with enclosure;) Mr. Horsfall, Wakefield, (with enclosure;) Mr. Pratt, Appledore; Mr. Hales, Burslem, (with enclosure;) Dr. Scriven, Ronndtown, Dublin; Mr. Hodgson, Glasgow, (with enclosure;) Mr. Green, Masfen; Mr. Darby, Rowley Regis; Mr. Carter, Birmingham; Mr. Ellis, Morley, near Leeds; Messrs. Hodges and Smith, Dublin, (with enclosure;) Mr. Williams, Helstone, (with enclosure;) Mr. Titterton, Birmingham; Mr. Vincent, Oxford; Mr. Stephenson, Sheffield, (with enclosure;) Mr. Lithgow, Weymouth ; Mr. Rymer, Ramsgate, (with enclosure;) Mr. J. R. Sutherland, East Rainton; Mr. H. W. Downs, Glas- tonbury ; Mr. Johnson, Bassingham, (with enclosure Mr. Helsham, East Ashling; Mr. Hamilton, Wheatley; Mr. Hayward, Bristol; Mr. Woolley, Newthorpe ; Mr. Reilly, Stokesley; Dr. Edward Moore, Plymouth; Dr. W. . Rutherford, Limerick; Royal Institution; C. S.; Medicus; R. S.; Tyro ; W. B. T., M.D.; X. X.; Edinensis; The Hon. See. of the Harveian Society; C. D.; M. B. ; J. J. ; Observer; A Student, University College; Enquirer ; A Secretary in Mr. Griffin’s Movement; An Irish Surgeon; Clerical, Medi- cal, and General Life Assurance Company; A Constant Reader, Boston; A Graduate of St. Andrew’s ; Justitia; Pater; Sir Fretful; A Visitor; T. A.; ; An Old Subscriber; &c. &e.

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106

To Correspondents.Pater.-Such facts are of the greatest importance; but the proper place fOI

stating them will be at the special general meeting to be held shortly. It isnot desirable for the interest of the College that any further discussionshould take place at present.

Tyro.-The " .Marshall Hall or Ready’ Method of Treatment in Cases oiAsphyxia from Drowning," is fully described by Dr. Hall himself in THELANCET of October 25th, 1856, page 458.

Medicus.-We do not recommend particular practitioners.a Student, (Newcastle-on-Tyne.) - Full particulars will be found in the

Students’ Number of THE LANCET.Graduate of St. Andrew’s.-Sufficient has been said to show he ground-lessness of the charges advanced.

A Secretary in Mr. Griffin’s Movement; Bfr. Morgan.-The indignybtion of allgood men is excited by the late proceedings in the Romsey Unioyt.

A Constant Reader.-Little difference exists between them on the secondpoint.

MEDICAL ASSISTANTS.To the Editor of TraE LANCET.

SIR, -In your periodical of Dec. 27th I observe a letter from " An Assistant,"dated Congleton, in which he states he cannot help making certain sugges-tions as to the moral and professional feeling of any man who would offer anassistant L40 per annum, and in London, too, where, generally speaking,living is twenty per cent more expensive than in the country, &c." He thengoes on to say=‘The unfortunate wight compelled by adversity to acceptsuch terms deserves much sympathy, &e." Now, Mr. Editor, I fully concur inthe remarks of the writer of this letter; but how are assistants to demandbetter wages ? I say wages, for such sums can be called nothing else. Whocan answer this serious question? The case of these unfortunates is dailybecoming more aggravated. In one week recently no less than twenty-sixgentlemen entered our honourable profession, either as members of theCollege or licentiates of the Hall, many, I fear, to earn less than £40 a year,and many to starve or go to America as ship-surgeons, to save board andlodgings at home.THE LANCET, as a great Reformer, might offer some suggestions for the

amelioration of this class of our profession. The assistant-surgeons of thenavy, following- the advice of the more able of the profession in London, struckand gained their point. Why then do not civil assistants call a meeting, anddemand their rights as gentlemen, if such they be? Salaries will ever remainlow as long as the supply exceeds the demand. At the conclusion of the war,about 100 medical men, who either by brilliant promises, whith turned outmost veritable pieerust, or by the amor patriœ, or I might say nummi, (in theshape of 10s. per diem,) had been induced to enter her Majesty’s service, werein a very gentlemanly manner informed that " in the course of a few daystheir services would be no longer required," and at the expiration of these" few days" were politely informed that Sir John Kirkland would pay them, asa gratuity fi’om Government for their arduous duties during two winters in anenemy’s country, the sum of ;/;28 9s. Having pocketed this, provided theyescape Mr. Buckmaster’s or Mr. Linney’s duns, these gentlemen vegetate tothe end of the 9s., and then where are they ?We often see the following advertisement := A gentleman, &c. &c., would be

happy to give his services to a medical practitioner for certain hours daily, inreturn for board and comfortable home." With these gentlemen already inthe field, I can only say that as long as grocers, bakers, and cheesemongers,wishing to elevate their social position by means of making their favouritesons M.R.C.S.L.’s or M.D.’s, without knowing the requisites for keeping upsuch titles, either by money or address, or in utter ignorance of the difficultiesof these Neposes getting into practice, but simply considering the honour andglory conferred on their respective families by the diplomas, (for which oftenthe £ 2Z has been with difficulty scraped together,) so long will the position ofassistants-y es, and of the profession also-be at a very low ebb! I can onlyoffer a friendly word of advice to parents.

1st. They ought not to allow their sons to enter the medical profession,unless they can give them £ 150 per annum for the first ten years after theyhave obtained their diplomas.

2ndly. They ought to consider and study well the constitutions and healthof their sons, as relating to the arduous duties they may have to perform whenthey commence the profession.

3rdly. Sons ought not to be led away by flaming advertisements of medicalschools.

If these three points were borne in mind, we should then not have an over-stocked market, and we should have a better class of men, who, I am sure,would not degrade themselves by accepting " footmen’s wages."

I am, Sir, your obedient servant,M.R.C.S.L., a SUBSCRIBER WHO DOES NOT PRACTISE.

London, January, 1S57.

Dr. Edward 3foore, (Plymoutli.)-The letter and enclosure will be noticednext week. ,

J. J.-Noticed in Medical Annotations.

3fedicits, (Nottingham.)-The paper alluded to, entitled "Historical Notes

concerning the Disease, Death, and Disinterment o60Uver Cromwell," formedan article in the " Dublin Quarterly Journal of Medical Science" for May,1848.-It never appeared as a separate publication.

.Dr. Black, (Chesterfield.)-The time named will suit. Dr. Black’s paper on

"Ovariotomy’’ shall appear shortly.Bir Fretful had better consult some respectable surgeon.

PAYMENT OP F P 0 0 R - LAW SURGEONS.To the Editor of THE LANCET.

SIR,-I congratulate Mr. Fox on the liberal salary he receives for attendingthe sick poor of the Romsey Union. I attend the sick poor in a population of1939, over an area of 10,355 aeres, for the munificent sum of 10s. O;d. per week,in the St. Faith’s Union. I am, Sir, yours, &c., ’

Norfolk. Jan. 1S57. T. A.

Observer, (paddington.)-We could not form an opinion of the placard con-demned by our correspondent unless we were to see it. Provided the state-ment of "Observer" be correct, it is a very unusual course for the authoritiesof any hospital to adopt for the purpose of raising funds.

A Student, (University College.)-Unless the statement was authenticated, wecould not publish it. Forward your name and address in confidence.

C. B., (King’s College.)-Mr. Liston performed the operation, but the patientonly lived six hours afterwards.

Dr. A. Legat’s communication arrived too late for insertion in the presentnumber.

Enqxfirer.-Yes. The gentleman named is preparing another edition for thepress.

M. B.-The disease is curable. It is produced by mental excitement.

THE TUBULAR TREATMENT OF STRICTURES OF THE URETHRA.To the Editor of THE LANCET.

SIR,-Having read in THE LANCET of the 10th instant a discussion upon the"Tubular Treatment of Strictures of the Urethra,," in which you say you are"quite at a loss to understand how it has happened that strictures of theurethra have ever been cured by such instruments" as have been sent you byDr. Hutton. I can with confidence say that your difficulty would speedily beremoved had you the opportunity fairly of trying the experiment. For I havenot only frequently seen most obstinate cases of close stricture cured by thesesaid instruments by Dr. Hutton himself, but in many parts of the worldsimilar success has attended my own practice in this disease.

I have invariably pursued the same plan as inculcated and so successfullypursued by Dr. Hutton, in my student days, now upwards of twenty years ago.I can, moreover, declare that I have seldom seen cases in which this safe andsimple contrivance failed.

Your very obedient servant,Limerick, January, 1857. W. RUTHERFORD, M.D., Staff Surgeon.

*** Dr. Rutherford cannot have seen THE LANCET of the 17th instant. Theflexible catheters and bougies used by Dr. Hutton were used successfully incases of " closed stricture" by Desault almost half a century ago.

Medicus.-Yes, if it had been his duty to attend the patient in the hospital.We should like to have the particulars of the case referred to before enteringupon the question of redress."

X. X.-The highest fee on such occasions is jE3 3s. If there are fifty adjourn-ments, it is only one inquest. The coroner himself has only one fee.

A Visitor.-Apply to Dr. Bachoffner at the Colosseum.Dr. David Johnson, (Dudley.)-Next week.

THE E l’ 0 B A C C 0 - S M 0 X I N QUESTION.To the Editor of THE LANCET.

SIR,-Much having been said against tobacco-smoking, may I beg thefavour of answers to the following questions:-

lst. Has the habit of smoking tobacco increased within the last fifty years ?2nd. Has the duration of life increased or diminished within the same

period ? 3rd. Did the Analytical Sanitary Commissioners of THE LANCET find many

of the samples of tobacco examined adulterated ?I am, Sir, your obedient servant,

’, Hereford-square, Brompton, Jan. 1857. W. B. T., M.D.

*** 1. Yes. 2. Increased. 3. Out of forty samples of manufactured tobaccoexamined by our Commissioners, not one was adulterated with any foreignleaf, or with any solid extraneous substance of any description. Our Com-missioners also analyzed fifty-seven samples of cigars, purchased at differentshops; no adulteration was discovered. Some cheap ones bought of hawkerswere found to consist chiefly of hay and brown paper.

COMMUNICATIONS, LETTERS, &c., have been received from - Dr. Dnndas

Thomson; Dr. Marshall Hall ; Nlr.Tucker; Dr. Graily Hewitt; Dr. Budd,Bristol; Dr. C. Black, Chesterfield; Mr. Morgan; Dr. W. Shortliff, Maylay;Dr. J. C. Hall, Sheffield; Mr. Chavasse, Sutton Coldfield; Mr. W. Cadge,Norwich; Mr. Joshua Adkins ; Mr. Barron ; Dr. Thos. Hillier; Mr. WhiteCooper; Mr. BIenkins; Mr. J. Hussey, Hindley; Dr. H. Thomson, Glasgow;Dr. W. H. Arthur, Knaresborough ; Dr. L egat ; Dr. David Johnson, Dudley;Mr. Seaman ; Dr. F. J. Brown, Chatham; Dr. Alexander, Halifax; Mr. J. L.Levison; Dr. Marris Wilson; Mr. Bishop, Devonport ; Mr. Wootton, Can-terbury ; Mr. Davies, Leamington; Mr. Turing, Wilton; Mr. Woodward,Tenbury; Mr. Kerr, Winchelsea; Mr. Waller, Fleg-g Burgh, (with enclo-

sure ;) Mr. Taylor, Bilsby Hall; Dr. Wilme, Dublin; Mr. Partridge, Belper,(with enclosure;) Dr. Nuttall, Little Sutton, (with enclosure;) Mr. Horsfall,Wakefield, (with enclosure;) Mr. Pratt, Appledore; Mr. Hales, Burslem,(with enclosure;) Dr. Scriven, Ronndtown, Dublin; Mr. Hodgson, Glasgow,(with enclosure;) Mr. Green, Masfen; Mr. Darby, Rowley Regis; Mr. Carter,Birmingham; Mr. Ellis, Morley, near Leeds; Messrs. Hodges and Smith,Dublin, (with enclosure;) Mr. Williams, Helstone, (with enclosure;) Mr.Titterton, Birmingham; Mr. Vincent, Oxford; Mr. Stephenson, Sheffield,(with enclosure;) Mr. Lithgow, Weymouth ; Mr. Rymer, Ramsgate, (withenclosure;) Mr. J. R. Sutherland, East Rainton; Mr. H. W. Downs, Glas-tonbury ; Mr. Johnson, Bassingham, (with enclosure Mr. Helsham, EastAshling; Mr. Hamilton, Wheatley; Mr. Hayward, Bristol; Mr. Woolley,Newthorpe ; Mr. Reilly, Stokesley; Dr. Edward Moore, Plymouth; Dr. W. .Rutherford, Limerick; Royal Institution; C. S.; Medicus; R. S.; Tyro ;W. B. T., M.D.; X. X.; Edinensis; The Hon. See. of the Harveian Society;C. D.; M. B. ; J. J. ; Observer; A Student, University College; Enquirer ;A Secretary in Mr. Griffin’s Movement; An Irish Surgeon; Clerical, Medi-cal, and General Life Assurance Company; A Constant Reader, Boston;A Graduate of St. Andrew’s ; Justitia; Pater; Sir Fretful; A Visitor; T. A.; ;An Old Subscriber; &c. &e.